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Baker Beadon 

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BAKER, ALEXANDER (l&83-t638), 
jeanit, wu bom in Norfolk in 1683, entered 
tbe Society of Jesus about 1610, wu pro- 
Cwed of the four tows in 1637, twice Ti«it«d 
India •■ a, minionai;, and died on 24 Aug. 
16S8 in London, where he had resided for 
■unjTeus. He reconciled the ReT. Wil- 
Ikm Cdra, ft aon of Sir Edward Coke, the 
fcmou lawyer, to the catholic church in 
1616. Among ijie ' State Fapen (Domestic, 
Janes I, ral- dxxxiz. No. 36, under date 1636) 
ia a manuscript bj Father Baker in defenoe 
at the doctrine of regeneration bj baptism as 
keldbr catholics, showing its dioerencafrom 
tiM opnaoa of pnitestants. 

[OUnr's JMOiti, 48 ; Dodd'i Chnrcfa Hist. 
iiLlU; Folsj'aBiioords.i.IlSg.Tii.aS; RTmsT'i 
Fodoa, niii. 892 ; CU. State Fapera, Dom. 
Jamea I (ISSS-U), 6!0.] T. C. 

1861), philologist, was born 16 June 1786. 
She was the sister of Gborge Baker, the his- 
torian of Northamptonshire [q. t.], and to her 
his great work owes its geolc^ and botany. 
llisaBakerwas the companion of her brothers 
i mim eys, his amannensis, and bis- fellow- 
laboorer, especially in the natural history, 
aad she made drawings and even engraved 
•ome ^ the platea for his great work. To 
tiw opportunities aflorded )ier when she mie 
through the county by her brother's side we 
are indal^ed for the ' Glossary of Northomp- 
tonahire Words and Fhrasea, to which are 
added the eoatoma of the county,' 2 vols., 
London, 1664, Sto, one of the beat of our 
local lexicons. Miss Bakar died at her house 
in Gold Street, Northampton, 39 April 1861. 

IttaartaHy Rariew, ci. t; Gent Mtg. eeii. 
t08i AddiL MSS. 2iS64, f. 74] T. C. 

BAXEB, ANSELM (18&1-1BS5J, artist, 
fint acquired a knowledge of drawing oad 

ptunting at Heeara. Hardmon's studioe in Bir* 
mingtimm He became a Cistercian monk at 
Afonnt St. Bernard's Abbey, Leiceatarshira, 
in 1867, and died there on 11 Feb. 1866. As 
a hwaldic artist ha was onequalled in this 
country, and his work was eafferly souf^t 
for by those who appreciated the beauty of 
meditsval blaionr^. About two-thirds of 
the coats-of-arms m Foster's ' Peerage ' wem 
drawn by him, andare signed ' F. A. (Frater 
Anselm). He also executed the murslpaint- 
ings in the chapel of St. Scholastica's Ftiarv, 
Atheratona ; b St. 'Winiired's, Sheepebed ; in 
the Temple in Qarendon Park, and in the 
Lady and Infirmary chnels at Mount St. 
Barnard's Abbey. The ' Hortus AnimK ' and 
' Hone Diunue,' published at London, and 
BeTeraJ beautiful works brou^t out at Mech- 
lin and ToumaL bear witness to his inventivB 
senius. His ' Liber Vitfe,' a record of the 
beuefactorB of St. Barnard's Abbey, ia mogiii' 
ficently illustrated with pictures of the arms 
and patron saints of the benefactors. Ha 
alao left unpubliahed ' The Armorial Bearings 
of English Cordinola' and 'The Arms of the 
Cistercian Houses of England.' 

BABLER, AUGUSTINE (1676-1641), 
Benedictine. [See Baxeb, Datid.] 

BAKER, CHARLES(161 7- 1679), Jesuit, 
whose real name was Dxria Lbwib, was the 
eon of Moi^n Lewis, master of the royal 
grammar school, Abeivavenny. He was bom 
in Monmouthshire in 1617, and studied in his 
Other's school. Whan about nineteen yean 
old he was converted to th« catholic faith, and 
sent by his uncle, a priest of the Society of 
JasuB, to thsEnfclish college at Home (1638). 
He was ordained priest in 1642, entered the 



trict, of which he waa twice Buperior, wu 
the principal field of his nuwioiuTj UbauiH. 
There he lealouslj toiled for tweatj-eight 

A Tictim to the Oate* plot pel 

tion, he was arrested 17 Nov. 1678, whUe 
preparing to say mass, waa committed to Usk 
gaol, tried and condemned to death for the 

friesthood at the Monmouth aaHizss,SQ March 
B79, and executed at Usk on 27 August 

After his appreheuBioa there appeared a 
pamphlet, bj Ur. Herbert Croft, Dishop of 
Hereford, entitled ■ A Short Narrative of the 
Discovery of a C<olleffe of Jesuits at a place 
called the Come, in the county of Hereford, 
To which is added a true relation of the 
knaveiT of Father I^ewis, the pretended bi- 
shop of Llandaffe,' London, 1679, 4to. The 
charge brought by Dr. Croft against Baker 
was that he had extorted money from a poor 
woman under the pret«nce that he would 
liberate her father's soul from purgatory. Sir 
Bobert Atkjns, the judge who tried Baker, 
declared that the pampUet, which had been 
produced in court, was false and scandalous. 

[Bo[efK Keeords, r. 012-931, Tii. iSB; Chal- 
lonet's MBmoirs of Miaaionarj Priest* (1B03), ii. 
2SS ; Oliver's CollKtanea S. J. 48 ; Dodd's Church 
Hist. iii. 321 ; Cat. of Printed Books in Brit. 
Hoi.; Cobbett's SUite Trials, vii. 26u.] T. C. 

, CHARLES (1808-1874), in- 
structor of the deaf and dumb, was the 
second son of Thomas Baker, of Birming- 
ham, and was bom 31 Juljr 1803. While a 
joutA he was for a short time an assistant 
at tha Deaf and Dumb Institution at Edg- 
baston, near Birmingham. He then tried 
other employments, but his services were 
again sought by the committee of the insti- 
tution, when in a difficulty on the failure of 
their master, who was a Swiss, to control 
the pupils. Charles Baker had never con- 
templated teaching as a profession, but 
without much thought for the future ha 
entered upon his work. He at once obtained 
the affections of the children, and, to their 
delight, he remained at the institulion. 
Three years sfterwsrda he was invited to 
aid in the establishment at Donca8t«r of a 
Deaf and Dumb Institution for the county 
of York. The plan had originated with the 
he visited all the large towns of the county, 
and obtained such support asjnstified the 
carrying out of the scheme. The deficiency 
of claso-booka was an evil which Baker 


soon found to be pressing. Althou^ the 
deaf and dumb had been gathered together 
in various institutions for forty^ yeara, no 
attempt had been made to provide such • 
course as they required. This want he set 
himself to supply. He wrote the ' Circle of 
Enowledge ' in its various gradations, con- 
secutive lessons, picture lessons, teachers' 
lessons, the ' Book of the Bible ' in its several 
gradations, and many other works which 
had special relation to the teaching of the 
deaf and dumb. The ' Circle of Knowledge ' 
obtained great popularity. It was used in 
the education of the royal children, and of 
the grandchildren of Louia-Fhilippe. It has 
been largely used in the colonies and in 
Bnasia, and tha first gradation has b^en 
translated into Chinese, and is used in Uie 
schools of China and -Japan. Many ysars 
ago the publisher reported that 400,000 
copies had been sold. Baker also wrote 
for the 'Fennv Cyclopfedia' various topo- 
graphical articles, and those on the ' Instruc- 
tion of the Blind,' ' Dactylology,' ' Deaf and 
Dumb,' ' George Dalgamo,' and the ' Abb6 
Sicard. He contributed to the ' Journal of 
Educatiiui,' to the 'FoIvt«chnic Journal,* 
and the publications of ttie Central Society 
of Education, and translated Amman's ' Dis- 
sertation on Speech' (1873). He was an 
active worker in connection with the local 
institutionsof Doncaster,and was a member 
ol the committee for the egtablishment of a 
public &ee library for the town. He was 
held in hi^h regard by taachera of the deaf 
and dumb in England and in America, and in 
June 1 870 the Columbian Institution of the 
Deaf and Dumb conferred on him the d^ree 
of doctor of philosophy, an honour which 
he appreciated, but he never assumed tha 
title. He died at Ooncaster 27 May 187^ 
and his old pupils erected a mural tablet to 
hia memory in the institution where he had 
laboured so long. 

[InfomiAlion from Sir Thomsa Baker ; Ameri- 
can Annalsof the Deaf and Dumb (with porttait), 
II. 201,] C. W. S. 

BAKER, DAVm, in religion Anous- 
HHe (1675-1641), Benedictine monk, eccle- 
siastical historian, and oscetical writer, was 
bom at Abergavenny, Monmouthshire, on 
9 Dec. 1576. His father, William Baker, 
was steward to Lord Abergavenny, and hia 
mother wag the daughter of Lewis ap John, 
aliat Wallis, vicar ofAbergavenny, and siat«r 
of Dr. David Lewis, a judge of the admiralty. 
At the age of eleven he was sent to the 
school of Christ's Hospital, London, and in 
the beginning of 1590 he entered the tini- 
vetsity of Ouord as a commoner of Broad-. 

3y Google 

Baker 3 

ptea Hall, now Fanibroke College. Led 
■way by Bio, ha gare up all practices of reli- 

Eii ; ' yet there remained in him,' obserrea 
biographer, * t, natural modestv, whereby 
he was Teetrained from a acaaduous impu- 
dence in sin.' At the end of two Tean, W 
fbre ha had had time to sraduate, hia &ther 
snmnumed him home, with & view of settling 
him in aome profession. Whilst at Aberm- 
Tenny he began the study of the Uw under 
the guidance of bis elder brother Richard, a 
hamster, and after the lapse of four years he 
was sent to I/mdon, where be became a 
member first of Lincoln's Inn, and afterwards, 
in November 1696, of the Inner Temple — not 
of the Middle Temple, as Wood erroneously 
States (CoOKB, Studeattadtidtted to the Ituter 
Temple, 146). 

His father made him recorder of Abeivar 
venny. An escape whilst riding through a 
dsngenraa ford on one of his business jour- 
neys was ascribed by him to providential 
interfemice, and led to his taking a serious 
interest in religion and ultimately becoming 
a catholic. 

the elder, he came to London, where ne 
fbnned an acquaintance with some Italian 
Benedictine monks of the congregation of 
Ifonte Oassino. At their instance he pro- 
ceeded in 1606 to the Benedictine monastei^ 
of St. Jnstina in Padua, and commenced his 
novitiate on 27 Hay, when he assumed 
tite name of Augustine. Ill-health made it 
UMeMarr for him to retom home, bnt after 
the deatn of his father, whom he converted 
to Catholicism, he went back to his convent. 
At tiiis period there still survived in Eng- 
land one representAtive of the old Benedictine 
congregation in the person of Dom Robert 
(Sigebttrt) Bockler, who had endured an 

the oath of supiemaev. On 21 Nov. 1607 
two priests, named Satuer and Majhew, were 
bionntt to his prison at the Gatehouse in 
Lonooa. He assisted in ' clothing ' them 
with his own hands, and on their profession 
they irere admitted, as monks of West- 
inin*t«r, to all the Tight« and privilege* of 
that abbey, and of the old English Bene- 
dictine congregation. Father Creasy is evi- 
dently wrong, however, in his statement, 
iriiicn has been generally accepted, that 
Baker was the chief instrument in effecting 
thia restoration, whereby, in the language of 
Dodd (CShmA Sittory, iii. 116), < the link of 
aneceaeion was pieced up, and the Bene- 
^CtinM put in the way of claiming " 
i^ts formerly belongiiw to that ordf 
filmland.' The truth la that Baker had been 


professed by the Italian fathers in England 
as a member of the Honto Oassino congre- 
ntion. Subsequently he was aj^fregated by 
Father Sigebart Buddey, and became a mem- 
ber of the English congregation, being the 
flnt who was admitted after Fathers Sadler 
and Msihew. Three separate congregations 
existed for a time, namely, the Spanish, the 
Italian, and the renewed English congrega- 
tion. A union amongst them was felt to be 
most desirable, and after many difficulties 
end obatades was secured by the brief ' Ex 
incumbenti'of Pope Paul Vin 1619, After 
the foundation of the first houses, when each 
member was ordered to select one as his 
convent, Baker chose St. Laurence's at Sieu- 
lewart in Lorraine, though it does not appear 
that he ever resided within its walls. 

After his return to England Baker had 
been for a time companion to a young noble- 
man — probably Lord Buighersh, the Earl of 
Westmorland's son — who had lately been 
converted, and who erpreesed a great desire 
to dedicate himself to a retired spiritual life. 
Baker afterwards resided in the house of Sir 
Nicholas Fortescue, where he led a life of 
almost total seclusion. Next he went to 
Rheims, and was ordained priest. In 16S0 
he was engaged as chaplain in the house of 
Hr. PhilipFuisden of Fuisden in the pariah of 
Cadbury, Devonshire. Subeeqaently he re- 
moved to London. 

In July 1624 he took np his residence 
with English Benedictine nuns at Cambrai 
as their spiritual director. During his nine 
veaia' residence there he drew up many of 
his ascetics! treatises. In a letter, hitherto 

gives the following interesting account at 
the convent to which he was attached ; ' Ever 
since my beiiw with you I have lived in a 
oittie in thes foreia partes, called Cambraie, 
Bssistinga convent ofcertein religious English 
women of the order of St. Benet newlie 
erected. They are in number as yet but 29. 
They are inclosed and never seen by us nor 
by anni other unleeae it be rarelie uppon an 
eitraordinarie occasion, but uppon no occa- 
sion maie they go furth, nor maie anie man 
or woman gette in unto them. Yet I have 
my diet from them and nppon occasions 
conferrewith tliem, but see not one another ; 
an live in a house adioning to them. Their 
lives being contemplative the oomon bookes 
of the worlde are not for their purpose, and 
litle or nothing is in thes dales printed in 
English that is proper for them. 'There were 
monie good English bookes in olde time 
whereof though e they have some, yet they 
want manie, and therauppon I am in Uieir 


Baker ^ 

beludlf become hi humble siutor unto you, 
to bectowe on them audi booku u 7011 pleue, 
either maauscTipt or printed, bein^ in Eng- 
liih, oonteining contemplation, Sainta liyes, 
or other devotionc. Hunpooles norkea are 
proper for them. I wish I Bad HiUtons Bcola 
perfectionu in Utein; it would helpe the 
undantanding of the English (and some of 
them understuide latein). The f&TODr jaa 
■ball do them herein, will be had in memorie 
both towarde jou and jour poaterttie, whereof 
it maie please god to eende some helJiBr to be 
of the number, a« there is allreadie one of 
the name, if not of jour kindred. This bearer 
will convey hether such bookea as it shall 

f lease von to single out and delirer to him ' 
MS. atton. Jul. G.iii. f. IS). 
In 1688 Baker removed to Douaj, and 
became a conventual at St. Qrego^a. From 
thenoe he was sent on the English mission, 
where his time was divided between Bed- 
fordshire and London. He appeaia to have 
been chaplain to Mrs. Watson, mother of 
one of the first nine novic« of the convent 
«f Gambrai. Eventually he settled in Hol- 
bom, where he carried on his meditation, 
solitude, mental prayer, and exercises of an 
internal life to the last. He died in Dray's 
?"•" Lane on 9 Aug. 1641, after four days' 
illn«as, of an infectious disorder clmely re- 
sembling the plague. 

Dr. Oliver traly observes that 'father 
Baker shone pre-eminently as a master of the 
spiritual life ; he was the hidden man of the 
heart absorbed in heavenly oontemplation.' 
Nine folio vidumes ol ascetical treatises by 
him were formerly kept in the convent at 
Cambrai, but unfortunately many of these 
manuscripts perished at the seiiure of that 
religious bouse. Wood, Dodd, and Sweeney 
give the titles of thirty writings by Baker on 
spiritual subjects that are etill extant. From 
Baker's manuscripts Father Serenna Creeey 
compiled the work entitled 'Sancta Soph: 

Treatises written by the late Ven. Father F. 
Augustin Baker, A Klonke of the Enf^lish 
GongT^ation of the Holv Order of St. Bene- 
dict : And Methodically digested by the R. F, 
Sersuus Gressy, of the same Order and 
Congregation, and printed at the Charges of 
hisC^nventof S. Oreffories tnDaway,'2 vols., 
Douay, 1667, 8to, with a fine engraved por- 
trait of Baker, in his monk's habit, prefixed. 
A new edition, bv the Very Rev. Dom Nor- 
bert Sweeney, D,D., wis published at London 
in 1876. In 1667 there was also published 
another work hy Baker, entitled ' The Holy 
Practises of a Devine Lover or the Sainetly 
Idooti Deuotiona. Tbe Content* of the bot^ 


are contained in the ensuinge pag«,' Paris, 
1667, 12mo. The contents are: '(i) He 
Summarie of Perfection ; (ii) The Direo- 
tions ; for these Hc^ Exercises and Ideota 
Deuotions ; (iii) A (^talogue of such Bookea 
as are fitt for Oontemplatiue Spirits ; (iv) The 
HolyExereisea andldeotsDeaotions ; (v) The 
Toppe of the Heauenlie ladder, or the Highest 

!ppe of Prayer and Perfection, by the Ex- 

'e of a Pilgrims goinge to lernsalem.' 

iligioua tracts by Bater are preeerved 

the Bntish Muieui^ (Add. MS. 11610). 
Baker is sometimes considered to give coun- 
tenance to the errors of the Quietists, but 
orthodox Boman catholic writers hold that 
he is perfectly free from all taint of false 
doctrine. Moreover, his doctrine was ap- 

Eived in a general assembly of the Englidi 
nedictiue monka in 1633. Objections were 
taken by Father Francis Hull to his conduct 
as spiritual director of the nunnery at Cam- 
brai ; and Father Baker wrote a vindication 
of his conduct, now preserved among the 
Rawlinson MSS. in the Bodleian (U 460). 
In the same collection (A 36) ia a packet ot 
letters, chiefly dated 8 March 165G, from 
" Gamteai, complaining of proceedings 

on the part of Claude White, president of the 
English Benedictine congr^ation, to com- 
pel them to give up certam Dooka of Father 

Although a laige portion of his life was 
occupied m mental prayer and meditation, 
Baker was a diligent student of ecclesiasti- 
cal history and antiquities. Some persons 
having contended that the ancient Benedic- 
tine congregation in England was dependent 
on that of Cluni in the diocese of Hlcon, 
founded about the year 910, Father Baker, 
at the wish of his superiors, devoted mudli 
time to refute this error. For this purpose 
he inspected very carefully the monument* 
and evidences in public and private collec- 
tions in London and elsewhere. He had the 
benefit of the opinions of Sir Robert Cotton, 
John Selden, Sir Henry Spelman, and William 
Camden, and the resiUt of his researches ia 
embodied in the learned folio volume,entitled 
' Apostolatus Benedietinorum in Anglii, 
aive Oisceptatio Historiea da Antiquitat* 
Ordinis,' published hj order of the general 
congregation holden m I6S6, and printed at 
Douay in 1686. His friend, Father John 
Jones, D.D., reduced the mass of materials 
into respectable Latinity, and they left 
Father Clement Reyner, their asaiatant, as 
excellent scholar, to edit the work, so that 
it passes for being finished 'operi et indn»- 
tria R. P. Clementis Reyneri.' 

Baker's six folio volumM of ooUectionB far 



EcclBniaatical Hirtor; were long tuppoaed 
to IkKTe been irrecoTerabl^ loet. Howersr, 
four of them are now exuting in the uohives 
of Jesua GoMe^e, Oxford. Muit of the docu- 
■nentswepubliahed inRejner. These Tolumee 
were written some thirty yeais before Doda- 
worth and Dugdole published theii collec- 
tkms. Two tieatisei by Baker on the Laws 
of England were lost in the Revolution of 
1688, when the catholic chapels were pil- 

[lifa and Spirit of Fathar Bakar, by James 
RorbaitSwMney.DJ)., London, 18S1 ; Wood'i 
AthoDB Oion, td. Bliu, iil. 7 ; The Rambler, 
JUnh IMt, p. 314; Oliver'i Catholio aistory 
ta COTDinll, &c, 23S, SOi; Dodds Church 
HiaL iii. IIS; CDttoo HS. JoL 0. Ui. t. 13; 
Addit. Ha lISIDi Waldoo'i Chronological 
ITotM; Eran^a Fortcuta, 1331B, 13349 ; Brom- 
IcT** Cat. of £ngr. Fortnita ; Dublin Itarieir, 

Okhl 25-30.] 

1862), nligiotu writer, bom in 1603, wae 
educated trt St, John's College, Cambridge, 
where he mduated B.A. in 1S29, and M.A. 
in 1832. He was for many years incumbent 
of Claygate, Surrey. In 1^1 he published 
'A Treatise of the Nature of Doubt ... in 
Beligions Questions,' and in 1832 ' Discourses 
and Sacramental Addresses to a Village Coii' 
gregation.' He died in 1862! 

[Osnt. Hag. voL xxxriii. naw seriea; Brit. 
Moa. Cat.] A H. B. 

1707), writer on the drama, a son of Henry 
Baker, F.R.S. [q. t.], br his wife, the young- 
est daughter of Daniel Defoe, was bom in 
London, in the pariah of St. Dunetan-in- 
the-West, on 30 Jan. 1730, and named after 
hi* godfather, the Earl of Buchan. Aa he 
showed early a Uute jbr mathematics, the 
Duke of Hontagua, master of the ordnance, 
placed him in the drawing room of the Tower, 
to qualify him for the duties of a royal engi- 
neer. It appears trom one of hia fauier's let- 
ters in I7d7 to Dr. Doddridge that the boy 
was unremittiug in his studies. ' At twelve 
years old,' says his father, ' he had translated 
the wholetwen ty-four books of "Telemachua" 
from the French ; before he was fifteen he 
translated from the Italian, and published, a 
treatise on physic of Dr. Cocchi of Florence 
emoemiiu' the diet and doctrines of Fytha- 

Kras, and last year, before he was seventeen, 
likewise puMisbed a treatise of Sir Isaac 
Newton's ''Metaphysics'' compared with 
thoss of Dr. LeibniU, from the Preuch of 

B given amonff tl 

s ' Baker 

M. Voltaire. Heisaprettyggodmaaterofthe 
Latin and understands some Greek, is leek- 
oned no bad arithmetician for his years, and 
knows a great deal of natural history, both 
from reading and observation, so that by the 
grace of Qod I hops he will become a Virtn- 
ous and useful man.' Communications from 
David Erskine Baker were printed in tli« 
' Transactions of the Royal Society,' xliii. 540, 
jljv. 629, xlv. 698, xlvi. 467, ilviii. 664. But 
the ^thoi's hopes of a scientific career for his 
son were not to be fulfilled. Having married 
the daughter of a Mr. Cleudon, a clerical em- 
piric, the young man joined a company of 
strolling actors. In 1764 be pubLshed hia 
useful and'fairly accurate ' Companion to the 
Play House,' in two duodecimo volumes. A 
revised edition, under the title of ' Biographia 
Dramatica,' appeared in 1783, edited by Isaac 
Keed. In the second edition Baker's name 
the list of dramatic authors, 
id that ' being adopted by an 

icle, who was a silk throwster in Spital 
Fielda, he succeeded him in his business ; but 
wanting the prudence and attention which 
are necessary to secure success in trade he 
soon failed.' Stephen Jones, the editor of the 
third edition (1812), says that he died in ob- 
scurity at Edinburgh about 1770. In 'Notes 
and Queries,' 2nd ser. xii. 129, he is stated to 
have died about 1780, and the authority given 
is Harding's 'Biographical Mirror;' but in 
that book there is no mention at aU of Baker. 
Nichols (Litavry Ane«dotet, v. 277) fixaa 
16 Feb. 1767 as the date of his death. 

In eompiliug his ' Companion to the Flaj 
House* Baker was large^ indebted to bis 
predeoeasor Longbaine. He adds but little 
information concerning the early dramatists, 
but his work ia a uaaful book ofreference for 
the histoiv of the stage during the first half 
of the eighteenth century, Jie is the author 
of a amaU dramatic piece, 'The Muse of Os- 
sian,'1763,Biid from the Italian he translated 
a comedy in two acta, ' The Maid the Mis- 
treas ' (_La Serua Padrona), which was act«d 
at Edinburgh in 1768, and printed in the same 
year. It is improbable that be was (assisted 
in the British Museum Catalogue) the 'Mr, 
Baker ' who, in 1746, wrote a preface to the 
translation of the 'Continuation of Don 
Quixote ; ' for he was then but fifteen years of 
ace, and we may be sure that this instance 
of his eon'sprecocity would have been men- 
tioned by Henry Baker in the letter to Dod*- 

[Diary and Correspondence of Doddridge, 
V, SB ; Nichols's Literary Anacdotaa, ». 37*, 378, 
277; Biogntphia Dramatica. 1782. IB!2i Hotaa 
and QiKiries, v nd bbt, viii. 64 ; Watt'a K bl. Brit, ; 
British Mnsauci Catalogue.] A. H. B. 


Baker i 

BA£ISt, FRANKLIN (1600-1867), 
unitarian miniater, was bom in Binning- 

hftmS7Au^.l800. He w«a tha eldest gon of 
Mr. Thomas Bakei of that town. After the 
uBual school education, and when unuaoally 
youQg for such a chaive, he took the manaffe- 

Eentish, of Birmingbam ; another was the 
ReT: James Hews Bransbf , of Dudley, who 
directed his private studies bj waj of prepar- 
ing himfor the uniTersitv of Qlasgow, with the 
Tiew of bis ultimately becoming a tmitarian 
minister. By the aid of a grant fivm Dr. 
Daniel Williams's trustees he was enabled to 
go to Qlasgow, where he spent three eeasiona 
and graduated HA, On the completion of 
his (Mllege oonise in 1823 he was invited to 
became minister of Bonk Street chapel, Bol- 
ton, a charge which he accepted, though 
there had been dissensioos there which made 
his work difficult. His connection with the 
chapel tested for forty years, during which 
time the congregation became one of the 
most prosperous in the countT^ and the chapel 
was entirely rebuilt. In ms earlier time, 
when the dissenten were battling for equal 
rights, he engaged in the political move- 
ments of the day, but his after-life was 
devoted to the work of his calling and the 
promotion of the charitable and educational 
mstitutions of the town. No one in that 
community was more heartily respected than 
Baker, and he received grati^ing testi- 
mony of tluB in an offer from the lord lieu- 
tenant of the county to insert his name in 
the commission of the peace. He did not, 
however, consider it consistent with his 
position to accept it. Besides occasional 
sermons oudpamphleteon matters of passing 
interest, he was the author of various articles 
in the 'Fenny Cycloptedia.' He also pub- 
lished in 1854 a 'History of the Rise and 
Procrese of Nonconformity in Bolton.' This 
work is a Taluable and accurate record, 
coveringaperiod of 200 ^eais. He reeigned 
his ministerial position in 1864, and retired 
to Caton, on the banks of the Lune, but at 
the end of three years he removed to Bir> 
mingham, where he could have the attention 
of a brother, who held a high medical posi- 
tion. He died 26 May 1867. 

[InfnrmatioD from Sir Thomas Baker; Ths 
Inqnirer.SJunelSaTi UnitArianEenld, SI Hay 
1897.] C. W. S. 

BAKER, GEOFFREY (Jl. 1850), chroni- 
cler, whose name has been given leas correctly 
aa Waltbh 0? SvFIiraBOXB, or, accimling to 
Camden, of Swinbom, was, to quote his own 
dtrseriptiou of himself, by profession a clerk. 


and drew up his short«r and earlier ohronlols 
at Osney, near Oxford, by the request of 
Thomas de la More, knight. Swinbroke, Ox- 
fordshire, seems to have been his native plac«. 
Camden, but apparently without authority, 
calls him a canon of the Angustinian founda- 
tion at Osney, and in this statement has been 
followed by both Pita and Tanner. The 
same authorities declare that this Walter or 
Geoffrey Baker only translated into Latin an 
account of Edward IFs reign, which Sir 
Thomas de la More had previously drawn up 
inFrench('QaUicescripsit'). Aaamattsrof 
fiiot, however, there appear to be two chroni- 
cles due to the pen of Qeo&ey Baker. Of 
these the earlier and shorter extends from tha 
first day of creation to the year 1326, This 
very scanty work has a double method of 
marking the dates, namely, by the common 
methoo of the christian era, and by die di»- 
tance of each event from 1347. A note tells 
UB that it was completed on Friday, St. 
Margaret's day (13 July), 1347. The second 
end Dy far the more important of Oeofirey's 
two compilations is a longer chronicle ex- 
tending from 1303 to 1356. This chronicle 
is, at ^ evente for its earliest years, based 
upon that of Adam of Murimnth, or both 
writers have borrowed laranly trout a conunon 
source (cf. Chron. of Anam of Murimutii, 

688, with that of Geoffiey Baker, p. 134). 
ut, to UM Dr. Stubbs's words, ' Geoffirey adds 
ve^ largely to Murimuth, and more largely 
as he approaches hia own time of writing.' 
This second chronicle purports, according to 
its heading, to have been drawn up by Geof- 
frey le Baker of Swinbroke, clerk, at the re* 
quest of Thomas de la More. This knight is 
mentioned by name in one passage reUtinr 
to the resignation of Edward II as the French 
chronicler whose interpreter, in somed^ree^ 
the present compiler, (Jeo&ey Baker, isf' cu- 
ius ego sum talis qualis interpres'). Hence 
It would appear that Sir Thomas de la More 
had drawn up a French account of at least 
the reign of Edward II, of which Geoffrey 
Baker availed himeelf in his longer chronicle. 
Sir Thomas's original work has wholly dis- 
appeared. In the eart^ years of Queen Eliza* 
beth manuscript copies of what purported 
to be a Latin translation of Sir Thomas's 
' Life and Death of Edward H' were in cir- 

publiahed in his 'Anglica Scripta' (1603). 
But both the manuscript translation and 
Camden's publication seem to be merely ab- 
breviated extracts from Baker's longer chroni- 
cle (cf. introduction to Sutbbs'S (Mnmiclm tf 
the itofftu (ff Edward I and 11). Dr. Stubha 
has pointed out, as perhaps a partial MCpIa- 


Baker ; 

nation of the connection of Geofi^ Baker's 
work with thAt of Adam of Murimnth, md 
with that attributed to Six Thomas de 1& 
HoiB, that Swinbroke, the home of Geofiiey, 
NoTthmoor, from which Sir Thomas in all 
prbbabilitj drew his name, and ' Fifield, the 
Wdship of the house of Murimnth, all lay 
within the hundred of Chadlington,' on the 
borders of Oxfordshire. The only other event 
that cftn be coosidered as fair); certain in 
the life of Oeofirej Baker is, that some time 
after the crest pestilence of 1349 he had, as 
he himieU' tells us, seen and spoken with 
William Biaschop, the comrade of Oomej 
and HaltraTera, Edward U's morderere, and 
from his lips had gathered many of the tragic 
details of tliat king's last days. 

[Stnhba's Chronielu of Ed. 1 and II (ILS.) ii. 
IntrodnAion.lTii-liiT; Giles's Chronica Galfridi 
la Baker (Chiton Society), pp. 43, 46, 8fi, SO, 
91; Haidj's Catelogiie, iii. SSS-Sl; Pits, 840; 
Fabric Biblioth. Lat. iii. 112; Tanoer (aader 
Welter and Q eo t &e y Baker), who distinguiahee 
the Vriter of the sbortcr from the ttiIw of th* 
loDgei chronicle ; Camden's Angliea, Anthomm 
Tita.BndGS8-O0S. Uanoacript copies of the Vita 
■tHon are in the British Museum : Cotton MSS, 
Titali.E.e; Harlsy HS8.310. Qeof&ey Baker's 
tvo chroDtdee are to be found io the Bodleian 
library (M.S. Bodley, 761). and are possibly in 
the aathor's o«n handwTitJDg.] T. A. A. 

BAKER, GEORGE (1540-1600), sui^ 
saon, was a member of the Barber Surgeons' 
Company and was elected master in 1697. 
In 1974, when he published his first booh, 
Baker was attached to the household of the 
Earl of Oxford, and the writings of his con- 
temporaries show that he had already at- 
tained to considerable practice in I«ndon. 
'*'' ' ir of Nottingham speaks of his emi- 

verse of the same quality. His first book is 
called ' The Composition or Making of the 
most excellent and pretious Oil called Oleum 
Ha^strale and the Third Book of Galen. A 
Method of CuringWounds and of the Errors 
of Su^ceons,' Sro. In 1676 Baker published 
a translation of the ' Evonymus ' of Conrad 
Gesner under the title of ' The Newe Jewell 
of Health, wherein is contayned the most 
excellent Secretes of Physicke and Philoso- 
phie devided into fower bookes,' 4to. Baker's 
own preface to the ' Newe Jewell ' is a good 
piece of English prose. He defendSj as do 
many authors of that time, the writing a 
book on ■ learned subject in the Tulgar 


famgue. He was in fsTOur of free transla- 
tion, 'forif it were not permitted to translate 
but word for wordjthen I say, away with 
all translations.' The book treats of the 
chemical art, a term used b^ Baker as syn- 
onymous with the art of distillation. Dis- 

doth more profit in the palsie, three 
dropsof oil of coral for the falling sickness, 
three drops of oil of cloves for the cholicke, 
than one pound of these decoctions not dis- 
tilled.' Both in this and in his other treatises 
on pharmacy, the processes are not always 
fully described, for liaker was, after all, against 
telling too much. ' As for the names of the 
simples, I thought it good to write them in 
the Latin as they were, for by the searching 
of their English names the resder shall very 
much profit; and another cause is that I 
would not Jiave every ignorant esse to be 
made a chirurgiau by my book, for they 
would do more harm with it than ^^ood.' 
Baker's ' Antidotarie of Select Medicine,* 
1^79, 4to, is another work of the same kind. 
He also published two translations of books 
on general surgery : Guido's ' Questions,' 
1579, 4to, and Vigo's ' Chirui^cal Works," 
1686. Both had been translated before, and 
were merely revised by Baker, He wrote 
an essay on the nature and properties of 

Juicksilver in a book by his friend Clowes in 
584, and an introduction to the ' Herball ' of 
their oofflmon friend Gerard in 1597. This 
completes the list of his works, all of which 
were published in Loudon. The'Galen'was 
reprinted in 1699, as also was the ' Jewell * 
under the altered title of ' The Practice of 
the New and Olde Physicke.' 

[Works of Baker and of Clcnrea.] N. V. 

BAKER, Sib GEORGE (1723-1808), 
physician, was the son of the vicar of Uod- 
Dury, Devonshire, and was bom in that 
county in 1722. He was educated at Eton 
and at King's College, Cambridge, of which 
college he became a fellow and graduated 
in 1746. He proceeded M.D. in 1766, and 
the following year was elected a fellow of 
the College ol Physicians. He began to prac- 
tise at Stamford in Lineolnehire, Dut in 1761 
settled in London. He soon attained a large 
practice, and became F.R.S., physician to the 
queen and to the king, and a osronet in 1776. 
Between 1786 and 1796 he was nine times 
elected j^resident of the College ofFhysicians, 
and in his own day waafamedfoT deep medical 
learning. He was a constant admirer of lite- 
rature as well as of science, and wrote grace- 
ful Latin proseandamusingepigrams. Baker 
made an important addition to medictd know- 


Baker J 

ledtfs in the dlMOTei; thftt ttieDeronahire colie 
ana tiie coljea Fictonum were forms of laad- 
poiaoning. That lead ■would produce similar 
aftaptoma waa known, but no one had Bug- 

demic to tlia aoil or dimftte of Devt 
and of Foitoo. Baker, aa a Devonshire man, 
waa &miliat with tlie diaeasa. He notioed 
that it was most common where most cider 
was made in Devonshire, and that in Heie- 
fordahire, where cider was also a local pro- 
duction, colic was almost unknown. He in- 
Snired into the process of manufacture, and 
>und that in the structure of the Devonshire 
presses and vats large pieces of lead were 
naed, while in Herefordshire stone, wood, and 
iron formed all the apparatus. That colic 
and constipation, followed by palsy, might 
he produced by lead, was known. Baker com- 
plet«d his aigument bv extracting lead ^m 
Devonshire cider and showing that there 
was none in that of Hereforduiire. Great 
was the storm that arose, He was denounced 
as a faithless eon of Devonshire ; the lead 
discovered was siud to be due to shot left in 
the bottles after cleaning, the colic fa> acid 
humours of the body (AxcocK, The Ri- 
demial Oolie qf Devon not coated bj/ a Solu- 
tion of Lead m the Cider, Rymouth, 1768, 
&c.) Baker extended and repeated his experi- 
ments, and at last convinced the Devonians, 
so that &om that time forth leaden vessels 
were disused, and with their disuse colic 
eeaaed to be endemic in Devonshire. In other 
essays Balier traced other unsuspected ways 
in which lead-poisoning might occur, as ^m 
leaden water-pipes, from tinned linings of 
iron vessels, from the glase of earthenware, 
and from large dosee of medicinal prepara- 
tions of lead. He examined the subsequent 
symptoms in detail, and left the whole sub- 
ject clear and in perfect order. His other 
works are, b graduation thesis, 176fi ; a Har>- 
veian oration, 1761 ; ' On the Epidemic In- 
flueusa and Dysentery of 176S,' 1764 ; the 

rifaca to the 'Pharmacopeia' of 1788,_ all 
Latin ; and in Enslish ' An Inquiry into 
the Merits of a Method of Inoculating the 
Bmall-pox,' 1766, and some other medical 
essays oontained in the collected edition of 
his 'Medical Tracts' published by his son 
in 181S, His portrait was painted by Oxias 
Humphrey, RIA.., and ia preserved at the 
College Of Physicians. Baker retired from 
Bclive practloB in 1798, and after a healthy 
old me died on 15 June 1809. He is buried 
in St. James's Chuich, Piccadilly. 


BAKER, GEORGE (1778 P-1847), mo- 
sician, was probably bom in 1778. He him- 
self, at the tune of hu matriculation at Oxford 
in 1797, stated his age to be twenty-four, 
thus dating his burth at 1773; in after life, 
however, he conwdered tiirns elf to have been 
bom in 1760. But the later date is most 
probablv the correct one, since the eccentri- 
cities of character which marked the latter 
part of his life might well account for his 
unaginiug himself much older than he really 
was. He was bom at Exeter, and receiTed 
his first musical instruction from his mother's 
sister, becoming, it is said, a proficient on 
the harpsichord at the age of seven. He was 
next placed under Hugh Bond and William 
Jackson of Gxet«r, remaining there until hia 
seventeenth year, when he come to London 
under the patronage of the Earl of Uibridge, 
His patron caused him to become a pupil of 
Cramer and Duasek, and during his resi- 
dence in X^ndon he performed 'hia cele- 
brated "Storm"' at tne Hanover Square 
Rooms, meeting with the approbation of Dr. 
Bumey. In_1794 or 1796 he waeapgointed 

organist of St. Mary's Churoh, St^ord, a 
new organ W Geib having betai pnrchaaad 
five years before. He seems to have matri- 
culated and taken the d^ree of Hus. Bac. in 
1797 at Oxford, but he appears not to have 
taken his doctor's degree during his resi- 
dence at StoffcaxI, for in the &iTpontion 
Books of that town he is called ' Mr. Baker.' 
The same documents hint at a state of affoira 
that can hardly have been satisfactory. On 
6 March 1795 there is an entry to the effect 
'that the oi^anist be placed under reetrio- 
tiona as to the use of the organ, and that th* 
mayor have a master key to prevent him 
having access thereto.' And on 16 July in 
the same year ' it is ordered that Mr. George 
Baker be m future prohibited from playing 
the piece of munc called "The Storm.''* 
The mhabitants of Staffbrd did not therefore 
concur in Dr. Bumey's opinion as to the ex- 
cellence of this piece, apparently its oon^ 
poser's e3t^ (Ceeuvrt. Durmg the following 
years several mtries prove that Baker ha- 
bitually neglected his duties, and on 19 Hay 
1800 the entiT is 'Resignation of Baker.' 
In 1799 he had married tne eldest danffht« 
of the Rev. E. Knight of Milwich. If he 
ever took the degree of Hus. Doc, it must 
have been in or^fore 1800, as ^ter that 
year the registers in Oxford were most care- 
fully kept, hut they contain no entry of 
the kind, while from 1763 to 1800 musieal 
degree* wero systematically omitted from 
the iwister, so that the absence of his name 
from the list does not absolutely prove that 
he did not receive the d^ree. In the pub- 

3y Google 


lished copies of sevenl glees, priotod shnit 
tlii* time and dedicated to the Earl of Ux- 
bridge, lie is called aimply ' Mua. Bac. Oioo. ; ' 
thus we an entitled to r^ard his claim to 
the more distinguished title as at least pro- 
Uematical. In 1610 he was appointed to 
ttie post of oiganist at AH Saints', Derb;, 
and finallj-, in 1634, he accepted a similar 
situation at Bugelev, where he remained 
ontil his death, whicn took place on 19 Feb. 
1847. Since 1839 his duties had been un- 
dertaken b; a deputj. He produced a Urge 
number of compositions, which are now com- 
pletely foi^tten. He is salJ to have been 
ungumrlj handsome, with an eiceedinitlj 
fair complexion; generous, even to the point 
of imj>roridenoe. In his later Tears the eo- 

, which probably gave rise to - 
large proportion of his dimciuties with the 
StaSiird authorities, increased, and he 
moreoTer afflicted with deafneaa. 

[Orore's Dictionary of Unsic and Mniiciana ; 

Corporation Books at Btaffbrd ; BegiMArs at 

Ozfcnd; Hnaieal World, IT April 1847.'' 

J. A, 

i, GEORGE {1781^1851), topo- 
gra^ier,wasBnatiTeofNorthampton. Wbile 
a schoolboy, at the age of thirteen, he wrote 
a manuscript historj of Northampton, and 
from t^t time be was alwajs engaged in 
oilarging his collections. His first printed 
work was ' A Catalogue of Books, Poems, 
Tracts, and small detached pieces, print 
at the press at Strawberry HiU, befongi 

to the late Horace Walpole, earl of Orfor^ 
London (twenty copies only, privately 
^nted), 1810, 4to. His propMals for • The 
History and Antiquities of the County of 
Northampton' were issued in 1816. The 
first part was published in folio in 1623, the 
sectHid in 1826, and the third, completing 
the first volume, in 1830. This volume con- 
tains the hundreds of Spelho, Newbottle 
Orore, Fawaley, Warden, and Sutton. The 
fourth part, containing the hnndreds of 
Norton and Cleley, appeared in 1686, and 
about one-third of a nfth part, containing 
the hundred of Towcester, >n 1841. At the 
latter date, 230 of his original subscribers 
bad fitiled him, and with health and means 
exhausted be was compelled to bring the 
publication to a close. His librorv and manu- 
script collections were dispersed by auction 
in 1842jthe latter passing mtothe pofiaession 
of Sir Thomas Phillippe. Baker's 'North- 
amptonshire ' is, on the whole, as far as it 
goee, the most complete and systematJc of 
all onr county histories. In. the elaboration 
and accuracy of its pedigrees it is nnsiir- 
pamied. An index to the places menlioDed 


in tba work was published at Loodtn in 

Baker, wbo was a unitarian, took a deep 
interest in various local inatitutiona, and 
was a manstrate for the borough of North- 
ampton. He was not married. A sister, 
Hiss Anne Elisabeth Baker [q. y.J, was bis 
constant companion for more than siitv veara. 
He died at his residence. Mare Fair, North- 
ampton, 12 Oct, 1661. 

[NorthamptoD Haroury, IS Oct. lBai;ITorth- 
antpton HsraldilS Oct. ISfl ; Quarterly Reriew, 
ci.l: GenLHag. (N.S.^ xuTi.JS6t,63S; NoMa 
and Qnsriss, 4th aerico, 1. 1 1. 3TS, fith arrias, iii. 
14T ; Cat. of Printed Books in Brit. Mna. i 
Addit. MS. 34884 fC 76. 77. 79. 81, SS. 86, 87; 
I^erton MS. 2248 ff. 71, 112.] T. C. 

BAKEE, HENRY (1784-1766), audior, 

was bom at Enfield, Middlesex, lOFeb. 1734, 
the second aon of Henry Baker, F.R.S. [q.v.], 
and Sophia, daughter of Daniel Defoe. Ac- 
cording to Nichols (^ATucdela of Souyer, 
416J, he followed the profession of a lawrer, 
but in no creditable line. He contribut«do&- 
casional poetry and essaysto periodicals, and 
in 1766 published, in two volumes, ' Essays 
Pastoral and Elegiac.' Wilson, in his ' Life 
of Defoe,' states that he died 24 Aiu. 1776, 
and was bnried in the churchyard of St. 
Mary-le-Strand beside his mother, but the 
parish n^ster gives the date of hia burial as 
24 Aug. 1766. According to Chalmers, he 
left ready for the press an arranged collec- 
tion of all the statutes relating to bank- 
ruptcy, with cases, precedents, &c., entitled 
' 'rbeClerk to the Commission,' which is sup- 
posed to have been published under another 
title in 1768. His son, William Baker, bom 
1763, afterwards rector of Lyndon and South 
Luffenham, Rutlandshire, inherited the pir^ 
perty and papers of Henry Baker, F.R.S. 

[Notea and ttuariai. 2nd Beri«^ viii. 94; 

Nichols's Aneodotaa of Bowyar, 41S; Niehola'a 

Litraaiy Anscdotes. r. 377-8 ; Wilaon'a Ufa of 

Dafoe, lii. 647 ; Chalmus'aBiog. Diet. iii. 841.1 

T.F. H. 

, HENRY, F.R.S. (1698-1774), 
naturalist and poet, was bora in Chancery - 
Lane, 8 Hay 1696, the son of WiUiam 
Baher. a clerk in cbancerv. In his fifteenth 
year he was apprenticed to John Parker, 
bookseller, whoae ahop was afterwards occu- 
pied by Dodaley, of the ' Annual Register.' 
At the cloae of his indentures in 1720, Baker 
o John Forster, a relative, 
who had a daughter, then eight yean old, 
bom deaf and dumb.- Although coni>iderable 
attentionhadalready been given in England 
the educslion of dcsf mutcB, no mctliod 



in general um ; uid vith 
chuscterietic iogenuitj Baker set hinuelf to 
inatruct her by snimproTed BjBtam erf Hia own. 
His experiment was eo bucccmM that he re- 
Bolvad to make the edncation of deaf mutcfl 
his chief emplovment ; and his Bervices being 
in great demand among the upper dawes, he 
aoon realised a aubetantial fortune. Begard- 
ing the character of bis method there la no 
information, for he wished to retain his own 
. secret, and it is said took a bond of 1001. 
from each pnpil not to divulge it. His re- 
msikable auccesa attracted the attantion of 
Defoe, who invited him to his house ; and 
in April 1729, after some delay in the ar- 
rangement of settlements, he married Defoe's 
youngest daughter, Sophia. 

In the earber perioa of his life, Baker de- 
voted much of nis leisure to the writing 
of verse. The ' Invocation of Health ' ap- 1 
peared in 17S3 without Ids sanction, and | 
in the same year he published ' Onginal ' 
Poems,' a volume which was reprinted in 
1726. Some indication of the result of his 
studies in natural science was given by the 
publication in 1727 of 'The Universe, a 
Poem intended to restrain the Pride of Man,' 
the last edition of which was that of 1806, 
with a short life prefixed. In 1737 he brought 
out, in two volumes, ' Medulla Poetarum 
Bomanomm,' a selection from the Roman 
poets, with translations ; and in 1739 he pub- 
lished a translati<m of Moliire. His verao 
is spirited and rhythmical, but the sentiments 
aie hackneyed, and the wit artificial, true 
poetic inspiration being imitated bv Bouuding 
but commonplace rhetoric In 17S8, under 
the name of" ^- -■ ■ - 

and Weekly Journal,' the first number being 
■written by Defoe. The copy of the journal 
which belonged to Baker is now in the Hope 
collection of^newspapers in the Bodleian Li- 
brary, and attached to it there ia a tabular 
statement by Baker of the authors of the 
several essays. The last of those written by 
Baker was published 19 Hay 1733. 

In January 1740, Baker was elected a 
flallow of the Society of Antiquariee, and 
in March following a fellow oi the Royal 
8ociotv. Alonp with Mr, Folkes he began 
to make eipenments on the polypus, and 
continuing them after Mr. FolkeB was too 
much immersed in other mattera to give 
the subject his attention, he published the 
result of hia observaliona in the 'Thilosophicsl 
Transactions,' and afterwards, in 1743, in a 
separate bcatiae. The same year appeared 
' The Microscope made Easy,' a work which 
at ooce became popular, and went through 
ceveral editions. In 1744 he was awarded 

> Baker 

the Copley medal for hie micioecapioal ex- 
periments on the crystalliaations and eoo- 
flgurations of saline particlee. His earlier 
treatise was supplemented, in 1763, by the 
publication, in two parts, of 'Employment 
for the Microscope,' which attracted an equal 
amount of attention. These two works con- 
tain the bulk of hie more important com- 
munications on the subject to the Royal 
Society. Besides communicating to the so- 
ciety many interesting results of hia own 
ezpeiiments, he supphM to it much important 
information by means of the extensive corre- 
apondence he carried on with men of science 
o? other countries. In this way we also owe 
to him the introduction into E&glaad of the 
Alpine strawberry and of the rhubarb plant 
(^Jtkmmpalmaiumy He took a very active 
part in the establishment of the Society of 
Arts ia 1764. For a considerable time he dis- 
charged gratuitously the office of secretary, 
and he was for many years chairman of the 
committee of accounts. He died at his apart- 
ments in the Strand 26 Nov. 1774. Nichols, 
in his ' Anecdotes of Bowyer,' states that be 
was buried in the churchyard of St. Mary-le- 
Strand, but there is no mention of his burial 
in the register. TTin two sons, David Erskine 
Baker and Henrf Baker, are noticed sepa- 
rately. The bulk of his property and his 
manuscripts were bequeathed to his grand- 
son, William Baker, afterwards rector of Lni- 
don and South LufTenham, Rutlandshire. By 
his will he bequeathed to the Royal Society 
100/, for the institution of an oration, now 
known as the Bakerian. He had formed an 
extensive natural history and antiquarian 
collection, which was sold by auction on 
13 March 1776 and the nine following days. 

[Bic^raphia Brilaniiica, ed. Eippis, i. 62S~i 
(imperfset and incorrrat}; Kichol^s Ansedotes 
of Wm. Boiryer, 413-18, 506, BiB ; Cbalnnrs's 
Biog. Diet. iii. 337-B ; Wilson's Life of Defoa, 
iii. 5i9-60, 603-^, 646-7 ; Lee'i Life of Defoe, 
439, 441, 4SS-8 ; Nichols's Litsnry Anecdotes, 
V. 272-7: Corrrspondence of Dr. Fbtlip Dod- 
dridge; Phil. Trans.; MSS. Sloans 4436 and 
4136; MSii. Egolon 733 and 834.] T. F. H. 

BAKER, HENRY AARON (1753-1886), 
Irish architect, was a pupil of Jamas Oandon, 
' and acted as clerk of the works to the 
buildings designed and chiefly constructed 
by his master for the tuna of Court, then 
called the King's Inns, at Dublin.' Ha was 
a member of, and for some time aecretuy to, 
the Royal Hibernian Academy. In 17^ he 
was appointed teacher of architecture in the 
Dublin Society's school, and retained the post 
till hia death. He erected the triumphal arch 
known as Bishop's Gate at Berry, and he 
gained (180;j>4) the first price for a design 


Baker i 

for conTerting the Iriih puliament honse 
into • bank. Tlie auperintendence of that 
work waa ^ven, however, to another archi- 
tect, FraaciB Johiutone. He died on 7 June 

[Dahigg'a Hiatory of tha Kin^s Inna, 1806; 
VainafB lata of J. Quidon, Dobliii, 1846; 
Diet. AjchitAcuual Fnblieatioa Sodatj, 1S£3; 
BedKT«Ta'i IHot. oT Artiata, 1879.] S. B. 

(1S21-1877), hymn writer, waa tha son 
of Vic»4diniTal Sir Henrj Loraine Baker, 
G.B., by hia marriage with Louiaa Anna, 
only daughter of William Williama, Esq., 
of Cutle Hall, Dorset. His father served 
with diitinction at Quadaloupe in 1815. 
Hia grandfather was Sir Bobrnt Baker of 
Dunstable House, Surrey, and of Nicholas- 
hayne, Culmstoek, Devon, on whom a ba- 
ronetcy was conferred in 1796. Sir Henry 
Williama Baker was bom in London on 
Sunday, 27 Hay 1S31, at the house of his 
maternal grandfather ; and after completing 
hia univenity education at Trinity College, 
Cambridge, took his B.A. degree in 1844, md 
pniceeded H.A. in 1847. In 1861 ha was 
preeeuted to tiie vicarage of Monkland near 
Leominster. On the death of his father, 
on 3 Nov. 1860, he succeeded him as third 
baronet. In 1663, while at Monkland, Sir 
Henry wrote his earliest hymn, ' Oh, what 
if we are Christ's.' Two others, ' Fraisa, O 

(raise oar Lord and King,' and ' There is a 
leseed Home,' have been referred to 1861 
(Sblbobbs'b Book qfPraite, pp. 176, 207-8, 
288-9). Sir Henry Baker's name is chiefly 
known as the promoter and editor of ' Hymns 
Ancient and Modem,' first published in 1661. 
To this collection Baker contributed many 
original hymns, besides several translations 
of Latin hymns. In 1868 an ' Appeedix ' to 
the et^ection was issued, and in 1S76 the 
work was thoroughly revised, The hymnal 
was compiled to meet the wants of church- 
men of all schools, b«t strong objections 
were rused in many quart«rs to Sir Henry 
Baker's own hymn a&ressad to the Virgin 
Uaiy, 'Shall we not love thee, Mother dearP' 
Sir Henry Baker held the doctrine of the 
celibacy <n tha clergy, and at his death the 
baronetcy devolved on a kinsman. He was 
the author of ' Daily Prayers for tha Use of 
those who have to work hard,' as well as of 
a ' Daily Text-book ' for the same elass, and 
at some tracts on religious subjects. He died 
aa Monday, 13 Feb. 1877, at the vicarage of 
Monkland, and was buried in the ohurchvard 
of tha parish. Stained glass windows nave 
been put up to his memory in hia own church 
and in All Saints, Notting HilL 


[Foitn's Baronstaga, 1833 ; Qant Msg„ ; 
1799 and Dec 18Sfi: Crockford's ClsricJ D 

toiy, 1877; ADDiutl Begiatar, 1877; IJteiary 
Chuichman, S4 Fab. 1B77 ; Academr, 34 Fab. 
1877; Chorcfa O^idm, la and 33 Feb. 1877; 
Onardian, 31 Feb. 1377 ; Farl Selbome's Book 
of Piaisa, 18M; Millar's Singers and Songs of 
th* Chnich. 1339 ; SUvenaoD'a Methodist BymQ 
Book, illustoated, with Biography, be, 1883] 

BAXER, HUMPHREY (Jl. 1662-1687), 
writer on arithmetic and astrology, was a 
Londoner. In 1662 he published 'The WeU- 
spring of Sciences,' said by Henry Fhil- 
lippee, who edited and enlarged the work in 
1670, to have been one of the first and ' one 
of the best books on arithmetic which had 
appeared np to that date in this country.' 
Phillippes does not name Cocker, who had 
given to tha world bis celebrated book two 
years previously, but he can hardly have 
conudeted Baker's work superior or even on 
a par with it. Baker was an enthusiast for 
hie science. In the dedication of his edition 
of 1674 'to the Govemor, ConHuls, Asis- 
tentea, ftc, of the Company of Merchantes 
Adventurers,' he excuses himaelf for not 
entering fully into the merits of arithmetic, 
on the ground that ' where good wine is to 
sell, there neede no garlaode he haffed out.' 
Ha nevertheless proceeds to state that it is 
well known ' that tha akil hereof imme- 
diately flowed from the wisdoms of Ood into 
tha harte of man, whome he coulde not con- 
ceave to remayne in tha most secrete mi»- 
tarie of Trinitie in Unitie, were it not by 
the benifite of most Devine skill la Numbers. 
. . .Take away Arithmetick, wherein difl*ereth 
the Shepparde fto the sheepe, or the horse 
keeper nom the Asse f It is tha key and 
entrance into all other artas and leaminge, 
aa well approved IVthagoras, who cauwd 
this inscription to be written (upon hia 
schoole doore where hee taught Fhilosophy) 
in greate letters, " Nemo Arithmetics igna- 
nama hie ingrediatur."' He caUs the rule 
of three ' the golden rule.' Phillippes added 
considerably to Baker's book in his edition, 

S'iving us, among other things, a chapter'Of 
porta and Pastime done by numbers. To 
know what number any ont thinketh,' ftc. 
In the library of the British Museum there 
are six different editions of Baker's work, 
from 1674 to 1666, besides Phillippes's edi- 
tion of 1670. 

Baker also translated from the French and 
published in London in 1687 a little book in 
black letter entitled 'The Rules, && touch- 
ing the use and practice of the common 
almanacs which are named Ephemeridee, a 
brief and short instruction upon the Judicial 


Baker i 

Aitmlogie for to prognoaticate of thin^ t« 
come by the help of Uie Bune EphemendM, 
witt ft treatise iided hereunto touchinR the 
oonjunetion of the Planets uid of their Prog- 
noeticatiotis,' ftc. Amons the prognoBtica- 
tions are inch aa theie : 'If the mooa be in 
conjunction with Jnpiter, it is good to let 
blood,' 'If Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, and the 
moon be found conjoined in the sign of Leo, 
men (ball be grieved with pains of the 

[Baksr'a Wellipring of S^imeaa, 1C74 and ad. 
Phillippea,lS70; Tannei'a Bibl. BhL] 

P. B. A, 

BAKER, Snt JOHN {d. 1568), chancel- 
lor of the exchequer, is said to hare been of 
a Kentish family ; but, aa Lodge aays, ' his 
pedigree at the College of Arms begins with 
nit own name ' {lilutt. qf Bnglith Hittory, 
Snd edition, i. 60). He was bred for the 
law. In 1526 he was joined with Henry 
Standish, bishop of St, Asaph, in an embassy 
oent to Denmark. Not long afterwards he 
was elected speakerof the House of Commons, 
and Bubeequentlv appointed attomey^neral 
andamemberof the privy council, fa 154fi 
he was mode chancellor of the exchequer. 
Lodge states that Bsker was diatinguished 
by being the only privy oouncUlor who re- 
fused to put his name to the ' Device for the 
Succession,' which Edward VI drew up when 
on his death-bed, and which was designed to 
«zclnde the princessea Mary and Elizabeth 
from the succession. This statement is re- 
futed by the &ct that Baker's name appears 
at the foot both of this document and of the 
'Letters patent for the limitation of the 
Grown ' which were subaequently issued (see 
thepubticstioD of both by Mr. J.O.Nichols 
in hia Que*nJane and QtMm Mary, Camden 
Sac). Bskercontinued in hisoffice untilhis 
death in December 1&&8. Almost his last 
employment in the service of the state was 
upon a commission appointed in March 1658 
to see to the defences of the country. He 
married Elisabeth, daughter and neir of 
Thomas Dinely, and widow of George Barret, 
Ksii. ; he had an estate at Sisinghurst, Kent ; 
and was grand&ther of the chronicler, Sir 
Richard Ba]ier[q. v.]. 

(Iiod^'a niuatratioiu of Engliah History, 
7x\A ed i. SO : cf. Wood's AthsniE Ozon. (Blin), 
1. B3 ; HtHta Papen, Domestie, Jfuv, vols. I. zli., 
Elii. v<rf. i.] C. F. K. 

BAKER, JOHN (1661-1716), admiral, 
was appointed a lieutenant by Lord Dart- 
mouth on 14 Nov. 1666 ; on 12 Oct. 1091 he 
WHS advanced to be captain of the Msrv 
{alley, and during the war then raging with 

> Baker 

France socceasively commanded the New- 
castle, the Palmonth, and the Medwtur, fbr 
the greater port of the time in the Medi- 
terranean, but without any opportunity of 
especial distinction. Early in 1701 he waa 
appointed to the Pembroke, and a year later 
to the Monmouth of seventy guns, in which 
he continued for nearly six years, serving in 
the grand fleet under Sir Qaorge Booke or 
Sir Clowdisley Shovell, at Cadis and Vigo in 
1702, at Gibraltar and Malaga in 170l, at 
Barcelona in 1706, and Toulon in 1707. 
He returned to England with the squadron 
of which BO many of the ships were lost 
amongst the Scilly Islands on 22 Get. 1707 
[see Shovell, Sib ClowdisixtI, and, having 
arrived at the Nore, was ordered to refit 
and keep the men on board with a view 
to their Deing sent to other ships. Baker 
remonstrated; he thought their esse was 
hard, and that they Ou»it to be allowed to 

ri home. ' Most of them,' he wrote, on 
Nov., ' have been with me in this ship for 
almost six years, and many have followed nM 
from ship to ship for several yeara before.' 
It does not appear that any good come of 
the application, which the admiralty pro- 
bably considered a bit of maudlin and absurd 
sentimentality. On 26 Jan. 1707-8 he was 
promoted to oe reai^^dmiral of the white, 
and commanded in the second poet under Sir 
Geo:^ Byng on the ooast of Scotland, He 
afterwards conducted the daughter of the 
emperor, the betrothed queen of Portugal, 
from Holland to Spitheod, and with Sir 
George Byng escorted her to Lisbon. On 
13 Nov. 1709 he waa advanced to be vice- 
admiral of the blue, and hoisted his flag in 
the Stirling Castle as second in command in 
the Mediterranean under Sir John Norria and 
afterwards Sir John Jennings. Towards the 
end of 1711 he was detached by Jennings to 
Lisbon and the Asores, to protect the Portu- 
guese, East India, and Brazil trade, especially 
from Dimiay-Trouin and Cassard. In tjie 
course of^a cruise from Lisbon in Februoij 
1711-2 he drove a large Spanish ship asbora 
near Cape St. Mary's, but the weather was 
Tough.and before he could approach, the wreck 
was gutted and destroyed by the Portuguese. 
Afterwards he captured s richly laden I^nch 
ship for Martinique, and returned to Lisbon 
by the beginning' of March. At the Atores 
he remained till the following 3ept«mbw, 
and having intelligence that the Brazil fleet 
waa near, he put to sea on the IJtii, and 
escorted it to the Tagos. He returned to 
England at the peace, and Boon after the 
accession of George 1 was (gain sent out to 
the Mediterranean in command of a squadron 
to negotiate with or restrain the coraain of 



North Africa. He ooncluded a treaty with 
Tiip<di and Timia, and iaflictad punishraent 
oa tome of the SallM cniiieTB. Es had jiut 
been relieved bv Beai~admind Charle* Com' 
wall, when he died at Port Mahon, 10 Nor. 
1716. A monument to hia memorj haa been 
erected in Weatmiiuter Abbey, for, though 
hia ia not one of the great hiatorie names of 
tbo navy, he waa, in the worda of his epitaph, 
' a biave, judicioue, and experienced officer, 
a aiDcere friend, and a true lover of his 
country.' Hia nephew, Hercules Baker, a 
jfpf^in in the navy, and who was aerving in 
the Mediterranean at the time of the vice- 
■dmiral's death, became, in 1736, treaaurer 
of Greenwich Hospital, and held that office 
tiU hia death in 1744. 

BAKER, JOHN, D.D. (d. 174fi), Yic»- 
maatw of Trinity College, Cambridge, waa 
admitted to Weetminater School, on the foun- 
dation, in 1681, and thence elected to Trinity 
Coll^B in 1696 (B.A. 1698, M.A. 1702, B.D. 
1709, D.D. eomttUt nyiu 1717). He was 
elected a minor fellow of Trinity 2 Oct. 1701, 
and a major fallow 1 7 April 1702 (Addit. MS. 
6848 i. 123 b). In 1723 he waa appointed 
Tice-master of the collie, and In 1781 rector 
of Dickleburgh in Norfolk. He also held the 
perpetual curacy of St. Mary's, Cambridge. 
Baker waa the unscrupulous supporter of Dr. 
Richard Bentley in all his measures, and ren- 
dered the master of Trinity great service by 
obtaining signaturea in &your of the compro- 
mise between Bentley and Serjeant Miller in 
1719. His Bubeervienn' to fi«iitley Is ridi- 
culed in ' The Trinity College Triumph : '— 
Bnt Bakar along to the lodge vu admittad. 
Wheia hr bow'd and he oing'd,and hesmil'daod 


He died 30 Oct. 1746, in Neville's Court 

and was buried at All Sainta' Church, Cam- 
hridge, according to directions given by him 
a few days before hie death. His living of 
IHcklebu^h had been sequeetrated for the 
payment of hiadehts. 'He had beenagreat 
iMiau,' says Cole, the Cambridge aatiquair, 
* but latterly was as much the reverse of it, 
wearing four or five nightcaps under his wig 
and square cap, and a black cloak over hia 
cloath gown and cassock, under which were 
various waistcoats, in the hottest weather' 
iAMit. MS. 5804, f. 81). 

[Addit. MS. SS46, f. 1 1 8 i, 0863, f. 208 ; Qra- 
daatiCaBtabHgienHa(178T), 13; Monk's Life of 
BsDtlsy (1B30), 401, «03; BlonuOdd's Muifolk 

t Baker 

(I80S), i. laei Gent. Ma«. xlii. 840; Welch's 
Alamni Westmon. {Fhillimon), 316, 229.1 

T. a 

BAKER, JOHN, R.A. {d. 1771), flowei^ 
painter, is said to have been mainly employed 
in the decoration of coaches. HisDiograpner, 
Mr. Edward Edwards, remarks sententioualy 
upon the caprice of faahion in this modest d»- 
partment of art, and tells us that Baker^s 
norat enrichments were thought in their day 
to be of the first order. On the foundation 
of the Royal Academy John Baker was 
elected a member, He died in 1771. 

[Edwards's Aneodotes of Paintan ; Brwi's 
Diet, of Artiala; Ibdgtave's Artists of the Eng. 
School] E. E. 

until the time of his death officially c___ 
nected with the Dublin Society, of which he 
had previously been an honorary mem)>er. 
His enlightened schemesfor the improvement 
of agriculture received liberal support from 
the society. Under ita patronage he waa 
enabled to establish at Laughlinatown, in the 
county of Kildare, a factorr for "i«lting al] 
kinds of implements of husbandry, to main- 
tain apprentices, and to open clasaes fi)r prao- 
tical matniction in the science. His ' Ex- 
periments in Agriculture,' published at inter- 
vals frt)m 1766 to 1773, gained for their 
author a wide reputation. Baker died at 
Wynn's Reld, eo. Kildare, on 24 Aug. 1775. 
In hia short life he probably did more for the 
advancement of agriculture in Ireland than 
any of his predeoessora. The Royal Society 
had recognised his merits by electing him a 
fellow in 1771. 

Baker also pabUshed: 1. 'Considerations 
upon the Exportation of Com' (which was 
written at the raqueet of tie Dublin So- 
ciety)^ 6vo, Dublin, 1771. 2. 'A Short De- 
scription and List, with the Prices, of the 
Instruments of Husbandry made in the 
Factory at Laughlinatown,' 6vo, Dublin, 
1767 (3rd ed. 1769). 

[Proceedings of the Dnblin Society, vola. 
i.-vit., xii. ; Hibernian Hsgasina, v. 5flS ; DonaJd- 
aoa's AgricDltniBt Biography, p. S4,] Q-. O. 

. PACIFIOira (1696-1774), 
Franciscan friar, diachaiwed with credit the 
officea of procurator and deflnitor of hia 
order, and waa twice elected provincial of 
the English proviuoe, first in 1761 and 
secondly in 1770. He appears to have been 
attached to the Sardinian chapel in Lincoln'a 
Inn Fields, and he certainly attended at Che 
execution of Lord Lovat, 9 April 1747. Hia 
death occurred in London 16 Maieh 1774. 


Baker i 

BftkerwTOte; 1. 'The D«vont Ohriatian's 
Companion tot HoW Days,' London, 1767, 
12mo. 2. • Holy Altar and Sacrifice ex- 
plained in some familiar dial<^ueB on the 
Maaa,' London, 1768, ISmo, being an abridge 
inent of F. A. Mason's ' Liturgical Discourse 
on tbe HasB.' 8. ' A Lenten Monitor to 
Christians, in pious thoughts on the Goepsls 
for every day in Lent, frran Ash Wednaeday 
to Easter Tuesd&y, inclusive,' third edition, 
4. ' The Christian Advent,' 1762. 5. 'Sun- 
days kept holy ; in moral reflections on the 
Gospels for the Sundays from Haatei to Ad- 
Tent. Baii^a supplement to the Christian 
Advent and Lenten Monitor,' second edition, 
London, 1772, 12mo. 6. "The Devout Com- 
monieant,' London, 1813, 12ino. 7. 'Essay 
on the Cord of St. Francis.' 8. ' Scripture 
Antiquity.' 9. 'Meditations on the Lord's 
Prayer,' from the French. Dr. Oliver says : 
' Without much originality all these works 
are remarkable for unction, solidity, and 
moderation ; but we wish the style was lees 
diffuse and redundant of woids. 

[Olivsr'B Histor; of the Catholie BeUeion to 
Oomwall, &c, B*i, STl ; Cat. of Printed Books 
in Brit. Hus.] T. C. 

BAKER, PHILIP, D.D. (Jl. 1668^ 1601), 
wovost of Kings College, was bom at 
Bunstaple, Devonshire, in or about 1524, 
and educated at Eton, whence he was 
elected in 1540 to King's College, Cambiidge 
<B.A., 1644; M.A., 1648 [BD, 1554; D.D., 
1562). He was nominate provost of Kings 
Collage by Queen EliEabetb in 1668. Ba. 
Iter held several ehnrch livings and eath*- 
dral appointments ; and be was vice-eban- 
cellor of the university in 1561-2. About 
February 1661-S he was compelled to resign 
the lectonr of St. Andrew Wardrobe on 
account of bis refusal to subscribe a con- 
fession of faith which Orindal, bishop of 
London, required from all his clergy. Queen 
Elizabeth occupied the provost's lodge at 
King B CoUure during her visit to Cambridge 
in 1664, and Baker was one of the diniu- 
tants in the divinity act then kept before 
her majesty (OoorBB, AAnaU of Cambridge, 
ii. 199, 200). In 1566 some of the fellows 
of the coUe^j exhibited articles against Ba- 
ker to Nicholas Bullingham, bishop of Lin- 
coln, their visitor, la these the provost 
was charged with neglect of duty in divers 
particul^, and with &vouriug popery and 
papists. The bishop gave him certain in- 
junctions, which, however, he disr^arded. 
'By them the provost was enjoined to de- 
stroy a great deal of popish stuff, as moss 
boon, coochen, and grails, copes, vestments, 

I Baker 

candlesticks, crosses, pixee, paxes, and the 
brazen rood, which the provost did not per- 
form, but preserved them in a secret comer.' 
In 1669 the fellows again complained of 
him to Bishop Orindal and Sir William Ce- 
cil, chancellor of the univeisitT; and ulti- 
mately the queen issued a special commission 
tbr the general visitation of the eoll^^. 
Theieupon Baker fled to Louvain, < the great 
receptacle for the English popish cle^y,' 
and was formally deprived ix the provoat- 
ship 32 Feb. 1669-70. About the same 

Knod he lost all his other preferments. 
dter (_Hi»t.^ Univ. tf Comb. ed. Prickett 
and Wright, 271) says ; ' Even snch as dis- 
like his judgment will commend his integrity, 
that having much of the college money and 
plate in his custody (and more at his com- 
mand, aiming to secure, not enrich himself), 
he faithfully resigned all ; yea, carefully sent 
back the oolle^ horses which caniea him 
to the sea side. 

He was living in 1601, and it is not im- 
probable that he had then been permitted 
to return to England. 

[Baksr MS. xxz. 341 ; Cola M8. liv. 3»; La 
Nave's ?asU Etxl. AmtUc. ed. Hardy, i. t!2S. iii. 
604, SIS, 88i; Nichols's Progresgea of Qoeen 
Klizabeth, iii. IIB, ISO; Cooper's Annals of 
175, 176, 191, 199, 200. S03, 

BAKEB, Sra RICHARD (1668-1646), 
religions and historical writer, was bora 
about 1668. His &ther, John Baker is stated 
to have been the elder son of Sir John 
Baker [q.v.], of Sisioghurst, near Cranbrook, 
Kent, who was chancellar of tbe exchequer and 
privy coundlloT in the reign of Henry VUL 
His mother was Catherine, daughter of 
Reginald Scott, of Scots Hall, near Aahford, 
Kent. His lather was disinherited, accord- 
ing to recent accounts, in flavour of his 
yonnger brother, Ricbai^, tbe head of the 
fsmilyinthehistorian'syouth. This lUchard 
Baker entertained Queen Elizabeth at the 
family seat of Sisinghurst in 167S, was soon 
afterwards knighted, acted as high sheriff 
of Kent in 1562 and 1682, and died on 
27 May 1694. Care must be taken to di»- 
tinguish between the uncle and nephew. 
Henry, a grandson of the elder Sir Richard 
Baker, and second cousin of the younger,, 
was createda baronet in 1611. 

Sir Richard Baker, the writer, became a 
commoner of Hart Hall (afterwards Hertford 
College), Oxford, in 16B4, where be shared 
rooms with Sir Henry Wotton. He left 
Oxford without graduating, and studied law 
in London. His education was completed 

I, Google 




liv ft (breiffn tour, whicli extended u far u 
FoUnd (Baxbk'8 Chron. aub &nno 15S3). 
On 4 July 1694 the nniranitT conferred on 
liim tliB d^re« of UA. (Woov'a Huti 
(BliM), i. 268). In 1603 he wu knighted 
W Jkioea I at Theobalds, and was then re- 
nditiir ftt Hiffhnte. In 1620 he wu hish 
^erin of Ozforashiie, where be owned the 
Bunot of Middle Aston. Soon kfterwarda 
Baker nsiried Hugoret, daughter of Sir 
Qeoi^ Hsinwaring, of Ightfiela, Shropshire, 
•nd gDod-naturedl; became surety for heavy 
debts owed by hia wife's family. He thus 
fell a Tietim to a lontr series of peconiary 
misfoTtnnea. In 1625 he was reported to be 
a debtor to the crown, and hia property in 
Qzfordahire waa seiied by the goTOmment 
(cf. Oal. State Papen (Dom. 1 628-d), p. 383). 
On 17 Oct 1636 Sir Francis Cottington 
desired of the exchequer authoritiea 'par- 
ticulan ' of the forfeited land and tenements, 
which were still ' in the kinr's hands.' Fuller 
writes that he had often heard Baker com- 
plain of the forfeiture of his estates. Utterly 
destitute. Sir Richard had, about 1636, to 
take refuge in the Fleet prison. There he 
died on 18 Feb. 1644-6, and was buried in 
thechurchof St. Bride's, Fleet Street. Several 
Bona and daughters snirived him. Wood | 

Xrts that one of hia daughters, all of i 
m ware oeceeaarily dowerlees, married I 
'Bury, a seedsman at the Frying Pan in | 
Newgate Street;' and another, 'one Smith, 
of Paternoster Row.' Smith is credited with ' 
having burned his ftther-in-law's autobio- 
graphy, the manuscript of which had fallen 
mto US bands. 

■ The atorm of [Baker'a] eateta,' says 
TUler, ' tateeA him to flye for shelter to 
hia studies and devotions.' It was after 
Baker had taken up residence in the Fleet 
that he bc^n his literary work. Hia 
earliest published work, writton in a month, 
when he was siity-eight years old, was en- 
titled 'Cato VariegatuB, or Catoea Morall 
Disticha. Translated and Paraphrased with 
variations of Eipresaing in English Verse, 
by S' Richard Baker, Knight,' London, 1636. 
It gives for each of Cato's latin disticJisfive 
dinerent English couplets of very mediocre 
qoallty, and is only interesting as the work 
of the old man'a enforced leisure. In 1637 
Baker's ' Meditations on the Lord's Prayer' 
was published. In 1638 he issued a transla- 
tbn of ' New Epistles by Moonsieur D'Balzac,' 
and in 1639 he b^n a series of pious medi- 
tations on the Psalms. The first oook of the 
mies bore the title of ' Meditations and Dis- 
qnisitiooi upon the Seven Psalmes of David, 
commoidy called the Penitentiall Psalmes, 
1839.' n was dedicated to Mary, counteu 

of Dorset, and to it were appended medita- 
tions ' upon the three last psalmes. of David,' 
with a separate dedication to the Earl of 
Manchester. In 1640 there appeared a similar 
treatise ' upon seven consolatorie psalmes of 
David, namely, the 23, the 27, the 30, the 34, 
the 84, the IC^ the 116,' with a dedication 
to Lord Craven, who ia there thanked bv the 
author for ' the remission of a great debt.' 
The last work in the aeries, ' Upon the First 
Fsalme of David,' waa also issued in 1640, 
with a dedication to Lord CoventTv. (These 
meditations on the Psahus were collected uid 
edited with an introduction by Dr. A. B. 
Orosart in 1882.) In 1641 Baker published 
a reasonable ' Apolo^e for Laymen's Writing 
in Divini^, with a short Meditation upon 
the Fall of Lucifbr,' which was dedicated to 
his cousin, ■ Sir John Baker, of Sissingherst, 
baronet, son of Sir Henry Baker.first baronet.' 
In 1642 he issued ' Motives for Prayer upon 
the seauen dayes of y' weeke,' illustrated by 
seven curious plates treating of the creation 
of the world, and dedicated to the 'wife of 
Sir John Baker.' A translation of Malvecii's 
'Discourses upon Cornelius Tacitus' waa 
executed by Baker in 1642 under the directitm 
' of a bookseller named Whittaker. 
I Baker's principal work waa a ' Chronicle of 
I the Kings of England from the time of tha 
I Romane Government unto the Death of King 
I James,*164S, The author describes the book 
as having been ' collected with so great care 
' and diligence, that if all other of our ehro- 
niclee were lost, this only would be sufficisnt 
to inform posterity of all pass^ee memorable, 
or worthy to be known.' The dedication 
was addressed to Charles, Prince of Wales, 
and Sir Henrf Wotton contributed a com- 
roendat^iry epistle to the author. The ' Chn>- 
nicle'waa translated intoDutchinld49. It 
reached a second edition in 1663. In 1 660 « 
third edition, edited by Edward Philli]^ 
Milton's nephew, continued the history till 
1668. Fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, and 
^hth editions, with continuations, appeared 
in 1666, 1670, 1674, 1679, and 1684 respec- 
tively. ' The ninth impression, freed from 
many errors and mistakes of the former edi- 
tion, appeared in 1696. An edition con- 
tinued 'by an impartial hand ' to the close of 
Qeorge Fs reign was issued in 1730, and was 
reprinted in 17S3, An abridgment of the 
'Ginmicle' waa publiehed in 1684. Tha 
account of the restoration given in the fourth 
and succeeding editions is attributed to Sir 
Thomas Clarges, Monck's brother-in-law. 
Phillippe and the later anonymous editors of 
the book omit many original documents, 
which are printed in tne two original editiona. 
Baker's 'Chronicle' was long popular 


Baker i6 

with eouDtry gentlemen. Addison, in the 
'Spectator' (Nob. S69 and 339), repieaente 
Sir Roger d« Coverlej m frequently reftd- 
iag SIM quoting the ' Chnmide/^ which 
■ImTB Uv in hu hftll window, nelding, 
in 'Joeepn Andrews,' also refers to it u 
put of the furniture of Sir Thomu Booby's 
countrr house. But its reputation with tiie 
leaned never stood very high. Thomas 
Blount published at Oxford in 1673 'Ani- 
madTersums npon S' Kchard Baker's " Chro- 
nide," and its continustioD,* where eighty- 
two errors are noticed, but m&ny of these 
are mere typographical mistakes. The serious 
erfon imputed to the volume are enough, 
however, to prove that Baker was little of an 
histories! scholar, and depended on very sus- 
picions authoritjea. Dames Barrinfton, in 
his ' Observations on the Statutes, writes 


that ' Baker is by no means so contemptible 
a writer as he is generally supposed to be ; it 
is believed that the ridicule on this " Ohro- 
nicle " arises from its beintf part of the fumi- 
tnie of Sir Roger de Coveney's hall ' (3rd ed. 
p. 97, quoted in Gbinqeik}j but the only 
clum to distinction that has been seriaualy 
urged in recent times in behalf of the ' Chro- 
nicle ' is that it givBB for the first time the 
oorrect date of the poet Qower*! death. 

Sir Bicliard Baker was also the author of 
' mteatrum Redivivum, or the Theatre Vindi- 
cated,' a replj to Prynne's ' Histrio-Mastiz,' 
published posthumously in 1663. There are 
interesting references here to tlie Ellizabethan 
actors, Tmton, Burbage,and Alleyn (p. 34), 
and much good sense in the general argu- 
ment. A reprint of the book under the title 
of 'Theotrum Triumphans' is dated 1670. 

A portrait of Sir Richard appears in the 
frontispiece to the early editions of the 
' Chronicle.' Baker's libnry is said to have 
been purchased bvBishop Williams, the lord 
keeper, in behalf of Westminster Abbey 
(AbfaM and Qutriet, 3rd ser. xi. 361). 

Among the Sloane MSS. (No. 881) is an 
incomplete unpublished woric by one lUchard 
Baker, entitled, ' Honour, Diseours'd of in 
the liieoTj of it and the Practice, with 
Directions for a prudent Conduct on occur- 
rencesoflneivilityand Civility.' Dr.Qrosart 
assigns this lon^-winded treatise to Sir 
Ri^ard Baker, the chronicler, and the reli- 
gious spirit in which it is written may for a 
moment support the theory. But the fact 
that the dedication, undoubtedly written by 
the author, is oddrmsed to Hearv [ComptonJ 
bishop of London, proves that the work was 
not completed until after 1676, the date of 
Compton's appointment to the see of tendon. 
And at that date Sir Richard Baker had been 
deadfor more than tliirty years. 

[Wood's AtheiUB Oxop. (Blin), iii. 14S-S1; 
Bion, Brit. (Kippia) ; Gmngei^s Biog. Hi«. 
(177fi), ii. 331; Beer's Meditationii on tba 
' Pmlnis, ed. OrosarC, pp. i-zl ; Notes and 
QiuTias, l>t sar. ii. 07. 244, 607, vi. 318 (vhera 
an lucotuit of a legend connected with tba eldar 
Sir Richard Baker, of aa htMoneal importanre, 
is fully diKusMd), 2nd ear. ii. SOS, iii. TO, Srd 
■BT. ii. 27». *76.] 8. L. L. 

BAKER, RICHARD, D.D. (1741-1818), 
theological writer, was educated at Pem- 
broke College, Cambridge, where he gra- 
duated B.A. (as seventh senior optime) in 
1762, M.A. in 1765, and D.D. in 1788. He 
was elected to a fellowship in his collie, 
and in 1773 was presented to the rectory of 
Oawston-with-Portlond in Norfolk, which 
he held till his death in 1818. His works 
are: 1. 'How the Knowledge of Salvation 
is attunaUe,' a sermon on John vii. 17, 
1783, 4to. 3. 'The Harmony or Agreement 
of the Four Evangelists, in four parts,' 
London, 1783-87, Svo. 8. 'The Psalms of 
David Evangelised, wherein are seen the 
Unity of Divine Truth, the Harmony of the 
Old and New Testament, and the pnculiar 
Doctrines of Christianity, in agreement with 
the Experience of Believers in all Ages,' 
London, 1811, Svo. 

[MS. Addit. 1S209 f. 36 ; Chsmbeie's Hisb 
of Norfolk, ISB : flent. Mug. luiviii. (i.), 844 ; 
Wetfa Bibl. Brit.] T. C. 

■ BAKER, ROBERT (jfi. 1683-S), voyager 
to Guinea, started on his first voyage 'to 
eeeke for golde' in October 1S63. The ex- 
pedition consisted of two ehipe, the Minion 
and the Primrose, and was ' set out by Sir 
William Oamrd, Sir 'William Chester, Ur. 
Thomas Lodge, Anthony Hickman, and 
Edward Oastelin.' Bakei^s efibrts to tT»ffie 
with the natives on the Quinea coast wen 
not very sucoessful, and he was wounded in 
a fight. But he returned home in safety earlv 
inl663. InNovemberofthesameyearhematM 
a second voyage to ' Guinie and the river of 
Sesto' as factor in an expedition of two ships, 
the John Baptist and the Martin, sent out t>y 
London merchants. On arriving at Guinea, 
Baker landed with eight companions to ae- 
KOtiate with the natiTefl,but astJirmdrove 
Uie ships from their moorings, and Baker and 
his companions were alumdoned. After suf- 
fering much privation six of the nine mm 
died. The three survivors were rescued by a 
French ship, and imprisoned in France a* 
prisoners of war ; but they appear to have 
been subsequently released. 

Baker wrote accounts in veree of both voy- 
ages, which were printed by Richard Haklojt 
in his ' Voyagea,' in 168(t. 




■BAKSR, 8AMTIEL, D-D. (d. 1660 P), 
diTine, wu matriculfttAd u k pensioner of 
CJmrt's CoUage, Cambridtre, 11 July 1612, 
became B.A. in iei6-«, MA. in 1619, and 
vu elected a fellow of hia eolWe. Oa 
7 Maj 1623 he vtt inconioTated M.A. at 
Oxfo^, and he proceeded B.D. at Cambridge 
in 1627. The corporation of London pre- 
•anted him to the rectory of St. Margaret 
Pattena in that city, vhere he at one time 
eqjoyed great popiuarity as a puritanical 
preacher. He was, however, ' taken off &om 
thoae oonnee,' and made domestic chaplain to 
JnZon, bishop of London. On 39 Oct. 1636 
he became prebenduT of Totenhall in the 
church of St. Pad. Having in 1637 retigned 
the rectoiy of St. Margaret Pattens, he was, 
on 6 July m the same year, instituted to that 
of St. M«ry-at-HiU. On 28 Aug. 1638 the 
king conferred On him a canonir of Windsor. 
This he resigned on 17 May 1639, and on the 
2Dth of the same month he was nominated 

1640 be reaigned the rectory of St. Chriato- 
pher in London, and on 4 April in that year 
Mcsine rector of South Weald in Esses. 
Soon after the assembling of the Long pai^ 
liament be was complained of for having 
licensed certain books and refused his license 
to others, and he was subsequently seques- 
tered from all his preferments, persecuted, 
•nd imprisoned. 

Baher, who is supposed to have died in 
the early part of 1660, was one of the learned 
peraons iriio rendered material aasiatance in 
the pt«paiation of Bishop Walton's Polyglot 
' Xaa. Addit. fises, f. IOTA; L« Neva*a Fasti 
Eccl. Anglic i. 6S, iL 441,iii.401i Lloyd's Ma- 
moira (1S77), 612, fil7; Haylyn'a Hiat. ct the 
Pnsbjtariuu (1S7U). 468 ; Wood'a Fasti Oion. 
•d. Blia, i. 374, 41S, ii. 392; Prynne'a Canter- 
bmia'a Dooms. 236 aoq., 3tO ; Nevwnrt'a Beprr- 
torimn Ecclfwiasficiim, i. 216, 324, 4ue, 461 ; 
Jouraals of the House of Commons, iii. 68,183.1 
T. 0. 

(lHaU,Olfoid,inl6«). In spite of tl 
ptntauical education which, according to 
Wood, he received at the hall, ' he did some 
little petite service for hia majesty within the 
garrison of Oxon.' It does not appear what 
was the nature of the 'little employments' 
(lirongh which, according to the same autho- 


rity, he became ' minister' of Kshop's 
Nympton, in Bevonshire. He was collated 

years previoual^ in that retired spot (perhaps 
as curate). Hia secluded life — as much of it 
at least aa could be spared from professional 
occupations and the carea of a family — was 
devoted to mathematical studies. He apeaka 
of himself as one ' who pretendfa) not to 
learning nor to the profession of the mathe- 
matic art, but one who(m) st some aubciaiva 
hours for diversion sake its study much de- 
lights.' He published in 1684 the ' Oeoni&- 
tncal Key, or Oat« of Equations Unlocked.' 
Montucla remembers having 'read some- 
where ' that Baker was imprisoned for debt 
at New^te ; upon which it was facetiously 
remark^ that it would have been better for 
him to have had the key of Newgate than 
that of equations. 

The leading idea of Baker's work la th« 
solution of biquadratic equations (and those 
of a lower degree) hj a geometrical construe* 
tion, a parabola intersected by a circle. 
The method is distinguished from that of 
Descartes by not requiring the equation to 
be previously deprived of its second term. 
The Kaneral principle is worked out in great 
detail; tha author being of opinion that 
conciseness, like < a wat^m contnved within 
the narrow sphere of the signet of a ring,' is 
rather admirable than useful. Some account 
of the work is given in the ' Transactions of 
the Boyal Society' (referred to below). 

There exists a 'catalogue of the mathe- 
matical works of the learned Mr. Thomas 
Baker, with a proposal about printing the 
same.' The proposal was ' approved and 
agreed to by the council of the Royal Society,' 
but was not carried out. 

[BibtiogTsph. Brit. ad. 1 ; Wood's Atbcm. Oxon. 
ed. Blias, iv. 236 ; Sigand'a Correapoodenee of 
Scieatiflc Men of the SeventaBiita Century; 
LyaooB'a Magna Britanniit, Devonahire, ii, 368 ; 
Biich'a Hiatory of the Boyal Society, iv. 166, 
166, 627 ; Philo«ipbi«al Tmnsactiona, voL liv. 
no. I6T, pp. 649-60. ] P. Y. E. 

BAKER, THOMAS (Jf. 1700-1709), 
dramatist, is said to have been the son of an 
attorney of London, and is credited. 

of his character and his powers is furnished 
in the ' List of Dramatic Authors with some 
Account of their Lives,' attributed to John 
Mottley (the compiler of ' Joe Miller's Jests '), 
which appears at the close of Thomas Whin- 
cop'a tragedy of ' Scanderbeg.' According to 
this rather prejudiced authority, Baker ' was 





under dii^mc«' with hia fitther, 'whosOowed 
bim ft veTj scanty income,' and wu com- 
pellod to retire into Worceeterthir^ ■where he 
u reported to have ' died of that loathsome 
iunrdeT.the morbutpedioiio*!!*.' Hie name- 
Mke, David Enktne Baksr, in the ' Biograc 

Ehia Dmmatica,' undertaket at Mme length 
ig defence. He, however, stBt«a that a cha- 
neter named Maiden, introduced in ' Tuur 
bridge Walks, the best-known comedj of 
Thomas Baker, was intended bj the author 
for himself, and wu designed for jturpose of 
warning, to place his own &ilingB in a ridicu- 
lous light. Kthis BtOTf, which is unsupported 
b; any obtainable evidence, is true, Baker 
must have been aufficientlv despicable in early 
life to justify the dislike of his nnt biographer. 
Maiden, first played by an actor inappropri- 
ately named Bullock, is one of the most effo- 
minat« beings aver put on the sta^ The 
character sprang into lavour, and was mutated 
in the Fnbbles and Beau Miiens of suV 
sequent comedy. The plars of Baker, all of 
tiiemcomedieagConsistof : 1. 'Hnmourofthe 
Age,'4to, 1701,plaTed the same year at Dnuy 
Lane, with Wilke, Hrs. Verbru^en, and Mrs. 
Oldfield in the principal parts. ^. 'Tunbridg« 
"Walks, or the Yeoman of Kent,' 4to, 1703, 
played 27 Jan. of the same year at Brury 
Lane: rerived at the same theatre in 1738 
and 1764, and at Covent Garden in 1748, and 
l^ven, in three acts, under the title of ' Tun- 
bridge Wells,' at the Haymarket, m late as 
18 Aug. 1782, by Palmer, Parsons, and Mrs. 
Inchbald. 3. 'AnActat Oxford,' 4to, 1701. 
This piece, one scene in which is in the thea- 
tre at Oxford, disclosing the doctors, the un- 
dergraduates, and the uuliee, in their proper 
places, conmieneea with the two opening lines 
of tile ' Iliad,' delivered in Greek by Bloom, 
a gentleman conunoner. Its performance was 
prohibited, it is supposed through univarsity 
influence, and it saw the footlights in an al- 

it was reprinted in 4to, 1706. C. The 'Fine 
Lady's Airs,' 4to, no date (1709), played at 
Drury Lane 14 Dec. 1 708, and revived 20ApriI 
1747. A curious reference to some of these 
plays and to the author occurs in the preface 
lo the ' Modem Prophet*, or New Wit for a 
Husband,'acomedyDy Thomas Dnrfey, Lon- 
don, no date (1709'). In this Duifsy speaks 
not very intdligibly of Baker as one of 'a 
couple of bloody male criticks,' fmta whose 
' barbarous assassinating attempts ' be has ea- 
eaped. Durfey condemns the plotless and 
trifling quality of 'Tunbridge Walks,' accuses 
~ ' 'n reference to two other comedies, of 

Airs' (sic) wa« 'deservedly Iiiat' pissed). 
Baker'splaysareindeed'^otleae.' Thqrais 
&irly written, however, and are up to the not 
very exalted level of comediee ofthe pwiod. 
Baker is credited with the authonhip of the 
'Female Tatler' (London, 1709), whidi 
Lowndes, who omits all mention of Baker 
under his name, describes as a ' scurrilous pe- 
riodical paper.' After 1709 all reference ta 
Baker ceases. 

[Biognphia Dramstiea; Gilliland's Drsmatie 
Mirror; <Mi^) J(aoob)"« Poetioal fUgistgr, or 
Lives and Charactmof the Eoglish Poets, L73S; 
Thespian Dictioiuirji Qeaest's Account of tha 
EuKlish Stsn ; List of Dramatie Authors tff^ 
psnded to Whiocop't Seandsrbeg, 1747, &e.] 

BAKER, THOMAS (186^1740), an 
eminent author and antiquary, was bmn at 
Lancheater, in the county palatine of Dor- 
ham, 14 Sept. 1666, the younger son of 
George Baker, eequire, of Crook, and Mar- 
garet Fonter, his wife. He received hia 
earl^ education at Durham, and at the va 
of sixteen woe entered a pensioner of &. 
John's College, Cambridge, along with hia 
elder brother Geo^ (Haxob, Admitaumt 
to St. John*, pt. 11. p. GO), under Ralph 
Sanderson, a north-countryman and fellow 
of the coU^. He was elected a scholar, 
and subsequently (30 March 1680) fellow of 
his college, on the foundation of Dr. A^ton, 
dean of York, to whom he has recorded hia 
sense of gratitude as one to whom he wan 
indebted tot ' the few comforts ' he after- 
words enjoyed in life. Horace Walpola 
(^Corrm. atth OoU, iv, 114) observes, 'that 
it would be preferable to draw up an ample 
character of Mr. Baker, rather than a life. 
The one was most beautiful, amiable, coo- 
scientious; the other totally barren of more 
than one event.' During the time that ha 

such endowments, when rightly applied, are 
capable of subserving. He was a model of 
an able, high-minded, and conscientious scho- 
lar, his time and energies beinfj; mainly de- 
voted to antiquarian and historical research. 
Unfortunately he was a nonjuror, and aa 
early as 1690 he resigned the living of Lang 
Newton to which he bad bees presented \if 
Lord Crewe, bishop of Durham. On the ac- 
cession of George I, the enactment of th« 
aljuration oath brought the law to bear with 
renewed severity on non-compliers, and on 
21 Jan. 1716-7 Baker also was compelled to 
reaign his fellowship — a fate, observea Dole, 
which had already befallen 'many mora 
worthy and conscientious men.' Dr. Jenkin, 

3y Google 

Baker i 

the maaMr of St. John's, liad himaelf been 
nquired to tnka the ouh of alleguace on 
procee^i^ B.D., and had oomjJied, although 
Be hod fbrmeri J profteaed the mune prindpua 
aa fiaker. The latteT|howeTer, waa poeaeaaed 
I17 the belief that Dr. Jenkm eonld have 
•creened him had he chosen to do ao, and 
he continued long after to cheriah feeliuga of 
dignified reeentment. Baler, in fact, could 
uevsr alto^her oTarcome hia aense of wrong 
at hia flection, altttoiu^ the blon was consider- 
ably mitisated hj the conHideTation shewn 
bim by the college aothoritiea, and by the 
InndneM of friend*. He was pennitt^d to 
ntain hia rooms in college, and continned to 
leaide there as a commoRer-master until hia 
death. Among the feUows of St. John's waa 
Matthew Prior, the poet ; and according to 
Dr. Ooddatd, Uu writer of the life in the 
'Biognphia Britanuica' (p. 630), beina; in 
eaay drcnmstancee, Prior handed his fellow- 
ahip ^vidend, aa lie lecoiTed it, over to hia 
friend Baker. This statement, however, is 
discredited by Haatere (Lifi; qfBttkerjp. ISO), 
wbo Btatea that Baker 'lived conuortably 
and much to hia own aatti * ' ' 
anniiitf of 40L a year whi 
from his Either (ibid. p. 39). 

Such were the circomatancea under which 
the indefatigable scholar laboured on for 
Bome fbuiHUjd-thirty yaaia, during which 
period he acquired th« well-earned reputa- 
tion of being inferior to no living English 
Bcholor in hia minute and extendedacquaint- 
■nee with the antianitiea of our national 
hiMory. His friends and correepondenta, 
wnong whom were Burnet, Rddea, Keonet, 
Heame, Strype, Archbishop Wake, Le Neve, 
Feck, I>T. Rawlinaon, Dr. Ward, Amea, 
Browne WiUia, Dr. Kchardson, John Lewie, 
Hnmphiey 'WBnlay, and Masters (his bio- 
grapher), repraeented the chief names in 
EnffUsh historical literature in his day. To 
W^e, at that time dean of Exeter, he 
rendered material assietance in the com- 
|ribtion of his ' Stat« of the Church,' although 
the work waa conceived in a spirit diametri- 
cally opposed to the doctrines of the Angli- 
can party. Wake, in order to show his sense 
of theee services, afterwards offered to pre- 
aent any one of Baker's friends, whom tbe 
latter (being himaelf ineligible) might name 
to him, to a benefice of the value of 200^. 
per annum. Baker declined the cfier, but 
asked the archbishop to present him with a 
copy of his ' State of the Church," contain- 
ing corrections and additions in his own 
h^dwriting. To this requeet Wake acceded, 

Burnet, Baker rendered similar service by 

) Baker 

forwarding a series of corrections and criti- 
uama of the 'Historv of the Reformation.' 
It is not surprising tnat Burnet should hare 
felt himsalf unable to accept them all with- 
out eome reservationa ; but the following 
entry by Baker in the third volume of his copy 
of the ' History ' praaerved in the university 
library is Creditable to both ; ' Ez dono 
doctiaainii anctoria, ac celeberrimi pnesulia 
Oilberti epiacopi Sariaburiensia. I bImII 
always have an honour for the author's m»- 
mon, who entered all the corrections I had 
made at the end of thia volume. H any 
more are found they were not sent, fin h« 
aupprassed nothing.' 

Mker himaelf aspired to write an ' Athena 
Cantabrig^enses,' if not a history of the uni- 
versity, on the plan of Anthony Wood's well- 
known work relating to Oxford (Letter to 
Wanley, Sari. MSS. 8778) ; and with thia 
design accumulated a great maas of materials, 
rnwnly from manuscript sources, which he 
transcribed into fortv-two folio volumea. The 
sound judgment and acrupuloua care shown 
in thia collection impart to it an unusual 
value. The first twenty-three volumes, which 
he bequeathed to bis friend Harlev, Lord 
Oxfon^ are now in the Harleian collection 
in the British Museum ; volnmea ixiv. to xlii. 
are in the university library at Cambridge. 
An index to the whole series was published 
in 1846 b^ four membeia of the Cambridge 
Antiquarian Society, and a ■ Catalc^e ' (of a 
bx more elaborate character) of the contcnta 
of the Cambridge volumes, by Professor John 
E. B, Mayor, was published for the syndics 
oftheUniveraitvPreasinlSd?. The'History 
of St. John s Collie * in the former series 
(MS.Sarl. 1039), by Baker himself, has been 
edited by Professor Mayor (1869) with ex- 
tensive additions and annotations, and the 
whole work stands unrivalled aa a history of 
a single collegiate foundation, in accuracy, 
completeness, and general excellence. 

Baker also reprinted, with a valuable bio- 
graphical preface, Bishop Fisher s funeral ser- 
mon for the Lady Margaret, mother of King 
Henry VU (London, 12mo, 1708) ; a copy, 
with tranacripts of his manuscript notes, ts 

C served in the Bodleian libnry, and haa 
n printed by Dr, Hymers. But the 
work by which be earned hia chief con- 
temporaiy reputation was published anony- 
mously ; this waa his ' Refiections on Learn- 
ing,' a treatise which went through seven 
editions, In ita main olgectit somewhat re- 
sembled Dryden's ' Religio Laid,' being de- 
signed to enforce the insufficiency of the 
human understanding and of science as guidea 
for the formation of belief and the conduct 
of life. The literary merits of the work, and 

., Google 

Baker s 

tbe'mumeriu wbich it hArmoniBed with the 
theological prqudicee of the time, ^ined for 
it an amount of popularity which it scarcely 
merited, when we consider that its depre- 
datOTj estimate of the value of scientific 
reaeaich is derived from a surve; of the 
Bubject in which Sacon is but fciotly com- 
mended, the name of Locke entirely omitted, 
and the Copernic&n system refeired to in con- 
temptuous terma (7tn ed. pp. 104-9). ' We,' 
says Baher, in conclusion, 'who know so 
little of the smallest matters, talk of nothing 
less than nan theoriei tjf the icorld, and out 
_field» of knovjUdge ; busying ourselves in 
natural inquiries, and flatt^ing oursetyes 
with the wonderful discoveries and mighty 
improvements that have been made in humane 
learning, a great part of which axe purely 
imaginary, and at the same time neglecting 
the only true and solid and aatiafactory know- 


'.' (P'.S 

> Baker 

his collections came into the possession of 
the collage, and the shelyee of the collega 
libnuT were enlarged for their raception. 
Two large volumes of his letters to Ueama 
are in Uie Bodleian, and also some of hie 
books. His letters t« Strype are in th9 
Cambridge University library, and the pub- 
lication of his whole correspondence is iR 
contemplation by the Surtees Society. Hia 
notes on Wood's ' Athenn ' are incorporated 
in the edition by Bliss. Most of bis books con- 
tain notes, sometimes of considerable value, 
in his own handwriting, a hand always recog- 
nisable by its size and great legibility. Hu 
sense of the wrong whi(£ he had experienced ia 
left on lasting record, owing to his inyariablo 
practice of appending to aim name on the 
Blank leaf the words ' Socius riectus.' There 
are portraits of Baker in St. John's Coll^fs 
and in the Bodleian, the latter having been 
formerly in the possession of Lord Oztord. 

Baker's valuable manuscript collections 
have been largely utilised by Ueasrs. C. H. and 
Thompson Cooper in their successive works, 
the ' Annals of Cambridge,' the ' Athens 
Oontabrigiensea,' and the ' Memoriala of Cam- 
bridge.' The fact that his history of his owd 
college was allowed to remain so long in ma- 
nuscript is probably to be attributed to the 
preiudicee excited against him as a nonjuror, 
and, consequently, an opponent of all reli- 
gious tests. The college, however, early pro- 
cured a transcript (see Matob's JPt^. p, yi). 
The additions to the copy in the Ccue manu- 
scripts are incorporated in the edition of 1869. 
Cole tells us that Dr. Powell (master of St. 
John's 1766-76), a violent, dogmatic man, 
could never listen with patience to any com- 
mendation either of the nistory or its author. 

[llarshaU's Qeaealogiat'n Q-nide; Livw (c 

ir died somewhat saddenly on 2 Jnly 
1740, having been seiied with apoplexy and 
found insensible on the floor of his study. 
Buring his lifetuue he had expressed the 
wi^ Uiat he mi{^t be buried near the grave 
of the fonnder, to whose liberality he felt 
himself under so much obligation. His desire 
Ibund its accomplishment, and he was in- 
terred near Dr. Ashton'e tomb in tbe ante- 
chapel of the former chapel of St. John's 
College. Dole (MS9. xlix. 93) describes his 
funeral as 'very solemn, with procession 
round the first court in surplices and candles.' 
Baker was a Randson of Colonel Baker of 
Crooke, a stauncn royalist, who distinguished 
himself in the civil war by his gallant de- 
fence of Newcastle o^nst the Scots in 16S9. 
A nephew of the antiquarian, Qeorge Baker, 
entered as a fellow commoner at St. John'a 
only the day before his uncle's seiiure. Few 
scholars have enjoyed a better repntation 
than Baker even among those who differed 
from them in opinion ; and his slender purse 
was ever open even to assist those with whose 
views he did not altogether sympathise. In 
imparting knowledge from his own great 
stores, he was eqiialiy unselfish; and by 
Zachary Grey (a friend of Cole's), who col- 
lected the materials for his life, he ia de- 
signated not only ' the most knowing in our 
English history and antiquity,' but ^so 'the 
most communicative man living ' (Examina- 
tion o/Neatt Eaton/ of the Purttan*, ii. 62 n. ; 
Beeal3oPTiii)Gs'B£i>0/ irob?^,p.31S). His i 1 
generosity met with a certain return, and I '. 
mon^f of bis friends were in the habit of pre- 1 ' 
sentmg him with books, while he himself j '. 
was an indefatigable collector. Hesubscrihed 
to all antiquarian works, and procured sub- 
■criben. At bis death the greater part of loted to the archdeaconry of Oxfwd. In 

pilsd chJBfly from materials collectAd by Zachary 
Gray) by Ittateim (Camb., 1784), bj Nieholi 
Litamry Anecdotra of the EighteeDtn Centnry, 

lOS-llToad Index ; and by tha author of the 
Life in tbe Biographia Britannica ; Life by Horace 
Walpole. Works, ii. 339; Index to Baker's History 
of St. Jobn's CoUese, ed. 1. £. B. Hayor; 
Brydges'e Bestituto, iv. 409 ; Frepmoa's Portrait 
Pirtaresftf St. John's College; Index to Heliqiiiw 
Heamians.] J. B. M. 

BAKER, WILLIAM (1668-1782), Msh op 
of Norwich, was the son of William Baker, 
vicar of nton, Somersetshire, where he was 
bom in 1668. He waa educsied at Crew- 
keme School, and entered at Wadham Col- 
lege, Oxford, of which college he wu first 
fellow, and eventually becune waiden in 
1719. He waa auccessively rector of St. 

3y Google 


'•8 promoted to the see of Bueot, 
17^ h«WM translated toNorwich. 

1723 lie 1 

He hM the netory of St. OiIes4ii-the-FieIda 
M eowimmdam up to the time of hia death, 
vhich occuned &t Bath, 4 Dec. 1732. He 
wu DBrer msrried. During hia brief tenure 
of the see of Bangor he managed to make 
bis onlj brother treasurer of the church 
there, uid his two nephews were provided 
tar hj being made KKistrara of the diocese 
of Norwich. Blomeseld, the historian of 
Koifolk, who WK ord«ined bv him^ gives the 
titles of four sermons which he printed ; one 
of them was published by special command 
of Queen Anne in 171(X He was chaplain 
in ordinaiT to Qeorge L Intheabbeychurch 
at Bath there ia a monument to him with a 
{alsome epitaph. 

BAKEK, WII-LIAH (1742-1786), 
printer, was bom at Reading m 1742, and 
was the son of WiUiam Baker, for more than 
fort^ Tears schoolmaster at that place, and an 
amiable and accomplished man. Even at 
an earlr age joung Baker's close application 
to stud; injured his health. His lather had 
boned to devote h'T" to the church, but 
bemg disappointed by Dr. Boltou, dean of 
Carlisle, who had promised to give thevouth 
• nniversitf training, he apprenticed him 
to Hr. Etppaz, a mriater, d OuUum Street, 
Lwdon. BaW diligenUy applied himself 
to his calling, and still empl^ed his lei- 
■ni« is self-improvement. The money earned 
W working overtime wsa spent in books. 
'Beton he was twenty-one years old bis 
szertions produced severe illneM. On the 
death of Kippaz, Baker succeeded to his 
businsM, Bit«rwuds removing to Ingram 
Court, where he was in partnership with 
John William Galabin. in 1770 he pub- 
lished ' Peregrinations of the Mind,' a sraies 
of twenty-tuee essays, after the s^le of 
the ' Rambler,' and upon such subjects sathe 
stage, lore, happiness, war, patriotism , cruelty, 
the unreasonable complmients paid to the 
ancients for their works, &c It had always 
been his practice to note passages which struck 
bis attention in the course of reading, and 
in 178S he printed a little volume of short 
extracts, noticeabte for beauty of language 
or elevation of thought, from a wide range 
of Greek and Latin authors. No special ar- 
rangement ia observed, but the precision of 
the re&rencee gives the book a value usually 
absent in SDch compilations. He contributed 
s<Hne poetical pieces to the msgutinee, and is 
■aid to have written sermons for clerical 
frieiida* He was an €iKOeUrat linguist and 


Rood clasaical scholar. His modesty and 
learning made him many friends among the 
leading antiquaries and men of letters of the 
day, including O. Goldsmith, Dr. Eldmund 
B^ker, James Merrick, Hu^h Farmer, and 
Ossar da Missy. He left in manuscript a 
correspondence with another Reading worthy, 
Robert Hobinson, author of ' Indices in Dion. 
lionginum, in Eunapium, et in Hieroclem' 
(Oxon. 1772), besides many other letters on 
points of Greek scholarship. A small un- 
finished treatise on abuses of ^rammatjcal 
propriety in ordinary conversation also re- 
mained unprinted. His limited but choice, 
library of classical books ultimately became 
the property of Dr. J. C Lettsom. 

AtMut Christmas 1784 be suffered from 
over-ezertion in walking, and aft«r an illness 
of nine months died from ' an enlargem«Qt of 
the omentum ' 29 Sept. 1780, in his forty- 
fourth year. He was buried in the vault of 
St Dionis Backchurch, the parish in which 
he had lived when in London. A Latin in- 
scription to his memory was placed by his 
younger brother upon tlie family tomb in the 
churchyard of St. Alary, Reading. 

His works arer 1. 'Peregrinations of the 
Mind through the most general and interest- 
ing subjects usually agitated in life, by the 
late Vf. Baker, printer. A new edition, to 
which is prefix&d a biof^phic memoir of 
the author.' London, pimted by the editor 
[Maurice], 1811, sm. 8vo. The first edition 
was in 1770, sm. Svo. 2. ' Theses Green et 
Latdiue selects.' Lond. in off. J. W. Qalsbin 
et W. Baker, 1783, sm. 8vo. 

[An anoDymoas biognphy by a friend ftnt 
appeared in Uie EluGyclopndiaLondiDBiuiB(I810}, 
reprinted on a singls 4to leaf as ' Original Ansc- 
dot» of W. Baker' (n.d.), and reproduced in 
C. Coatas's Hist, of Bmding, 1802 ; Cbilinen'a 
Biog. Diet, aod the memoir prefixed U> tbe 1811 
ed. of the Pengriaatiom ; see also Nichols's Il- 
lustrations, ii. 66S, viii. 4S8, SOS, and hia Lit. 
Ane«iot«a, iii. 716-8.] H. B. T. 

(1808-1681), general, and a distinguished 
engineer, was the fourth son of Captain 
Joseph Baker, R.N., and was bom at Leith 
inl^. He was educated at the East India 
Company's nulitary college at Addiscombe, 
and went out to India as a lieutenant in the 
Bengal engineers in 1826. He was promoted 
captain in 1840, and saw service in the first 
Sikh war. He led one of the attacking 
columns to the entrenchments at Sobraon, 
for which he was thanked in the despatch 
and promoted major. He was afterwards 
exclusively employed in the public works 
department, and was euccesuvely auperin.^ 

3y Google 



tendent of the Delhi canals, luperintendent 
of canals snd forests in Scinde, directot of 
the Oftoges canal, conBultinc engineer to ths 
gOTenunent of India far railways, and secre- 
tary to the a^veniinent of India m the pub- 
lic works deportment. His services as a 
civil ensineer were very great, and he was 
regarded as the greatest authoritj of his 
time on irrigation. His military promotion 
continued during hiB civil employment, and 
he became lieutenant-<u)]onel in 1864 and 
colonel in 1657. In 1867 he returned to 
England, and in the following year was ap- 

Siinted milita^ secretary b) the India Office. 
ut his knowledge was rather that of an 
engineer than a soldier, and in 1861 he be- 
came a member of the council of India, and 
in that capacity chief adviser to the home 
' '■ ( matters. 

a centiOT spread thenuelvea over enery put 
of the United Kingdom and to Europe and 
America' (ToVATi, On£%eep,p.818),andthuB 
England 'bad 3 lbs. of mutton where thers 
wsa only 1 lb. befbre ' iStubandry ^ Tkrta 
Celebrated Iiirmer$, p. 16). Bakewell suo- 
c«eded ia producing the Dishley cattle, called 
also the new Leiceaterahire long-horn, 'k 
small, clean-boned, round, short *cBTcaaeda 
kindly-looking cattle, inclined to be firt 
(Cttlut, Obtenmtiont m Lite Stock, p. 26), 

I hig 

.. i was promoted major-general in \i 
oolonel-conunandant oi the royal (late £ 

in 1876 he withdrew &om public life. He 
retired to his seat in Somersetshire, and, 

after becoming general in 1877, died there on 
16 Dec 1881. Sir WilUam Erekine Baker's 

re have rendered Sir Charles Napier' 
conquest of real value, snd, according to 
Captain Burtcm, have made ' the desert 
flourish like the rose.' 

ingiiMering works in Scinds sm CapL Borton'l 
Sands, or ths Unhappy Valley.) E. H. 8. 

BAKEWELL, ROBERT (1726-1796), 
OTSxier, was bom at Dishley, otherwise Dix- 
fey, and Dishley Grange, near Loughborough, 
Leicestershire, in 17S6. His father, wbo had 
been bom at the same place, was a farmer, 
ranting a farm there of 440 acres ; and 
Robert Bakewell, having qualified himsell 
for experiments in husbandry and cattle- 
breeding by visiting farms in the west ol 
England and other parts of the country where 
Various modes of procedure prevailed, took 
charge of the farm on the failure of his father's 
healUi, ahout the year 1766, and succeeded to 
the entire management of it on hie father's 
death in 1760 (Qent. Mag. vol. Ixv. part ii 

E. 969, d70). He lumed at obtaining a 
tter breed of sheep and Men, believing 
' that you can get beasts to weigh where yon 
want them to weigh, i.e. in roasting pieces 
and not boiling pieces' (Yonjrs, Farmeri 

irithiu Uttle more than half 

value,' thougn 'their qualities i. __ 
were greatly lessened ' (Youatt, Ob OattU, 
p. ]92) ; and he produced a breed of black 
noraes, remarkable for their strength in har- 
ness on the farm, and (or their ntjlity in th» 
army. In this capacity of breeder, Bakewell, 
in his desire to obtain the 'barrel 'shape, was 
the first to carry on the trade of ram-letting 
on a large scale, and he established a clu^ 
the Dishley Society, for the expresa olgeet 
of insuring purity of breed. Amongst hia 
own stock, prices rose with so much rapidity 
that whereas in 1760 hia rams were hired for 
a few shiUingB the season, by 1770 they 
fetched 26 guineas, and a few years later 
stiU he mtae 3,000^ a year by their hire, 
deriving in one year from one pajticular ram, 
known as ' Two-pounder,' as much as 1,200 
guineas. Measurements of hia rams and ewes 
were taken in 1770, and pnblished ss remark- 
able examplea of careful breeding (NiOHou, 
ZeicetUrMtv, p. 769) ; a sketch of one of 
his sheep was taken by SchnebUie in 1790 
{ib. p. 763) ; and other aketches of his stock 
appear in Qarrard's ' British Cteen,' and in 
Youatt 'On Cattle,' p. 196. In 1786 Bake- 
well exhibited afiunousUack horse for some 
months in London; the king, George IH, 
had previously had it brought nefbre him br 
Bakewell in the courtyard of St. Jameaa 
Palace. Manjof the present humane notions 
regarding animals were anticipated by Bake- 
well, his stock being treated with marked 
kindness, his sfaeep being ' kept as clean as 
lace-horses, snd sometimes put into bodyi 
clothes ' (TEBosBr, Vietm in LeieettertUre, 
p. 411), snd even his bulls were remaikafala 
Mir obedience and docility. 

In Bakewell's experiments on feeding and 
housing stock he was as bold as in breeding. 
He stood first in the kingdom ' as an immjvar 
ofgrass-landby wat^ng'(HABaHAU,,£Hraf 
Eeoiu>mj/ qf Midland OMmtia, i. 284 et teg.) ; 
he flooded his meadows, making a canal of a 
mile and a quarter in length, and was able 
by means of irrigation to cut grass four times 
a year (Mokk's AgricuUvral Seport); ha 
had metiiodB, by double floors to his stalla, 
of collecting fann loAise and diluting it, in 





to obtain liquid muiure. 
at» Ua &nn iru Tiaited u a 

Ytj all rliiMf All wen akown tlis bgata 

in which lie cvried aoioe of hii CTop*; his 

whaif for these boats ; hii plan of conTBying 

hia tnmip* about the farm Id j water (in hia 

own woTda, ' We throw them in, and bid 

thein meet ua at the Bam End ') ; hia 

of cowa instead of oxen ; bis ccUection of 

skeletons of animals, and of 

mala (in pickle), to test wheie hraeda Taried 

in bone tuid fiesh; and, there being 

BBar at hand, hia Tiaitors were hospitahlv 

antertai])«d by him (Omt. M^. toL Ixiii. 

part ii. p. 792 rf sej.)- 

Bakewell died,anmaiTied, on 1 Oct. 1795, 
nged 70, and was buried at Biahley, where, 
bowerer, no mouiunent was erected to him 
(Nichoib). Hia nephew, Honef bourn, soo 
oaedcd to his farm, which maintained ita 
repntatiou for some yearn; but though the 
Baua and recoUection of the new Leicester- 
■hin cattle will never be lost, the breed itself 
has eompletelv passed VHty (Youatt, On 
CMtk, p. SOo), and the first expenses of 
Bakewell'a ezperimenta would appear to have 
exceeded his profita, for he was bankrupt in 
November 1776 {Oent. Moff. xlvi. fiSl). 

[Eniopflan MscaziQe, vol. xzrlii. ; Ghalmen'i 

and Dodst, ly tha aecntan to th« Board of 
Agrienltnn (Yoang), 1811 ; British Husbaiidi?, 
18S4 ; Humphry DKff's Lecturea, p. SSl.vhsre, 
lunraver, Davy is mistakinic Bakawsll for the mb- 
jaet of tiis anocMdiog article; Ammal Begistor, 
1771. FP- 104-10; Boyal Agiioaltnrsl Jonmal, 
ir. aaa, n. IT. Tiii. 3, rri. 323, xrii. *19, zxiii. 
78.] J. H. 

BAKEWEUL KOBERT (1768-1843), 
geologist, bimi in 1768, was not of the bunil; 
of the preceding Bobert Bakewell, to whom, 
howev er , he was known, and with whom he 
ha« Mmetimes hj error been identified. Be 
moorda that he was aaked by the Countess 
of Oxford 'whether he was related to the 
Hr. Bakewell who invented sheep ' (Intro- 
tkution to QtoUffjf, 6th edition, pp. 402 and 
408, note), and be replied that there was no 
wnnection between tnem. There is 

aee aa to his pa»nta|ge, though it is probable 
wna one of the BakeweUs of Nottingham, 
qnakers and wool-ataplen d that city {Ob- 
MreafwiHon IToo^ appendix, p. 133). Bake- 
wdl, aa a schoolboy, amused himself with the 
coBBtruction of teleacopea (Phil. Mag. xlv. 
S9B), and, bein^ placed amongst wools in his 
eariy lifb, submitted them to the microscope. 
He afterwards speculated as to the effects of 
wnl and food upon them, and published his 
•Obwrvations on Wool ' in 1808, at Wake- 

field, Yorkshire ; thenceforth he devoted hiuH 
self to acience. In 1810 he waa in commu- 
nication with Kirwan, and investigated the 
Cobalt Mine at Aldetlev Edge, Cheshire (see 
his Deacription, ftc, MoatJUjf Mag. for Feb. 
1811). From 1811 onwards he lectured on 
geol(^ all over the country, exhibiting sec- 
tions of rock formation and a geological map, 
the first then of its kind fjntrodnetion to 
Oeoi^, 6th edition. Preface, p. xii). In 1813 
he was engased in a controversy with John 
Fareyand otnera (PhiL Mag. xl.46,and xliL 
116andl21). In the same year be discovered 
a flue sceuite, in large b1ocks,whilst examining , 
Chamwood Forest (Gent. Mag. vol. Ixuiii, 
part i. p. 81) ; and bjs mineralogical surveys 
having takes him into Ireland, and up Cader 
Idris, and into every English county except 
one, Hampshire ( TraveU in tht Tarentaitt, 
i. 270), he brought out his ' Introduction to 
Oeology ' in 1813, making Its distiuguiehing 
feature the fact that he drew his illustrations 
from situations in our own island, aceessihie 
to his readers (Review in LoirDo^g Mag. qf 
Xat. Silt. i. S53 et teg.). This work was a 
great success ; it came from ■ a person whose 
name is undecorated with any appeudagte' 
(Preface to 2nd edition,p.xi),and there waa 
much novelty, at the tune, about all geo- 
logical investigation, the Chtological Society 
(ca which Bakewell never waa admitted a 
member)^ having only been formed late in 
1807. Bakew^ was ncontaged to esta- 
blish himself at 13 Tavistock Street, Bed- 
ford Square, aa geological instructor; and 
he continued his mineralogical surveys, in 
company with his pupils and alone, till he 
had again travelled 2,000 miles, when ha 
brought out a second edition of his work in 
1816. This was translated into German by 
Miiller at Fribuiv, and it was followed by an 
' Introduction to Mineralogy' in 1819. Mean- 
while Bakewell waa examining the coalfield 
at Bradford (7'rani. GeoL Stm. ii. 282); he 
was inventing a safety Aimace for preventing 
explosions in coal mines {Phil. Mag. 1. 211); 
and he was publishing his ' Obeervations on 
the (ieolagv of Northumberland and Durham ' 

Sffi. xlv. 81 tt leq.), and his ' Formation of 
luperficial Part of Globe' (ib. pp. 462-9), 
with some refutations of a chaige against 
him of plagiarism (tAjip. 210 and 297). Be- 
tween 1820 and 1822 ^keweU waa travelling 
in the Tsrentaise, the Graian and Pennine 
Alps, in Switxerland, and Auvergne ; and in 
1823 published his ' TrByels,' so described in 
the sub-title, in two volumes, with illustra- 
tions, some of which were by his wife. These 
'TiBvels,' undertaken for geolt^cal study, 
yet full of humour and personal detail, caused 
a theological attack upon Bakewell by Dr. 

, Google 



1^ Smith ( Vindicatim o/dtixeTu of Geneva 
from StatematU, &c., 1836). Continuing hi» 
ecientiflc inveBtiga.tionB, Bakewell pubhahed 
his 'Salt' {Phil. Hag. Ixiii. 86. reprinted in 
' SiUimftn'a American Journal/ x. J80) ; hia 
'Lava at Boulogne ' (PM. Mag. liiv. 414); 
his ' Thermal Wateis of the Alps' (». iii. 14, 
also reprinted in Silliman, zx, 219); hia 
■ Mantell'a Collection of Fosails' at I>Bwes 
(Mag. Nat. But. iii. 9) ; and a third edition 
of hu 'Oeology' in 1828, immediately re- 
printed in America. At that date Bakewell 
had aettled at Hampatead, where hia garden 
afforded him the opportunitT of -wTitmr on , 
the action of the ' PoUen of Plants' [Map. \ 
Nat. Hut. ii. 1), and where he preporsd the 
following scientific papers: 'Organic Life,' 
1831 (PM. Mag. iz. S3, appeanng also in 
Froriep's 'Notizen,' xjut. col. 134); 'Gold 
Mines in United States,' 1832 (Jtfoj. Nat. 
Sut. r. 434) ; and ' Foaail Elephants in Noi^ 
folk,' 183fi {ii. ix. 37). A fourth edition of 
the ' Oeolo^' was issued in 1838, which pro- 
voked a cnticism ftnm Professor Sedgwick 
(ffeoi Traju. iii. 472, 1836); it reached a 
fiah edition in 1838, and stiU has its readers 
and supporters of its theories. Bakewell died 
at Downshire Hill , Hampsteod, on 16 Aug. 
1843, aged 76 {Ajmual S^ter, 1843). 

A list of Bakewell'a fugitive producdons 
is in the ' Boyal Society's Catalogue of Sci- 
entific I'appra,' 1867, p. 166, but it is in- 
correct. 'Three of the articles enumerated, 
all three on ' Niagara/ are by one of the geo- 
logist's sons, also a Robert Bakewell. The 
error is curious, because the geologist himself 
introducee this son to the scientific world in 
1830, in the preface to the first of the three 
papers in question {Mag. Nat. Hut. iii. 117). 
Robert BaKewell the youi^r became a resi' 
dent at New Haven, America, whence be 
dated his second and third papers, 1847 
and 1867, Another of the geolo^st's sons, i 
Frederick C. Bakewell, wrote ' Philosophical 
Conversations,' 1833, and 'Natural Evidences 
of aFuture Life,' 1836, both of which passed 
through several editions. 

but that measnre and number, msignitude and 
multitude, quantity and quotitj, are two 
distinct speciea of one common genua.' 
[Algvbra, prefao^ ef. p. If.] F. Y. E. 

EALATINE, ALAN (Jl. 1660), is men- 
tioned by Edward Hall m the list of the 
English writers from whose works be com- 
piled his ' Chronicle.' Pits on this account 
classes him as on Englishman, but, according 
to Bempgter, be was of Scotch oriffin, and, 
after studying privately, went to Germany, 
where he completed big education, and alao 
taught in the gymnasiums. He wrotA ' Do 
Astrolabio,' ' De Terra Hensuro,' and ' Chro- 
nicon Universale.' Dempster states that be 
flourished about 1660, but as Hall's ' Chro- 
nicle' was published in 1642, Balatine must 
have written his ' Chronicon Universale ' at 
least twenty years before 1660. He died in 

[Kts, Da Anglia Sniptoribns, t>, S36 ; 
DsmpstflT's Hist. Eec Gaiit. SmL (1627), p. 100 ; 
Tannsr'a Bibl. Brit. p. 66.] 

1616), presbyterian divine, derives his suiv 
name originally &om lands in the parish of 
Strathmiglo, Fifeshire. It is nearly certun 
that Walter was of the 'ilk' of Balcanquhall, 
and that he was bom there — according to 
his age at death— in 1548 (cf. Sihbold's 'liat 
of the Heritors ' (1710) in Hittory c^ Hft, 
appendix No. 2). 

Our earliest notice of him is that he wae 
entered as ' minister of St. Giles, Edin- 
burgh,' on Whit Sunday 1574, when we learn 
that ' he was deajrit by other towns and 
large stipend promigt,' but ' yat he consented 

[, RICHARD (jt 1663), mathe- 
matician, was the author of ' Algebra, or the 
Doctrine of composing, inferring, and resolv- 
ing an Equation^ (1663). There seems to be 
nothing original in this work but a multitude 
of terms which have perished with their in- 
ventor. The following sentence may be worth 
quoting: 'It seems probable to me that 
quantity i« not the true genus of number 

'Diary' (p. 41, Wodrovi Sodety) aa 'ane 
honest, uprierht hearted young man, latlie 
enterit to that menestrie of Edinbrucbe' 
[Edinburgh]. He was elected to the chap> 
laincy of the Altar called Jesus, 20 Nov, 
1679. Having preached a memorable ser- 
mon, mainly diTected against the influence 
of the French at court, 7 Dec. 1680, he was 
called before the privy council on the 9th, 
and ' discharged.' He attended the Elarl of 
Morton while in prison under condemnation, 
2 June 1681. When James VI of Scotland 
devised his scheme of re-establishing 'the 
bishops ' in Scotland, he found BalcanqnhalL 
along with James Laweon, Robert Pont, and 
Andrew Melville, and their like-minded 
brethren, in active opposition. On the calling 
together of the estates of the realm in 168^ 

the king sent an imperative me 

magistrates of Edinbu^h 'to n 




{kiaon Kny of the nunisUm who should 
vote to Kpeak agunst the proceedings of the 
puiiament.' But Balcanquhall (along with 
Jamas Lawton) preached fnuIeMly agaJiut 
the proposals; and along with Font and 
others took his stand at me croes while the 
heralds proclaimed the sets passed bj the sub- 
■errieiit pttrliament, and publicly 'protested 
and took imtruroents ' in the name of the 
• kirk ' of Scotland sffslnst them. The sermon 
was deliTered on ^ Mav. A warrant was 
isaued, and Balcanquhall and Lawson fled 
to Berwick-tm-Tweed (Ublttllb, Diary, 
p. 119). 

The storm blew orer, though his hotue in 
Farliuneat Square was given to another in 
the intervaL On his return to Edinburgh, a 
bouae formerly occupied by Durie was given 
to him (1686). On 8 Jan. 16S6 he preached 
hebre uie kinff 'in the great kirk of Edin- 
hatgb ' [St. QiUel when the Bovereign ' after 
aennon lebuikit Mr. Walter publiclie &om 
his maX in the loaft [gallerTj and said he 
[the king] would prove there aould be 
oiahopa and afurituall magistrata endued 
with anthoritie over the minestrie ; and that 
ha [Balcanquhall] did not his dutie to con~ 
demn that which he had done in parliament ' 
(Mblvuxb, Diary, p. 491). In this year 
(1686^ he is found one of eie-ht to whom was 
comniitted the discjpline of Lothian bj the 
genaral aaaemUv. A larger house, which 
had been fbrmerlr oecuj^ed bj his colleague 
Wataon, was assigned to him 28 July 1&87, 
and hie stipend augmented. Ue was ap- 
pointed to attend t£e coronation of Queen 
Anne, 17 May 1590. For some years he seems 
to have been wholly occupied with his puliiit 
and pastoral work. In 1696, however, his 
bold ntterancee again brought him into con- 
flict with the sovereign; but a warrant having 
again been i8aned,agunhe esiaped — this time 
to Yoriiahire, after heiog'put to the hom'aa 
a fugitive. He appears to have been absent 
from December 1596 to April or May 1G97. 
In Hay 1597 he resigned his ' great cha^e ' 
of St. Giles in order to admit of new paro- 
chial divisions of the ojty. In July he waa 
permitted to return, and was chosen ' mi- 
nister ' of Trinity College Ohuroh, to which 
he was admitted 18 April 1598. He was 
the friend and companion of the Rev. Bobert 
Bruce, and bribes were tendered him in vain 
to nt him to ' fall away ' from Bruce. On 
lOSsot. leOO he was once more in difficul- 
ties^ having been called before the privy 
council for doubting the truth of the Gowrie 
eonspiraey. ' Transpcoted ' by the general 
assembly to some other parish, 16 May 1601, 
he was afterwards allowed to return to 
Trinity Coll^fe (19 June), and he was in the , 

general assembly of 1602. In conjunction 
with Robert Pont, he aguu took his stand 
at the cross, and jiublic^ protested in name 
of the ' kirk ' against the verdict of assise 
finding the brethren who met in general as- 
sembly at Aberdeen guilty of treason. I^ter, 
for condemning the proceedings of the gene- 
ral Bssemblyin ISlOhewas summoned before 
the privy council and admonished. He ceased 
preaching on 16 July 1616 from a disease in 
his teeth, and died 14 Aug. following, in the 
sixty-eighth year of his age and forty-third 
of his ministry. 

He married Margaret, a daughter of James 
Maijoribauka, merchant ; in right of whom 
he had become 'buigess and good brother' of 
the d^ (16 Feb. 1691). They had three 
sons, Widter [see BujctJivmuiLL, Walibb, 
1586 F-1645J, Robert, minister of Tranent, 
and Samuel, and a daughter RacheL 

6-6, Al; Brace's Ssrmoos ; Bolfonr't Bist<uical 
Works ; StBvens's Hsm. of H«riot ; Boke of tha 
Kirka; Craufard'BUpiv.of£dinbiii:gh; Murray's 
Life of BBthsrfoid.] A. S. G. 

(1686 P-1646), royalist, son of the Rev. 

Walter Balc»nquhall[q. v.], who steadfutlr 
opposed episcopacy, waa bom in !&jinbu^h. 
' about 1686 ' — the year of his father's ' re- 
buke' by King Jamas. Convinced, it has 
been alleged, by the arKUments in favour of 
bishops maintained by^ the sovereign, he pro-' 
ceeded to the university of Edinburgh with 

1 the 

England. In 1609 he graduated 
U.A. He oitarwards removed to Oxford, 
entering at Pembroke College. Hensssed 
B.D., and was admitted a fellow on 8 SepL 
1611. He was appointed one of the long's 
chaplains, and in 1617 he Toceived the 
mastership of the Savoy, London. In 1618 
James sent him to the synod of Dort. His 
letters from that famous synod, which were 
addressed to Sir Dudley Carleton, are pre- 
served in John Hales's ' Oolden Bemains,' 
Before proceeding to Dort the university of 
Oxford conferred upon him the d^ree of 
D.D. In March 1624 he obtained the deanery 
of Rochester, and in 1639 he was made 
dean of Durham. The ' Calendars of State 
Papers ' from 16S6 onward reveal him as a 
pushing suppliant for offices and diniitiee. 
On the death of the celebrated Oeoi^ Ueriot 
on 12 Feb. 1624, it was found that Belcan- 
quhall was one of the three executors of his 
will and was assigned the most responsible 
part in founding tha hospital which was to 
bear the royal jeweller's name. Balcanquhall 


ftnd a je«rla 

Balcarres »« Balchen 

<lrawuptheBUtDtwiiilffi}7,aadiliKhu:^ on tbo coMt of IreUnd ; but it mi fiiUy 
the yni^tj tniat impoaad on him witli ut- ei^teen tnontJu before he wu appointed to 
tenitr and abilitr. the Fiiebnnd foe the Irieh itation. In D*- 

InleSB he renaitad Ilia natiTe country, u eamber 1701 he wee turned orar to the Vtikan 
chaplain to the UHonu of Hamilton, tlie finehip, was attsclwd to the main fleet under 
toyil commiMJonsr. Baleanquliell van ao- Sir Q«orgo Itooiie on the coact of Spain, and 
euaed of ahiftineaa and txeachei? in hie oon- 
duct towarda ' the people,' who were con- 
tendiafT eaineitlj for their religioiu riKhta. 
Se waa the undoubted author of an apolo- 
getioal oarratiTe of the eonrt proceedinga 
under the title of 'Hie Hajeetie'a Lar^ 
Declaration ccmceming the Late Tnnoltt in 
Scotland ' (1638). On 29 July 1641 be and 
others of km with him ware denounced bj 
tlie Scottish parliament ae ' imwudiariea.' 
He was afterwards 'hairdly entreated* by 
the dominent puritan partv, and was one ot 
the ' aufierers celebrated by Walker in his 
'SuKrinn.' He retreated to Oifoid and 
ahared the waning fortune! of the king. 
B« died at Uhirk Gaatle, Denbighshire, on 
Chriatmaa day !dW. SirThomaa Hiddleton 
erected a 'apleodid monument' to him in 
the pariah church of Chirk. 

fDr. SterMis'a History of 0«m|s Hariot'a 
Eomilsl; Wood's Atbeiui [Bli«), iii. ISO, 83G,- 
iraUw's SofteiDK*, pt u. 19 ; Andenoa's Scot- 
tish NatiOD ; The two Sermons ol ISS* on Fnlm 
cuTi. S, and S. UatL zd. II.] A. B. Q. 

BAIiOABRXB, EiBU or [See hnm- 

MI AJ.UAXDBB, first ElBL, l618-16fi9; 

LUIMAI, CoLur, third Eabl, 16Hr-1722i 
Lmsur, AIiBXaitdbb, sixth Eul, 1763- 


BALCABBE8, Couttm o? (1631 F- 
1700 P). [See CuiranLL, Ami MiosBiniB.} 

BALOHEN, Sib JOHN (167U-1744), 
admiral, waa bom, according to local tradi- 
tion and an anonymous inaonption on hit 
picture, ' of Tery obecnre parentage, 4 Feb. 
1669-70, at Oodalming, m Surrey.' In a 
memorial to the admiralty, dated lH June 
16B9, he related of his early hiatory : ' I 
have aerred in the navy for fourteen years 
paat in several stations, and waa lie'itenant of 
the Dragon and Cambridfe almoat Sve years, 
then had the honour oi a commiaaion from 
Admiral Neville in the West Indies to com- 
mand the Virgin's priae, which beare data 
from 26 July 16B7, and waa confirmed by 
my lorda of the admiralty on our arrival in 
England. I continued in command of the 
Virgin till September 1698, then being paid 
off, and never at any time have committed 
■n^ misdemeanour which mi^ht ocoaaion my 
being called to a court martial, to be turned 
luspended.' He waa asking for the 
of the small ahipe employed 

a the Mod4r4 price of 
DO gun*. A. raw montha later, February 
1702-8, he waa appointed to the Adventure, 
44 guns, and contmued in her for the next 
two years, cminng in the North Sea and in 
the Channel, and lor the moat part between 
Yarmouth ud Portsmouth. On 19 Uarch 
1704-6 he waa tranaferred to the Cheater, 
and towards the end of the year was aent 
out to the Quinsa coast. Ha returned hrana 
the following aununer, and continued cruising 
in the Channel and on the Soundings, wbara, 
on 10 Oct 1707, he was one of a small 
aquadron which was captured or destroyed 
by a very Buperior Fronch force under Foroia 
' Dugiiav.^rronin. The Cheater was taken, 
a year later, 27 Sept 1708, when Balchen 
returned to England on parole, he waa 
tried by oonrt^nartisl and fiilly acquitted ; 
the dedaion of the court being that the 
Chester waa in her atation, and waa engaged 
by three of the enemy, who laid her on 
board, entered many men, and so forcibly got 
posseaaon of the ahip. He waa, however, 
not exchanged till the next year, when, in 
Angnct 171X1, he waa appointed to the Olou- 
ceater, a new ahip of 60 guns then fitting ai 
Deptford. On 8 Oct be had got her round 
to Spithead, and wrote that he would aul in 
a few daya; but ha had acarcely cleared the 

again captured. He was therefore again triad 
by court-martial for the lose of hia ahip 
(14 Dec. 1709), when it appeared from the 
evidence that the Olouceeter was enguad 
for above two hours with Duguay s own uip, 
the Lis, 74 guns, another firins at her at the 
same time, and three other snipe very near 
and i«ady to board her. She had her fbre- 
jard shot in two, ao that her head-eaila were 
rendered unserviceable, and had also received 
much damage in her other yards, maata, sails, 
and rii^iing. The court waa therefore of 
opinion that Captain Balchen and the other 
oiBoera and men had diacharKed their dutiea 
very well, snd fuUy acquitted them. It may 
be added that the Fiench sold the Olooeaeter 
to the Spaniards, and that for many man she 
was on the strength of the Spuush navy 
under the name of Oonquistadoc 


Balchen t 

Within « few montha ftfter Iiia Boquittal 
Btlchwi WM i^potnted to the Colt^Mtor, 
48aiiai, £ir(3unnelaer*io«. Hecon^aaa 
a Ger, botween Pntamonlli, Pljnoatli, and 
KJM*!*, lor OMxlj in yetn, ud in Febnt- 
■17 1714-18 ma baaafemdtotlwIHunmtdf 
40 gniu, for ft TOTAgo to die West Indiea and 

u pToriMoiis 

WtfCwbecouldntotliaacbmat Ja 

He came hmiie in H^ 1716, and iriiilat lying 
at tha NoM waiting for tfideniraa involved in 
aeuiiooa diffionltjrtrith a cnatom-liouM offiew 
wko deairad to laareh the aliip, bat would 
ahoir BO anthocitr and was exceedingly in- 
■olfflit. Balchen put him in iron* u an im- 
portor, tnt rdeaeea him on the neprae on tation 
ledoe ^ the fellow. Balchen waaaftamrdB 
called on for an oplanation, and wrote 
■onewbat lengthy and veiT amtuang account 
<rf the whole uEur, which began wiui a bowl 
ni pnncb on the quarCo^adc, roond which 
the captain, the maatar, the anraeon, the 
atnnger, and the ■tisu|er'i (riend sat and 
dnnk and qnairalled (QUeiidar 0/ Tmutay 
Jtaw»,23NoT. 171«), 

Imnkediately on paying off the Diamond 
Balchen was appmnted to the Orford ^uard- 
abip in the Hedway, and continued in her 
tillTebrnaiT 1717-1^ whenheconuniwioiied 
the ShrawBbiiry, 60 gnna, and in her accom- 
panied SirOeoige Byng to the Medit«TTanean. 
On aniving ra the atation, Vice-adminl 
Oiariea Cornwall, till then the ocanmandeT- 
in-Dhie^ pat hinuelf under ^ng'a ordeie, 
Iioiatod hia flag oa board the Sbewafauiy, 
and WM eecond in command in the battle ofi 
C^M I^aaaro, 81 ]ii^ (Balchbh'b Jottmal, 
Leg of the Bhiawabiuyi The Uuewabmy 
itttumed to England m December, and in the 
following Hay Balchen waa mwinted to the 
Monnurath, 70 giua, in which diip be accom- 
panied Admiral ^ John Norria to the Baltic 
nBdI7Sl. Between the yearairaS and 1736 
be commanded the Ipawich Duardahip at Spit- 
head, and in February 1726-6 was again 
appmntod to the Honmouth, and a^^n want 
for the then yearly cniiBe np the Baltic, in 
1726 with Sir Charlee Wager, and in 1727 
with Sir John Norria. He waa sflerwaida, 
in October 1727, aent out as part of a rein- 
forcement to Sir Cbarlea Wager at Oifaraltar, 
then bencsed by the Spanifrda, but came 
home in the following January, when the 
diapute had been arranged. On 19 July 1728 
he waa promoted to be rear«dminl, and in 
1731 went out to the Mediterranean as aecond 
in command under Sir Charlee Wager, with 
hia flag on board the Princeas AmeUa. It 

F Balchen 

was a diplomttieMgMnt nther than a naval 
expeditioB^ and toe fleet returned honu in 
December. In Febnuuy 1783-4 he waa ad- 
vanced to be vice-admiral, and omnmanded 
a aqnadron at Portsmonth for a few roontba. 
In 1740 he bad again command irf a aquadron 


■hipe, which, howBTer, eacaped by keepiug 
&r to the north, iMiriny Uehant, and then 
creeping to tbiB aouthweb in with the coMt 
of ^nwM, whilat the Engliah aqnadron waa 
innlriiig fm them broad off Gape flniatene. 
In Auguat 1743 Balchen waa promoted to btt 
admiral of the white. He commanded for a 
few montha at Hymoath ; but in the follow- 
ing April he waa appointed to be mvemorof 
Greenwich Hoepitaf, and waa knightod. The 
ap^intment waa conaideied aa anhonourable 
retiremuit trom the active list, and in addi-^ 
tion to ita emolumenta a peneion of 600^ a 
year on the ordinary estimato of the navy 
waa aettled on him during Me (18 April, 
A^mralt]/ Mtnute); but on 1 June he was 
restored to hia active rank ■■ edmiral of the 
white. A large fleet of atore-ahipa on their 
way to the Hediterranean waa blockaded in 
the Tagna by a powerfid FVench aquadron 
under uie Oount de Bochombeao. Balcben 
was ordered to relieve it, and, with hia flag* 
on board theVictOiy, Bailed fir<nn St, Helen^ 
on 38 July. Rochunbeau was unable to 
oppose a force auch aa Balchen commanded ; 
he drew back to Cadis, whilat Balchen con- 
red the atore-ahipe to Qibraltar, aaw them 
)ly through the atraita, and started on the 
return voyagCL In the chope of the Channel 
hia fleet waa caught in a violent etorm, on 
S Oct. ; the ahiw were dispersed, but, more 
or lees damase^ some dismasted, some leak- 
ing badly, all got into Plymouth or Spithead, 
with the exception of the Victory. She wae 
'sat seen in the early morning of 4 Oct., and 
lothing waa ever poaitively Imown as to her 
U», whether abe foundered at aea, or whether, 
a waa more eoumonly believed, she atntck 
n the Caaketa. Itwasaaid that during the 
night i^4-fi Oct. her gnna were heard by the 
lie of Aldemey, but even that wae doubt* 
Her maintop-meet was washed sahore 
the islaiid 01 Guernsey (Voyage* and 
Cruisa of Commodore Walker [1762, 12mo], 
p. 46). The admiral. Sir John Balchen, her 
captain, Samuel Faulknor, all ber officera 
and men, and an unuanal number of volnn- 
and cadeta, ' sons of the flrat nobility 
and gentry in the kingdom,' bung in all, it 
was estimated, more than eleven hundred 
souls, were lost in her. A gift of BOOL and 
a yearly pension of the same amount waa 
immediately (27 Nov.)aettled(« the admiral'a 



I. .Google 

Bald . 

iridow, Dame Susan Balchen, uid a monu- 
meut to hia memory was erected at the public 
cost in WeatminBter Abbey. His portrait, 
bf Sir Gtodfrej Ejieller, and bearing the in- 
BcripliDii above refened to, is in the Painted 
HaJiAt Oreenwich. He had one eon, George, 
a captain in the navy, who died in command 
of the Pembroke in the West Indies, in 
December 1746. 

[Offidal Lctten and other Soetunenta in the 
FobUe Bscoid Office; Chamock'B account (Biog. 
Nat. iii. Ififi), more especitiUy of the sarlj part 
of Balchen'B caraar, ia veij imperfect and inao- 
Cnrate ; Lediard's Naval SlMUirj (onder data},] 
J. K.L. 

BALD, ALEXANDER (1788-1859), 
poeticat writer, was faom at Alios, 9 June 
1783. His fslJieT was for a long time en- 
gaged in Huperintending coal works in the 
neighbourhood, and was the author of the 
'Con Dealer's Assistant,' for maaj jeare 
ao indispenaable book for tensnt-lannerB 
ia Scotland. A brother, Robert, attained 
some eminence as an engiaeer. Alexander 
was from an early age trained for commerce, 
and for more than fifty years conducted 
busineea at Alloa as a timber-merchant and 
bricjt-m&nidacturer. Throughout his life he 
deleted much of his leisure to Uterature, and 
was the friend and ^tron of many literary 
men in Scotland. Be was among the first 
to acknowledge ^e merits of the poems of 
Junes Hogg, the Ettrick Shemherd, and paid 
hima visit manyjears before ha had obtamed 
general recognition as a poet. He established 
ft Shakespeare Association in his native town, 
mnd at its annual celebrations secured the 
preMoce of eminent men of letters. To the 
' Scots Magazine,' at the beginning of this 
century. Baud was a regular poetictu contri- 
butor } but his poems show a very thin vein 
of poetical sentiment. One of them, ' The 
Lily of the Vale,' has been erroneously at- 
tributed to Allan Ramaay. Bald died at 
the age of 76, at Alloa, in 1669. 

[R'^rs'a Century of Scottish Life, p. 217; 
Btwera's Modem Sootiiah Uinstielsy, t. 84.] 
8. L. L. 

BALDOOK, RALPH db (d. 1818), 
Ushop of London and lord chanoellfflr, whose 
early history is unknown, first appean in 1271 
■s h<dding the prebend al stall of Holbom, m 
which Robert Bumel, Edward Fs g^^ chan- 
cellor, had preceded him. This disposes of 
Godwin's assertion that he was educated 
at Metton College, Oxford, which was 

the highest pieferment in his diocese. JaVilS 

e wrote a history of Eng- 


he was collated to the archdeaconry of Hiddla- 
; becamedeanof St.Paul'Bin 1294; and 

elected bishop ofLondon in 1304. Thrae> 

canons, who had ceen deprived br the arch- 
bishop during the vacancy of tne see, ap- 
pealed to the pope to declare the election. 
vwd owing to their exclusion, but the bishop- 
elaot won his cause at Rome, and was conse- 
crated at Lyons in 1S09. Though he doe» 
not appeu to have spent his life at court or 
in tlie ministerial rmoea, he attracted the 
attention of Edward I, who nominaled him 
lord chanceUor iu April 1307. The king's, 
death followed in July, and Baldock was at 
once removed by Edward U at the instiga- 
tion of the favourite Gaveston. His position 
and character marked him out as one of the 
ordainers forced by the parliament of 1810 
on the king for the better regulation of his 
household. But he took little part in public- 
aSurs, preferriiiB' the duties 
a churchman- He wrote a history 
land, and collect«d the statutes and 
of St. Paul's, works which existed in the 
sixteenth century, but are now lost. St. 
Paul's Cathedral was at this time being re-' 
built and enlarged, and its new ladjr chapel 
was built by Baldock. He began it whde 
he was yet dean, continued it as bishop, be- 
queathed money for its completion, and in 
it he was buiied, after his death in 1913, 
' under a goodly marble, wherein his por- 
traiture in DrsSB was curiously represented.' 
[Wliarton'a Hist, de Epiac. Lend. pp. lOS-12; 
Godwin de PraenL ; Neweonrfa Bfpertorinm ; 
Bot FaL et Fin. temp. Ed. I; Foss'a Judges of 
" ■ ■ iiL iKt-i.] H. A. T. 

BALDOCK, ROBERT sa (d. 1327), 
lord chancellor, firat appears in the record 
as obtaining a grant of the royal rights over 
a manor in Surrey in 1287. As be held a 
stall in St. Paul's whilst his namesake [see 
Baumhx, Ralph de] was yet bishop of I>on- 
don, it may be inferred that they were related. 
Admitted to the prebend of Holy well in 1312, 
he obtained the archdeaconry of Middlesex 
two years later. But bis attention was fixed 
on the court rather than on the church, which 
was looked upon by many clever adventureie 
at this time as a mere stepping-stone to 
ministerial greatness. Most of them, reading 
the signs of the times, were opposed to the 
government of Edward It. Baldock, on the 
contrary, was blinded to future dangers by 
the prospect of immediate aggrandisement. 
Soon after he became archdeacon he was 
permanently employed about the court, and 
grew wealthy by the gitt of pluralities. Yet 
he never succeeded in obtaining a bishopric. 
In 1322, that of Winchester lidling vacut, 

,y Google 

Baldock ■» 

Edwud n bade his igent at tlie papal oourt 
demand it for Baldock, but the aosut securad 
the papttl nomination for biniMEf^ and three 
yraxa later, in the caseof Norwich, the king's 
candidate wai hftia thwarted by the pope's 
favourite, WiUiam de Ajreminne [q. t.]. 
Hinisterul offices were more at the king's 
disposal, and in 1S30 he made Bald<w1[ 
his privy seal ; in 1323 he was one of the 
negotiators of a thirteen years' truce with 
Scotland; and soon after his return from 
the north he obtained the lord chancellor- 
ship. Together with the De Spencers he 
now exercised the greatest power and in- 
«nrred the fiercest hate. Their position was 
critical The queen sought to use the popu- 
lar feeling to eet rid of a husband who neg- 
lected her, and of ministers whom she could 
not controL The French kioK seiied this 
moment of weakness to demana the personal 
homage of Edward for his foreign posses- 
aions. Tbo ministera dared not let Edward 
go, yet dared not auger Charles, and, failing 
to bribe the French envovs to conceal the 
object of their mission, they hit upon the 
fatal policy of letting the queen and her 
•on cross over and satisfy the French king. 
Having gathered a force abroad, she returned 
in 1326 to find the people ready to assist her 
in overthrowing the government. She pro- 
claimed the De Spencers and Baldock ene- 
mies of the realm. As they fled westward 
with the king, the Londoners wrecked their 
houses. At Bristol the elder De Spencer 
was taken and beheaded, the hiding-plsce of 
the other fugitives in Wales was revested by 
a sufficient bribe, Edwardwos forced to ab- 
dicate, and the 
his father's fate. 
cqnsllT demred by the victorious party, but 
his orders protected him from a legal execu- 
tion. He was handed over to Bishop Orlton 
of Hereford [see As&K OF Obltos], a minis- 
terial diUTchman more able and more un- 
scrupulous than himself. In February 1827 
he was confined in this bishop's house in 
London, and the mob was allowed, or even 
incited, to break in and drag the prisoner with 
Tiolmce and crnelty to New^te, where he 
shortly afterwards died ot his iH-treotment. 
[Ommielfs of Adam of Mnrimuth, Trakslowe, 
■nd Watsinghan, Soils Serits ; Bot. Clans, et 
Fat. temp. Ed. U ; JTswamrt's Jlepartarinm, 
B. 78 ; Fosa's Jndgea of England, ii. 222-fi.] 
H. AT. 

BAIJ>OCK, Sib ROBERT (if. 1891), 

£' idge, son and heir of Samuel Baldock of 
tanway, in Essex, bore the same arms i 
Robert de Baldock [q. vj, lord choncelli 
ia Edwird Il'a reign. Entering as a sti 


dent at Gray's Inn in 1S44, he wa* called 
to the bar IS 1661. There appears to b« 
no contemporarv allusion to his early pro- 
fessional career beyond Roger North's men- 
*■■' — of him in connection with a ' fraudulent 

conveyance manaoed by Sir Robert Baldock 
and Femberton,' tne chief justice, which he 
thinks ' Baldock had wit and will enough to 
do' (Nobth'b Life of Lord QuHford, 223). 
In 1671 he was recover of Great Yarmouth, 
and was knighted on the king's visit to that 
town. In 16/7 he took the degree of Serjeant, 
and was autumn reader to his inn of court; 
and on the accession of James U he became 
one of the king's seijeants. The only even* 
of any importance in which he is known to 
have taken a part was the trial of the seven 
bishops, in which he was one of the counsel 
for the king. His principal argument, in a 
tedious irrelevant speech, ts that the resaona 

E'ven by the bishops for not obeying the 
ng are libellous, inasmuch as 'they say 
they cannot in honour, conscience, or pru- 
dence do it ; which ia a reflection upon the 
prudence, justice, and honour of the king in 
commanding them to do such a thing' iStata 
Trials, lii. 419). 

This argument seem* to have commended 
him so strongly to the king that within a 
week he was promoted to a seat in the 
King's Bench, two of the judges, Sir John 
Powell and Judge Holloway, being removed 
in consequence of having expressed opinions 
in favour of the accused bishois (Sis J. 
Bkamston's AuMiiograpky, 811). 'The re- 
volution which took place before the be- 
ginning of next term drove the new judge 
&om the bench before he had time to render 
himself liable to the condemnation which in 
the next reign fell on so many of his fellow 
judges, of whom no less thui six were ex- 
cepted &om the act of indemnity in conse- 
quence of their assistance to James II in his 
vi. 178). 

The remaining three years of Sir Robert's 
life were spent in obscurity. He died on 
4 Oct. 1691, and was buried at Hockhuu in 
Norfolk, in the parish church of which is a 
monument erected by him to his only son, 
Robert, who was killed in a naval battle in 
1678. His first wife was Mary, the daughter 
ofBacqueville Bacon (third son of Sirfiicholas 
of RedCTaveJ, and one of the three co-heir- 
esses other brother Henry, who was lord of 
the manor of OreatHockham. Shehavingdied 
in 1662, he married again, but the name of 
hie second wife is not known (BLoJiBnEU)'! 
Winjbtt, i, 312, 314). 

[Foas's Judges of Engbud, and works dtid 
abova. j ft, V, Jl. 

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•ftint, was s NorUiunibhui anchonte of the 
sixth centnn, the detuls of whow life an 
entirel J mythicaL Albui Butler givei 608 u 
the date of hia death. He ia eaid t« bftve been 

Lothian. Baldred mw one of the island si 
more common in Celtic than in English hagio- 
log^. His faTonrite place of retirement waa 
the Basi Rock in the Firth of Forth. The 
special ncenea of his teaching and miraclee 
•re reputed to be the three Tillagei of Ald- 
hame, Tjningham, and Picetonne ; and when 
<m his death the three churches importuned 
for his body, they found that Providence had 
■applied each place with a corpse of the holj 
man. Baldied^EMSt-dayiseMorch. Another 
Baldred, or Baltherus, who was a henut 
of Durham, flourished about a centuTy later, 
and aft«r such miracles as walking on the 
■ea died in 766. Mr. Skene connects the two 
Baltheres together, and regards the lat«r as 
the light date of the saint's dnth. 

[Acta Sanetomm Ord. Benedic Uaich ; 
Forbaa's Ealeodar of Soottiah Sointai I>ietionaiT 
of Christian Biogiafdij; Skana's Coltie Scotlaad, 
iii. 228.] T. F. T. 

BALDBED (JL 8S3-8SK), king of Kent, 
during the dissensions which weakened 
Hercia aft«r the death of Cenwulf, en- 
deavoured to nutke Kent independent of that 
kingdom. He seems to have been on good 
terms with Archbishop Wulfred, who was a 
Kentishman, and who had himself carried on 
a lon^ dispute with the Mercian kiiif about 
the rights of his church. Beldred's Icingdom 
fell before Ecgbeiiit. He was chased from 
Kent br a WesO^axon anny led by jfithel- 
wuU^ the king's son, Ealhstan, the Whop of 
SheriKme, and the ealdorman Wulfheaid, 
uid fled ' northwards over the Thames.' At 
the moment of his flight he granted Hailing 
to Christ Church, Canterbury, in the hope, 
it may be, of prevaiUng on the archbishop to 
espouse his cause. After his deposition Kent 
was held as a sub-kingdom by nthelings of 
the West-Saxon house, until it was finally 
incoiporated with the rest of the tontfaem 
kingdoni on the accession of ^thelberht to 
the throne of Wesaex. 

[ADglo-Suioa Chnm. sub an. 823 ; Ksmble's 
Codes Kpl. ceil. ; HaddMi aad8tubbB,CoQDciU, 
&c, iii. 6S7; Stebba, Owst. Hist. i. 190 ■., 
SSfi.] W. H. 

1828), engraver and draftsman, practised both 
in London and Cambridge between 1780 and 
1810, working both ia the chalk and dot 


in colonrs. He exhibited portraits 
Royal Academy in 17P3 and 1794. Among 
his beet works are : 'The Finding of Hoses,' 
after Salvator Rosa, 178fi; 'Diana in a 
Landscape/ after Carlo Uatatti ; ' I^y Raw^ 
don,'after Reynolds, 178Sj and some aul^ects 
aft«r Penny and Bunbury. His chief work, 
however, is from the east window of King's 
College Chapel, Cambridge, which he drew 
and engraved, and then finished highly in 
colours. He published 'A Dissertation on 
the Windows of King's Collc^ Cb^el, Gam- 
bridge ' (Camb, 1818, 8vo), fiom which it 
^p«an he was engaged on an engravii^ oC 
one of the aoath windows. Ha died in indi* 

6 Dec. less, leaving a targe & 

[CoaMF'sAmialsofCsmbRdse,iv.SS9; Red- 
grave's Diet of AidsU (1878).] T. C, 

BALDHOKIE, Loss (d. 1008), Scottish 
judge. [See LrOK, an Tbomab.] 

BALDWIN (d. 1008), abbot and phy- 
aan, waa a mcmk of St. Denys, and waa 
made prior of the monastery of Uberau, 
a cell of St Denys, in Alsace. When Ed- 
ward the Confessor refounded the monastery 
of Deerhnnt and gave it to St. Denys, Bald- 
—"1 waa appointed prior of this new poe- 
lion of his house. He was well aldiled 
medicine, and became the king's phy- 
sidau. On the death of Leo&tan, ubot 
□f St. Edmund's, in 1066, Edward caused 
^e monka to elect Baldwin as his sooceseor, 
abbot received the benedictiim at 
, in the preaenoe of the king, from 
the Archbishop of Canterbury, for his house 
claimed to be exempt from the jnrisiUction of 
the bishop of Elmnam, in whose diocese it 
lay. Hie king fitrtber showed his ttfcud fi» 
the new abbot by granting him the privilege 
of a mint. Baldwin became one of the phy- 
sicians of the Conqueror, and his skill maae 
him a favourite with the king, who enriched 
his house with orants of land. He had OC- 
lion to exert his influence with the king 
the utmost, for Herfast, who was mods 
bishop of Elmham in 1070, contemplated the 
removal of hia see to St, Edmund s, and as- 
serted his authority over the abb^, Bald- 
win rejected hia claim, and obtsinedleave from 
the king to conault the pope. He journeyed 
to Rome in 1071, taking with him some of 
the relics of St. Edmund, and accompanied 
bv the prior and chaplain of his house, both 
Englishmen. At St. Edmund's, unlike some 
other monasteries, the French abbot lived on 
friendly terms with hisEn^lishmonks. Alex- 
■ader II raoMved Baldwin graciously. Ha 

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mduiied him prieat with hii own huidi, iti- 
TcMed him with the ring and itaff, and sent 
Um home with a privilege which (xmfinned the 
otemption of hia honae. Althoush Lanfraiio 
was a monk ho was an archtneniip, and ha 
w«« therafora opposed to the clums of exemp- 
ticn from ^iacopal juisdiction, which were 
mada hymanjmMusterias. Aecoidiiiglj be 
. did not intenera to check the attempta of 
Hnfut againtf St. Edmimd'a. In apite of 
the p^al piinlege, Eer&st reoewed theae 
attempU, aad offer^ to ^Ts the king a luge 
mm 01 money if he would allow the eaae to 
be triad. Hearing that the pnTilege of his 
predeceaaoT was thna disre^oded, Gregorj 
Vll mota a letter to LanAano in 107^ re- 
prnarhing him for hii ranievneea in the mat- 
ter, ehu^mg him to leatiain Herbat from any 
ftuilMr attan^ta againat the liberty of th- 
aUwy, and waning the king not to yield b 
the peisnaBona of uw biahop. A tamporar 

acted aa phyncian to the noblea, as well aa 

Tietory ia aMd to haTe been emnl . . . 

win Irj the interpoaition of St. Edmnnd. Aa 

a riding tl 

pieroed one of liii eyea. 

throng a 

rea. The 

wood a thorn 

^ ir of kaiug his sight alto^her. In his 
pain and misery he was advued to aitreat 
the abbot, whom be had injaied,to enrehim. 
He acc^ted the advice and went to St. Ed^- 
mnnd's. Baldwin mw liia opportunity, and 
took caie to obtain his fee before he took the 
case in band. He held a chapter, to which 
he invited certain great men who happened 
to be in the neighbourhood, and caused the 
« his claim before the whole 

win bwan to treat liis eyea, and in a short 
time effected their cure. Before long, how- 
em, the iHshop renewed his attempts. Lan- 
fianc, hj command of the king, held a great 

eeeding* i 

fashion. The men of nine shires heard tlie 
pleadings, and their voices declared that the 
abbot's claim waa good. The biahop suo- 
eaedad in eanying the case to the mng'a 
Mart where, in lOBl, it was heard before all 
the mef men of England. Baldwin pnt the 
chartara of his house m evidenoe, and pleaded 

had reemved the benediction from the lushop. 
libs court decided in his favour, and the king 
iasned a chartar confirming to the abbey the 
axonption granted by his pivdecessors. 

Baldwin^ medical skill onni^t him many 
patients, soma evoi from Normandy. He was 
Mnd and bos^table to all who came to him. 
Aa phyncian to the court ha followed the 
king to Norman^. While there he was 
often Buds the beaier of n^ naeiagea, tad 

William, he 

C"«d down tile church of his abbey, wliich 
□nl;^ been flniahed in 1032, and built 
another in ita place after a more splendid 
fashion. Of this church William ofHalmea- 
bury decUred that there was none to cmn- 
pare with it in England for beau^ and aiae, 
Baldwin's church Eved on until the dissolu- 
tion. The stately tower leading into the 
abbey yard, on a Ime with the west front of 
the <muich, which now serves as the tower 
of the church of St James, is doubtleea paxt 
of his work. The building was finished in 
lOM, and the abbot obtained leaTe from Wil- 
liam RufuB for its consecration and for the 
translation of the body of the saint. Before 
long, however, the lang capriciously with- 
drew his license for the consecration. A 
report was set abroad that the body of St. 
Edmund was not really in the poeseasion of 
the abbey, and it was sumeeted that the kin^ 
should aeita the aob won of the shrius ana 
apply diB profits to the payment of his mer- 
cenaries. It chanced that while such thinga 
were being said Walkelin, bishop of Winchea- 
ter, and Ranul^ the king's chaplain, afUr- 
warda Uahop of Durham, came to the town 
of St. Edmund on the kin^s business. 
Baldwin took advantage of their visit to ar- 
range a solemn translation. In spite of the 
oppoeition of Bishop Herbert of Losing, the 
successor of Herfsst, the ceremony was per- 
formed with great splendour in the preaeuee 
of the biahop of Wint^ester on 29 April 
1096. Baldwin, according to Florence of 
Woreeater, died ' in a good old age ' in 1097. 
According to the ' Annals ' of his house his 
death dio not take place until the next year. 
[Annatta 8, Edmundi, flsremaoni Uir. S. Ead- 
mundi, in Ungiedraekta ADglo-Normanniache 
Oeachichtaqucllen, sd. Liebsmaim ; Jaffil's 
MononuititaQreg, 49, 60 1 Epp.lATifr..ed. Oilca, 
20. 23, S3, 2S 1 Spp. Auielm., Migne, ii. 1 ; 
Will Malmeab. de Oratia Fontif. t). ; Flor. Wig. 
1 097; Dngdale's Momist. iii. W; Freeman^s 
WiUiam Sufus, ii. 267.] W. H. 

BAXSWIN' 07 HoKL» (d. 1100 P) wu 
the second son of Oilbert, count of En, who 
was a grandson of Bichard tiie Fearless, 
and one of the guardians of the youth of 
William the Conqueror. On the murder of 
bis &ther in 1040 Baldwin and his elder 
brother Kichard, the ancsator of the house of 
Glare, were taken by their guardian to the 
court of Flanders for refuge. At the request 
of Baldwin of Flanders, Duke William, when 
he married Matilda, gave Baldwin, Uie son 
(^ Gilbcot, the hadshipa of Hoelet and Sap^ 




and married him to Albredn, tim d»Qriit«r of 
his Mint. Baldwin wM giwtlj; enriSied by 
the conquest of England. Besides lands in 
Somerset and Dorset, he Had no leu than 159 
eitatM in the county of Devon, vhere he held 
the office of sheriff. On the fall of Exeter, 
in 106B, the king left tiini to keep the city, 
•nd to complete the boildiiig of the castle. 
By hia wife Albreda, Baldwin had three aous 
— Richard, who was made earl of Devon by 
Henry I [see BitDWiM or Rbdvbbs], Robert, 
the hird of Brionne, and William ; and three 
danght«n. He had also a natural ton, Guiger, 
who became a monk of Bee A Norman 
pneat ia 1101 beheld in a viuoa Baldwin 
and his brother, who had both died ahortly 
before, clad in full armour. 

[WilL of Jnmi^na, viii. ST ; Oideric, SS7, SS4, 

T. !77.] W. H. 

BALDWIN' (d. 1190), archhithop of 
Oanteiburr, wu bom at Exeter of jtoor 
paienta. He receiTed an excellent education, 
both in secular and reli^ous learning, and 
bore a high character. He took orders, and 
was made archdeacon by Bartholomew, 
bishop of £xet«r. Monastic in his tastes, 
Baldwin disliked the state and busioeas which 
surrounded him as an archdeacon. He re- 
eiffned hie office, and became a monk of the 
Cistercian abbey of Ford in Devonshire, 
fie entered on bis new life with ardour, and 
within a year was made abbot. His literary 
work was done either wholly, or at least for 
the most part, while he held that office. In 
1180 he was made bishop of Worcester. 
While Heniy tl was at Worcester in 1184, 
a man of gbod &mily, named Gilbert of 
Flumpton, was tried for forcibly carrying off 
an heiress, and was condemned to death. It 
was generally believed that many of the 
chargea brought a^^ainst Gilbert were false, 
and were included in the indictment to secure 
his condemnation. Baldwin was strongly 
urged to interfere to save him. He deter- 
mined to do so, but was only just in time. 
The rope was actually round Gilbert's neck, 
when the bishop galloped up and called to 
the executioners to loose him, saying that 
their work might not be done on that day, 
for it was Sunday and a isstival. A pardon 
was afterwards obtained from the king. The 
incident illustrates the bishop's character, 
which was at once wavering snd impulsive. 
Baldwin was elected archbishop in the same 
year. His election was disputed; for the 
monks of Christ Church chose the abbot of 
Battle, while the bishops of the province 
chose Baldwin. The monks refused 
in the choice of the bishops, sad 

elect Theobald, cardinal-bishop of Ostia. Th» 
king interfered, and after some difficulty peiv 
suaded the monks to choose the bishop of 
Worcester, on the express condidon that ths 
claim of the bishops to elect should be dis- 
allowed. It was probsblv during the course 
of this dispute that Baldwin was employed 
W the king in a n^^iation with Rhys ap 
Grofiydd, (irince of South Wales. The new 
archbishop is described by his friend, Giraldua 
Cambiensis, as a gloomy and nervDua man, 
gentle, guileless, and slow to wrath, vei7 
learned and religious. This character, a* 
Dr.Stubbsbasshown(j^)p. Cfantuor.flntrod., 
Rolls Series), is perhaps not inconsistent with 
'the errors of temper, harshness, arhitrarr 
severitv, and want of tact ' which he mani- 
fested in the long dispute with his convent; 
for he was weak of purpose and of an im- 

Sulaive nature. His refigious character is 
lustrated by the saying that, of the three 
archbishops, ' when 'Thomas came to town, 
the first place to which he went was the 
court, with Richard it was the fa iin. with 
B^win the church.' Pope Urban III, who 
was his enemy, addressed nim in a letter as 
' the most fervent monk, the lealous abbot, the 
lukewarm bishop, the careless archbishop.' 
As a simple monk Baldwin was fervent in 
spirit, and when he was invested with autho- 
rity 1^ did not exercise it negligently, but in 
a way which vras unwelcome to the pope. 

The privileges grant«d by thepredecessors 
of Baldwin made the monks of .Christ Church 
mactically independent of the archbishop. 
Fresh dignity was conferred upon their con- 
vent by the martyrdom of St. Thomas. Over 
the la^ revenues of their church its titular 
ruler had no control. His claim on their 
obedience was disregarded, and he was looked 
upon by the chapter either as the instrument 
of their will, or as a stranger whose intereste 
were different &om their own. The houae waft 
no mere monastic foundation. The monks, 
as the congregation of the metropolitaa 
church, cast off the bondage of monastic die- 
oipline. Princely hospit^ity and luzuriouft 
living reigned within the monastery. Trains 
of servante waited on the brethren and coB' 
sumed the revenues of the house. Whil» 
the archbishop had scanty means of reward- 
ing his clerks and officers, he saw the com- 
munity of which he was the nominal head 
lavish expenses. The ind&- 

gusted him as a Cistercian. When be '« 
received by the monks, he expressed a hope 
that he and they would be one ' in the Lord.' 
His course of action was not such as was 
likely to promote unity. He determined to 

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nise k grett collegiaM church, in which he ' 
nigfat immde for men of leunum such u 
hi* iwpbew, Joseph the poet. The monki 
believed ituX he intended to anpersede their 
honae. Of the fuaout ({^luurel which ftro«e 
on thia matter a fiill and mtereating account 
Iiaa been given b; Br. Stubbe in his intro- 
duction to the volume of Oanterburjr letters, 
which reoord each stage in the proceedingB. 
A 7«ar after his enthronement Baldwin eeuied 
oeiUin ofiering* (xmia) pud to the convent. 
He decided on huilding a college for Kculu 
priMta at Hakington, about haff a mile frt»n 
C^tsrburr. Tlie monka ai^ealed to Rome, 
•od bc^ed the kings of England and France 
to uphold their cause. Before long most of 
the princes, cardinals, tuahope, and great 
m<Hiaateriee of weetam Europe took one aide 
or the nther in the quarrel. The archbishop 
was upheld br Henir. Ha suspended the 
^ipellant mous, and refused to obej tho 
pftpal orders comnuuding ^™ to restore the 
pnor, to disoontinuB bis building, snd to give 
up the property of the convent. When the 
pom issued a second mandate, Banulf OUn- 
vm, tiw iosticiai, forbade ita execution. On 
the Aattk of Urban the Iodk openly adopted 
die cause of Baldwin. In 116B two monka 
were sent to the archbishop, who had just 
coiBA to England 6mn Normandy to offer 
him the nanu welcome on hia return. With- 
•nt admittinff them to hia preaencB he ez- 
eommnnicated them and seixed their horses, 
^le convent stopped the servicea of the 
ehiudt, and sent letters to Henry the Lion 
and Philip of Flanders, asking their help. 
On the other hand, Henry wrote to INipe 

week*. On the death of Henry 
tried to e&ct a recondlistioo. He faLleA, 
•ad bn^ out into violent threats agtunst 
the mbpiioT. In order to reduce the con- 
vent to snbroisaion, he nipointed to succeed 
the prior, who had diea abroad, one Boger 
Nonvra, who was wholly unfit for ibe posL 
King Bicbard visited Canterbury in Novem- 
ber 1169, and effoeted a compromise of the 
Baldwin gave up his college at 

„ on, and deposed his new prior. On 

the other hand it was declared that the 
•Mlibisbop had a right to build a church 
where he liked, and to appoint the prior of 
the convent, and the monks made submission 
to him. Ta virtue of this agreement he ao- 
qnired by exchange from the church of 
Kocfaester twentv-lonr acres of the demesne 
of the manor of Lambeth, and there laid the 
foundation of a new college. 



Meanwhile, in 1187, Baldwin made a leg*- 
tine visitation in Wales, a part of their pro- 
vince which none of the archbishops of Can- 
terburv had yet visited. Thetidings having 
arrived of the loss of Jerusalem and or the holy 
cross, Henry II lield a great council at Qw- 
dington for the purposes of a crusade. There, 
11 Feb, 118S, Baldwin took the cross, and 
preached for the cause with great effect. In 
the Lent of tliat vear the arcnbishop, accom- 
panied by Ranuli Qlanvlll and by Oiraldua, 
the archdeacon of St David's, made a tour 
through Wales, preaching the crusadb En- 
tering Wales by Herefora, he spent about * 
month in the southern and a week in the 
northern principality. At Radnor the cru- 
sading party was joined by Rh^ *p Gru%dd 
and other noble Welshmen. The archbishop 
made this progress a means of asserting his 
metropolitan authority in Wales, for he per- 
formed mass in each of the cathedral churches 
'as a mark of a kind of investiture' {Itia. 
Katnb. ii. 1 ; see also Intnd. by Mr. Dimock 
to Oiraldua Cambrensia, vi., ILS.). Vast 
crowds of Welshmen took the croaa. A his- 
tory of the expedition was written by OinJ- 
duB. The crusade waa delayed by the quarrel 
of Biehard with his father. Soon after his 
Tetnm from Wales Baldwin was sent by tho 
king to pacify Phili^p of France, but waa un- 
successful in hia mission. He was with tho 
king duriiw his last illness. Heseemstohave 
had consiiMrable influence with Henry. In 
1165 he prevailed on him to release hisqneen. 
He now strongly exhorted him to confession. 
He forbade the marriafe of John with the 
heiress of the Earl of Olouceeter on the 
ground of their kinship, but his prohibition 
was disr^arded. In 1169 he officiated at the 
coronation of Richard, and attended the coun- 
eil which the Ung held at Pipewell in that 

Cr. At thia council Oeofiiey, the king's 
ther, waa appointed to the archbiahoprio 
of York. Baldwin asserted the rights of hia 
see bv claiming that the new archbishop 
should not receive ordination irom any one 
save &om himself, and ^ipealed to the pope 
to uphold his claim. 

In March 1190 Baldwin set outon thecrn- 
eade in company with Hubert^bishop of 
Salisbury, and Banulf Glanvill. They partod 
with the king at Marseilles, as they went 
straight on to the Holy Land. They arrived 
at T^ on 16 Sept, and at Acre on IS Oct. 
Bnnng the illness of the patriarch, Baldwin, 
as hia vicM^rent, opposed the adulteroua 
marriage of Isabel, the heiress of the king- 
dom, the wife of Henfrid of Turon, and Con- 
rad, the marquis of Hontferrat, and excom- 
municated tee contracting and assenting 
. parties. The crusading army made an attack. 

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triarch, absolved and ble&aed the host. Nor 
TU he wanting in more active duties. He 
sent to battle two hundred knights and three 
hundred attendants who were in his pay, with 
the banner of his predecessor, BC. Thomas, 
borne on hitfh before them ; while he, in 
eompaDy with Frederick of Swabia and Theo- 
bald of Blois, guarded the camp of the cru- 
saders. The excsBses of the army weighed 
heavily on the spirit of the aged prelate. He 
fell sick with sorrow, and was heard to pray 
that he might be taken away from tha tur- 
moil of thiB world ; ' for,' said he, ' I have 
tarried too long in this army.' He died 
19NoT.1190. During his illness he appointed 
Bishop Hubert his executor, leaving all his 
wealth for the relief of the Holy Land, and 
eapecially for the employment of a body of 
troops to guard the camp. 

The works of Baldwin which have been 
preserved are a Penitential and some dis- 
courses in manuscript in the Lambeth library, 
of which a notice is given in Wharton's 
' Auctarium 'of Usher's 'Hiatoria Dogmatica,' 
p. 407 ; two books entitled ' De Commenda- 
tione Fidei,' and ' De Sacramento Altaris,' 
and sixteen abort treatises or sermons. 
'While these works do not display any great 
learning, they prove that Baldwin had a wide 
aoquaintanoe with the text of Scripture. Tha 
book on the 'Sacrament of the Altar' was 
printed at Cambridge with the title, ' Beve- 
rendissimi in Christo Patris ac Domini, Do- 
mini Baldivini Caotuarienais Arcbiepiscopi, 
de veneiabili ac_ divinissimo altaris sacra- 


cisumua,' 4ta. It is printed by John Siberch, 
who styles himself, in the dedication to 
Nicholas, bishop of Ely, 'primus utriusque 
lingua in Angliaimpressor, andisoneofthe 
earliest books known to have been printed at 
Cambridge (Axes, Typog. Antiq. ed. Her- 
bert, iii. 1412 ; Bkdxbi, Mamitl da lahratn, 
i. 624). Baldwin's works are contained in 
V. 1603, from which they have been reprinted 
verbatim, with the remarkable error which 
makes Oxford the birthplace of Baldwin and 
the see of Bartholomew, by Migne in his 
' PatrologttB CoTSUS Completus,' torn. cciv. 

[Epp. Cantnar. ed. 8tnbb(,Tl.B. ; 6e«ta Bagis 
Hsnrici.ed. 8tnbbs,B.S. ; Bogsr of Hoveden.ed. 
Stabba, B.S. ; Balph of Dieeto; OsrvMc, Act. 
Ponlif. and Chroa.; Oiraldns Cambransis, Da Sax 
Episc vit., I>« nbas a *a ^ilia, Itin. Kambria, 
Da iDilmc. principmn, i-vii, ed. Brawerandl>i- 
inock, Ita ; Richard <a DeTiiea ; Boger oF Wsnd- 
arar; Introdoctiona to Hemoriali of Bich. I, by 

BALDWIN OP Clihb (J. 1141) was thv 
youngest son of Gilbert Ktz-Richard, of tha 
elder branch of the line of Oilbert, count of 
Eu, grandson of Richard the Fear^s [see 
Baldwik of MoelB^ A. 1100]. His mother 
was perhaps Adelisa, dangh tor of the count of 
Claremont, though William of JumiSgssdoea 
not mention him among her sons. The manor 
of Clare, from which Baldwin and others of 
his fkmilv took their name, was one of the ea< 
tates held by his grandtether Richard in Suf- 
folk. Baldwin's father, Gilbert, received the 
grant of Ceredigion (Cardiganshire) from 
Henry I in 1107. On the death of Henry, 
Richard, the eldest brother of Baldwin, was 
slain, and his lands were harried by Morgan 
ap Owen. Stephen gave Baldwin a large 
sum of money to enable him to hire troops for 
the relief of the lands of his house. Bald- 
win, however, retreated without, as it seems, 
striking a single blow. When, in 1141, Ste- 
phen's army was drawn up before the battle 
of Lincoln, the Wngi because his own voica 
was weak, deputed Baldwin to make a speech 
to the host. The Arundel MS. of the 'Hi»i 
tory of Henry of Huntingdon ' (twelfth of 
thirteenth century) contains an outline draw- 
ing of Baldwin addressing the rojul army in 
the presence of the kinff. In this speech he 
set forth the goodness of the cause of Stephen 
and the evil character of his enemies, revilinff 
Robert, earl of Gloucester, as having the 
heart of a hare — a reproach which cams 
singularly amiss from the speaker. In thia 
battle, however, Baldwin fought bravely and 
received many wounds. He stood by tha 
king to the last, and wss taken prisoner with 
him. He was a benefactor of the abbey of 
Bee. Richard, earl of Strigoil, the invader 
of Ireland, was his nephew. 

[QeataStephani, p. 12; Henry of Huntingdon, 
viii, all-A, S,B.; Orderic, 922; WilL of Jn^ 
mitgee, viii. 87 ; Giraldns Cambrensis, Itin, 
Kamb. ed. Dimock, p. 43 ; Brot y Tywyeogion, 
lOS, 167; Dogdalg's Baronage, i. 207; Honssticon, 
V. 1067.1 W. H. 

BALDWIN or Rbdtbbs (d. 1166) waa 
the eldest son of Richard, earl of Devon, the 
son of Baldwin of Moelra [q. v.l. He suc- 
ceeded his father in the earldom, m the lord- 
ship of Okehampton, and also, it is said, in 
the lordship of the Isle of Wight. From hia 
residence in Exeter Castle he is usually styled 
earl of Exeter. On a report bein? raised 
of the death of Suphen in 1186, Baldwin, 
with the connivance of other barons, made a 
revolt He began to oppress the city of Ex^ 
ter. The citiwna *ent to the king for help, 




Ud Stapken orderad SOO hone to march at 
(Ace to their nli«fl B«ldwiii'i men, btTing 
h««rd that the dtimia hod emipkined m 
then, MDied forth to t«ks Tenffeaaoe on them. 
Tbtj were defeated, and had iceroely taken 
ritelter withm the w&lli of the cutle, when 
the king with the mein bodj of hi« aimj en- 
tered the citf. Baldwin had a strong gai^ 
risrm in the coatle, Mid held it against the 
nnal foreea. The aieM and defence were 
alike conducted with ul the military skill of 
the Ume. During its progress Baldwin's gar- 
riam at Plimpton suirendered to the king. 
His rich lands were harried, and his tenants 
all through DevonahirewerebroDght to eub- 
raiauon. The blockade was strict, and want 
of water forced Baldwin to propose a capitu- 
lalioiL Bf the adrice of the bishop of Win- 
chester Stephen at first refused to grant anj 
terma to the rebels, and withstood a piteous 
i^peal made to him bj Baldwin's wife, Ade- 
lua. A larg* number, however, of the chief 
nun of the king's own army were not die- 
posed to allow him to take severe measures. 
Some had relatives within the castle, and 
■ome, though thej were now fighting against 
Baldwin, had aecretly counsellad him to re- 
volt. In the spirit of that continental feu- 
dalism from which England had hitherto been 
MTed by the fimmeas of the earlier Norman 
kinge, uiej reminded Ste^ien that the (far- 
lison bad never mode oaui to him as king, 
•sd that in taking up arms against him they 
ware acting faithmUy to theii lord. St^hen 
jieldad to their wiaW, and allowed the gar^ 
riatm to come forth. Baldwin fied to the 
Isle of Wight, and prepared to earr^ on the 
lebelliML On hearing that the kmg waa 
about to onbaik at Southampton to reduce 
turn to obedience, he Burrendered himself 
He was baaisbed and took shelter with Qeof- 
fny, count of Anjou, by whom he washonour- 
aUy received. At the instigation of the em- 
]veee be intrigued with the Norman lords, 
and raised np a revolt against Stephen in tlie 
dnchy. He was taken prisoner by Ingelram 
deSaTinaskinniBh before the caatle of Ormee. 
In 1139 he landed with a strong force at 
Warebam, and held Corfo Castle against the 
king. After a long siege Stephen turned 
away from Corfe on nearing of the landing ot 
Bobert of Gloucester. Baldwin joined the 
nnpreSj and was present at the ai^ of Win- 
ehMter m 1141. The earl was a neatbene- 
fitctor CFf religious hoosea. He founded a 
pri<ny of Austin canons at Bromere in Hamp- 
shire, and a Cistercian abbey at Quarrer, or 
Arreton, in the Isle of Wight. He caused 
the secular canons of Christ Church at Twyn- 
ham to give place to regular canons. He 
•nricltfd the priory of I^ympton, and gave 

his di^wlry of St Jamei at Exeter^ with ita 
tithes ud estates, to the mooastenes of Sb 

He left tJ 

him in his earldom ; William, called Vernon, 

and Henry ; and one daughter, named Had- 

[Oesta Bte^diani ; Hanry ot Hnntingdon, 3fi0, 
R.S.;aervHse,l340; OrdBric,S16; B.deMoata, 
■ubaD.llJiS; Dagdale'sBemDajiis.i.iSA; MaDa»> 
ticon, v. vi.i THonar'a KatitiB Moaaicieaj Third 
BapOTt of tiia Lords on the Dignitj of a Peer, 
p. 177.] W. H. 

BALDWIN, GEORGE (d. I818l,mysU- 
1 writer, son of William Baldwin, hop- 
merchant in the Borough, was born, probablr 

London, in the earlier half of the eighteenth 
century. The chief knowledge we have of 
him is gained from the prefaces to his works. 
He waa a great traveller. We find him at 
Cyprus in 1760; thence he travelled to St. 
Jean d'Acre in 1763. In 1706 he returned 

free I 

idea of exploring the connection between 
India and Egynt by the Red Sea. On the 
point of embarlcation he received news of 
the death of his brother, consul at Cyprus, 
and waa advised to return thither. He 
did not accompliah his purpose there till 
1778, when he passed over into Egypt, 
and was at Orand Cairo in the time of 
Mehented Bey, who told him, ' If you bring 
the Indian ahipa to Suez, I wiU lay a 
aqueduct from the Nile ' " ' 

went to Constantinople, and made his plan 
known to Hr. Murray, bis majesty's ambas- 
sador at that place, by whom it was favour- 
ably received. In 1774 he returned to E^ipt 
and went to Suez, whence he accompanied the 
holy caravan on a dromedary to Cairo. His 
services there were accepted by the East 
India Company. He arrived in Alexandria 
in 1775, and succeeded in establishing a 
direct commerce &om England to Esypt. 
Baldwin returned to England in 1781— ^v- 
ing been plundered on the plains of Antioch 
by thieves and shot through the ri^ht arm — 
in a destitute condition, and petitioning fop 

Clice. He then received a summons &om 
. Dundaa to attend the India Board, uid 
to present to it a memorial, entitled, in his 
wdka, ' Political Becollections.' On this hit 
majesty's miniatera sent him as a consul- 
general to Egypt. He entered on the funo- 
tions of his ofGce in Alexandria 18 Dea 
1786. In 1706 Baldwin counteracted a 
public mission entrusted to I^nville, tbe 




brother of Fouqniar-'nnville, the uotwioua 
public accuser betote the French revolution- 
ary tribunal, who arrived in Cairo einreaBly 
to inveirle the bejfl of S^gypt into the designB 
of the French. About tnis time he received 
an official letter that the office of consul in 
Egypt had been abolished aa unnecessary 
four years before. ' The effect of this letter,' 
says Baldwin, 'was to depress me to such a 
degree as to bereave me ot my strength, and 
of every faculty to attend to any earthly 
concern.' He left all his property behind 
him, and soiled on 14 March 1778, and on 
the 10Ih landed happily m the island of 
Patmos, in the grotto of the Apocalypse. 
From Patmos he went to OhiamS, the sepul- 
chre of the Turkish fleet, where the Greeks 
for five-and-tweoty days came round him 
every night and danced the carmagnole. 
He went on to Trieste by Vienna, and then, 
disturbed by the battle of Marengo, retreated 
to Leghorn. He was there surprised by a 
party of republicans, and bad just time to 
save himself on board his majesty's frigate, 
Santa Dorothea, with little more than a 
change of linen in his wallet. After a fort> 
nighrs cruise he landed at Naples, where hs 
was requested by the English commandei^in- 
chief to join them at Halt* in the campaign 
of 1801. 

Whilst acting as consul-general Baldirin 
first turned his attention to what he calls 
magnetic influence. The cures effected br 
this in Egypt he declares to be many and 
marvellous. In 1789 he commeno^ ex- 
periments in it himself with remarkable 
success. The gifts of which he considered 
himself possessed vere, he says, obtained 
from the nand of one Oesare Avena di Val- 
dieri, an extempore poet who had ' coursed 
and sung his carms (tic) over various re- 
pons of the world, and at length imported 
under mv roof in Alexandria on 2S Jan. 
1796. The gifts were obtained from Geeare 
in his magnetic sleep. Baldwin's Italian 
work, ' La Prima Husa,' is written in poor 
and ungrammatical Italian. It reads more 
like the raving; of a maniac than a whole- 
some speculation on a subject of science. 
He presented a copy of it to the British 
Museum in 1802. Baldwin probably died 
poor. He speaks of his 'Legacy to his 
Dauf^ter ' as the only property he had to 
leave her. 

this hitfierto incurable malady the rubbing 
of sweet olive oil into the skin. He com- 
municated his ideas to the Bev. Lewis de 
Favia, chaplain and agent to the hospital 

called St. Anthony's at Smyrna, who, after 
five years' experience, pronounced it ^i« 
moat efficacious remedy he had known ill 
the twenty-seven years during which the 
hospital had been ander his management. 
One of the many ingenious observation* 
made by Baldwin is that, amongst upwards 
of a million of inhabitants curied offby the 
plague in Upper and Lower Egypt during 
the space of forty years, he eould not discover 
a single oilman or dealer in oil. 

BsJdwin was the author of some remark- 
able works and a few pamphlets. Amongst 
them are : 1. ' A Narrative of Facta relatmg 
to the Plunder of English Merchants by tha 
Arabs, and other Bubsec[ueiit Outrages of the 
Oovemment of Oairo in the course of tha 
year 1779.' 2. ' Oseervaiioni circa un nuovo 
specifico contra la peste,' Florence, 1800. 
ThishasbeentranslatedintoC^erman. S.'Sur 
la Hagnfitisme Animal,' translated into 
French, 1818. 4. A pamphlet 'Memorial 
relating to the Trade in Slaves carried on in 
Eaypt, Alexandria, 1789. 5. ' Political B^- 
collections relative to Egypt, containing 
Observations on its Qovemment under ths 
Hameluks; its Geographical Position; its 
intrinsic and extrinsic Resources ; its rela- 
tive Importance to England and France; 
and its Dangers to England in the Possession 
of France; with a narrative of the cam- 
paign in 1801,' London 1602, 8vo. 6. ' Phi- 
losophical Essays' (dedicated to Govenuw 
Johnstone, whom he addresses as his moat 
honourable and most honoured friend), Lon- 
don, 1786, 8vo. 7. 'La Prima Musa CUo,' 
London, 1802. 8. ' La Prima Musa Clio, 
translated from the Italian of Cesare AveuA 
di Valdieri by George Baldwin, or the Divine 
Traveller; exhibiting a series of writings 
obtained in the extasy of magnetic sleep,' 
9 vols. (London, 1610 F), 8vo; vols. iL and 
iii. have no title-page. 9. ' Tre Opeie Drsnt* 
matiche preae nelle visioni di Dafiii e coi^ 
catenate istoricamente nell' ordine che s^ua, 
cioA, n Trionfo £ Melibeo, La Cipria Silene, 
e la Coronaiione di Silene^ scritte da Dafiu 
ossia Timi Daftii cosi poeticamente divisato 
Arcade Pestore, essendo nell' estasi del sonno 
magnetico,' London, 1611, 4to, privately 
printed. 10. ' Mr. Baldwin's Legacy to hia 
Daughter, or the Divinity of Truth m vnil- 
ings and resolutions matured in the coursa 
and study and experience of a lon^ life ' (in- 
cluding a series of writings obtained from 
the hand of Cesare Avena di Valdieri in 
the magnetic sleep), London, 1611, 4to. 

[Brib. Mas. Catal. : Lowndes's Bibliog. Han. 
i.l02: Watt's Bibl. Brit.; Meynr's QroMas Con- 
versations-Lexikon ; Annual Begistai, xl. 4M, 
xxxT. 271.] -J. M. 





BALDWIN, JOHN (d. 1646), chief jiu- 
tice of the commoa pleu, tu a mambw of 
th« luMT Tem^ (tf wbidii ion be wu ap- 
pointed reader in the autumn of lfil6, at 
Eaatet ISU, andagun intheautnmn of 1681, 
while he twice fillad the office of treaanrer, in 
lfi24 and 1530. In 1610 his name appean 
on the cammiamon of the peace for Bucking- 
hamahiie, with which county he 


uons of gaol delivery and subaidy, and for the 
aeeoiement of the ^uee of chnrch property 
which fonoed the baais of the ' ralor eccle- 
■iaaticua ' of 1636. In 1620 he was 
eafficieDtmaik to be nominated on the sheriff 
ntU, but was not edected bj the king. 
1639 be waa joined in CMumistioa with the 
uaater of the rolla, the chief baron of theez- 
ebeqner, two of the juatices of common pleas, 
and other diatinguiahed lawyers, to hear 
panaes in chancery committed to them by Car- 
dinal Wolaey, then lord chancellor ; and in 
the followinff year, on the cardinal's fall, he 
was selected to hold icqitisitions aa to the 
extent of hia property in BucldnghamBhire. 
He satin the HouBeofCommonaonce, being 
biugees for Uindon, in Wiltshire, in the par- 
liaiment which met on S Not. 1629, and con- 
tinued till 4 April 1636. On 13 April 1530 
be waa appointed attorney-general for Wales 
and the Marches (which were then gOTemed 
by tbe Piincees Haiy's council ander the pre- 
mitxtej of the Bishop of Exeter), and also of 
theeonnt^palatineof Cheater and Flint. He 
Tacated tneae offices on the appointment of 
Richard Riche an S Hay 1632. His patent 
as seijeant^t'Iaw is dated 16 Nov. 1531, but 
tha title ia given to him two months earlier 
in a commission of gaol delivery for Bedford 
Castle. Shortly after this promotion he ac- 
companied Sir John Spelman as justice of 
MSiie for the northern circuit, and waa placed 
OB the eommission of the peace in Ciunber- 
land, Northumberland, Westmoreland, and 
Yorkshire. He atilL however, served on the 
eommiasion of gaol delivery at Aylesbury in 
the same year. According to a maniiacript 
eopy of Spelmau's ' Reports,' quoted by Dug- 
dale, be and Thomas Willooghby were the 
first seiieants-at-law who received the honour 
<rf knighthood. This was in Trinity term, 
1534. In the foUowin^ year (1 9 Apnl 1686) 
he was appointed chief justice of the common 
pleas, and almost the uat cases in which he 
acted in a judicial capacity were the trials of 
the prior of the London Charterhouse, Bishop 
Fisher, and Sir Thomas More for treason. 
He also acted in the lame capacity at the 
trials of Anne Boleyn and her companions, 
of Lord Darcy, and the ringleaders of the 
nartbem rebellion. 

He appears to have lived principallv at 
Ayleebuiy, &om which place two letters Bom 

years acquired a considerable estate in the 
county, consisting of the house and site o f the 
Grey Priara at Aylesbury (Pat. 32 Hen. Vm, 

B.. 8)^ and the manors ot EUeeborough and 
unnch, forfeited by the attainder of Su 
Henry Pole and the Countess of Salisbury. 
According to an inquisition taken st Ayles- 
bury on & Dec. 1546 he died on 34 Oct. in 
thst year, leaving aa his next heirs Thomas 
Packington, son of his daughter Agnes 
(whose husband, Robert Packington, M.P. 
for London, waa shot in Cheapsi<^ in 1536), 
and John Burlacy, son of his dsughtcr Pe- 
tronilla. In the pedigree in Harl. MS. 633 
the elder daughter ia called Ann, and Foss 
gives her namBasEathariiie,ou what autho- 
rity does not sppear. He had also a son 
William, who married Hary Tyringham, but 
died in lus father's Uietime. His widow he- 
came a lunatic shortly after his death. An 
extract &om his wiU ia given in the inqni- 

Beports of Dsputy Keeper of Public Records, iii. 
App. ii. p. 287, and ix. App. ii. p. 162; State 
Trials, i. SS7, SeSj Dngdsla's Ongiaea Jnridi- 
eial«s.l3T; Foaa's Jndges of Oiglattd, t. 1S4.] 



1758), provost of Trinity College, Dublb, 
flrat became connected with the college by 
obtaining a achoUrahip in 1686. He was 
afterwards made a feUow, and on 24 June 
1717 was ajrpointed provost. On his death, 
Sept. 1768, he bequeathed hia fortune of 
80,000/. to the college. The will was dis- 
puted by certain persons in England who 
claimed to be his relatives ; but after sixty- 
two years' litigation the case was in 1820 
deciMd in favour of the college. His asso- 
ciates knew nothing of his nativity or parent- 
age ; but tbe claimants asserted that lie was 
the son of Jamas Baldwin, of Parkhill, near 
Colne, and that he was tx>m in 1672 and 
educated at the grammar school at Colne, 
where he dealt a mortal blow to one of his 
schoolfellows, and on that account left Eng- 
land. A suggestion has also been made that 
he owed his promotion to the provoetahip to 
hia relationanip to some one of high iiiflu- 
ence. There is a marble monument to hii 
memory in Examination Halt, 

[Liber HibemiR, it. 128 ; Taylor's Hiabnr gf 
the UDiverait; of Dublin, 21S-61.J T. F. H. 





BALDWrN", THOMAS (1760-1820), wm 
appointed citj arcliitect at Bfttb about the 
year 1776, and continued in that office till 
1800. Baldwin completed, upon in improTsd 

n' 1, the building of the new ffuildhall, which 
been begun m 1768. Me desigiied the 
Groee baths, the portico of the great ^ump 
room, and m&nj other public and pnTBt« 
buildinn. Some time before 1796 ne wa« 
made chunberlaiu of Bath. He had draw- 
ingB prepftred, which aeem not to have been 
published, of a Roman temple diftcovered 
near the king's bath in 1790. He died on 
7 March 1820, at the age of 70, 

[Diet, of ATctiiteetural PublicaCJon Societj, 
IBfiSi Nattfi'sViswa in Batti.fol., London, ISOB; 
Bedgrave'B Diet, of English Artista.] E. B. 

1696), civil lawyer, youager eon of Charlea 
Baldwin of Burwartoo, Shropshire, was bom 
in 1620. He became a commoner of Balliol 
College, Oiibrd, in 1036, and proceeded B. A. 
on IS Oct. 1688, B.C.L. on 26 June 1641, and 
D.C.L. in 1662. In 1639 he was elected 
fellow of All Souls' College, where he lived 
during the civil ware. As a rojatiMt he was 
deprived of hia fellowship by the parlia- 
mentary couunissioners in 1648, but an appli- 
cation on his behalf to the wife of Thomas 
Bccompamed Dy ' certsJn gifts,' secured his 
speedy reinstatement. He is mentioned by 
Wood in his autobiography (ed. Bliss, p. 
ziv) aa joining in 1666 a number of royaUsta 
' who eateam'd themselves either virtuosi or 
wits ' in encouraeinff an Oxford apothecary 
to sell ' cofiej publickly in his house against 
All Soules Coll.' At the restoration he was 

I of the 

to ii 

into tbestat« of the universi^, was admitted 
principal of Hart Hall, now Hertford College 
{31 June 1660), and becaroea member of the 
College of Civilians (Cootb's Eiigluh Civi- 
liani, p. 84). He afterwards resigned his 
fellow»iip (1661), and was nominated chan- 
cellor of the dioceses of Hereford and Wor- 
cester. For twelve years, from 1670 to 1682, 
he was a master in chancery (Foaa's Judget, 
vii. 8). He was knighted in July 1670, and 
was then described as of Stoke Castle, Shrop- 
shire. In 1679-80 he is found acting as one 
of the clerks in the House of Lords, and 
actively engaged in procuring evidence 
against the nve lords charged with a 
treasonable catholic conspiracy. He died 
in 1696. At the time he held the office of 
steward of Leominster (LimaELL'B Brief 
Eelafion, iv, 93). 

baldwinwss the author of 'The Privileges 
of 40 AmbBHttdor, written by way of letter 

to a friend who detdred hi* opnion eoooem- 
ing the Portugal Ambassador,' 1664. ^lia 
very rare tract treats of tbe charM of man- 
slaughter prefijrred in an English eonrt 
against Don Psntaleone, brother of the Pi^ 
tuguese ambassador. Baldwin also translated 
into Latin and published in 1666 Lord Her- 
bert of Cherbuiy's ' History of the ExpedititMi 
to Rh« in 1627.' Tbe English original, which 
was written in 1630, was flrat printed in 
1870 by the PhilobJblon Society. In 1663 
Baldwin edited and published 'The Juris- 
diction of the Admiralty of England asserted 
spainst Sir Edward Coke's " Articuli Auoto- 
ntatis " in ixii. chapter of his " Jurisdiction 
of Courts " by Rjchard Zoucb, Doctor of tha 
Civil Laws and late Judee of the High Court 
of Admiralty, 1663.' Baldwin contributed 
a brief preface to this work dated ' fioctol^ 
Commons, 26 Feb. 1663.' 

[Atheose Oion. (ed.Blisg), iii. 241, S12,iT. SM; 
Fasti Oxon. i. 47B, SOO, ii. 8, 171 ; State Trials 
rii. 1285, I3T3, &c. ; Martin's Aicbiva gf All 
Bonis' CoUsge, 3 81 ; Burrows' Worthls* of All 
Souh>. 196. 216.] aLL. 

westKMuntryman, spent several years at Ox- 
ford in the study of logic and philosOTihy, 
He is supposed to be the William Baldwin 
who supplicated the congregation of resenta 
for a master's degree in 1632 (Wooii,.^W«n«, 
L 341). On leaving Oxfora he became b 
corrector of the press to Edward Whit- 
church, the printer, who, in 1647, printed for 
him ' A Treatise of Morall Phylosophie, con- 
tayning the Sayingea of the Wyse,' a small 
black-letter octavo of 142 leaves. This book 
was afterwards enlarged by Thomas Paul- 
freyman, and continued popular for a cen- 
tury. In 1649appearedBaldwin's'Ca»ticIea 
orBaladeaofSalamon,phraselyke declared in 
Enrlyshe Metres,' which the author printed 
with his own hand from the types of Whit- 
church. The versification has more ease and 
elegance than we usually find in metrical 
translations from the Scriptures ; and the 
volume is remarkable for the care bestowed 
on the punctuation, a matter to which the 
old printers seldom ^d the slightest atten- 
tion. During the reigns of Edward VI and 
Queen Mary, it appears that Baldvrin was 
employed in preparing theatrical exhibitions 
for the court (CtoLLiEE, RUt. of Bag. Dram. 
i^^,i.l49,&e.) In 1669 ha superintended 
the publication of the ' Mirror for Magi- 
strates,' contributing four poems of his own ; 
—(1) ' The Story of Richard, Earl of Cam- 
bridge, being put to death at Southampton ; ' 
(T) • How Thomas Montape, Earl of Salis- 
bury, in the midstof hisgloiywaabydunM 





■loin bv a Piece of Ordnanoe ; ' (8) ' Story 
of Wmiant de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk, 
Imihb punislied for abuauig hia Kinf and 
causing the Deatractiou of ctwd Duke Eum- 
plwj i (*) ' The Story of Jack Oade naming 
nimaelf Mortimer, and his Rebelling against 
the King.' In the preface, Baldwin speaka 
of haviiur been 'c^led to other trades of 
" ' .' He ia 



master. Wood states that he took to clerical 
-work immediately after leaving the uni- 
Teiaitj ; but this must be a niistake. In 
1660 he published a poetical tract (of the 
greatest rarity) in twelve leaves, 'The 
Funerallesof EingEdwardtlieSixt; where- 
in are declared the Causers and CauMS of his 
Death.' On the title-page is a woodcut 
portrait of Edward. The el^ is followed 
by ' An Exhortation to the Hepentauuce of 
&nne8 and Amendment of Life,' consiating 
of twelve eight-line etanias ; and the tract 
concludes with an ' Epitaph : The Death 
Fl&ynt or Life Prayse of the most Noble and 
VertuouB Prince, King Edward the Sixt.' 
One of the rarest and moat curious of early 
ludicrous and satirical pieces, ' Beware the 
Cat' (1561), has been ^wn bv Collier to 
be the work of Baldwin. The dedication is 
signed ' Q. B.,' the iuitiala of Qulielmus 
Baldwin; and Mr. Collier quotes from on 
eaiiy broadside (in the library of the Society 
of Antiqoanes) the following passage : — 

'Whara as there is a book called Brwara tfae Cat: 
The Teri tnlh is so thai Streamer made cot that ; 
"Sai iK> anch &lie fsbeUi fall ever from hia pen, 
Bor firom his hart or mouh, as boa uani lioDeat 

Mm wil TB gladli knoa who made that boke in 

On* WvlliamBaldewiiia. G-odgraaut him wall t* 

Bat the authorship is placed beyond all 
voawble donbt by an entry in the Stationers' 
B^isten, 1568-9, when a second edition was 
in preparation : — ' Kd. of Mr. Irelonde for his 
lycense for pryntinge of a boke intituled 
Beware the Catt, by Wyllm Baldwin, iiijd.' 
The scene ia laid in the office of John Day, 
the printer, at Alderagate, where Baldwin, 
Ferrers, and others had met to spend Christ- 
mas. Personal alluwons abound, and there 
are man^ attacks on Roman Catholics. The 
purpose IB to show that cats are gifted with 
speech and reason ; and in the course of the 
narrative, which conaists of proas and verse, 
a number of merry tales are introduced. Of 
Baldwin's closing years we have no record ; 
he is supposed to have died early in the 
reign of Queen EliiahetL 

Treatise ordrely declaring the Prin- 
cipaU Partes of Physick' (1547). He ia 
probably the author of ' A new Booke called 
The Shippe of Saftgords, wryttan by G. B." 
(1569), and a sheet of eleven eight-liua 

To warn the pajnitas to baware of three trass. 

God sare onr Qnaaue EUnbath. 
£1ais qd. O. B., 

T«inted on 12 Dec 1671, by John Awdelay. 
Wood aocribea to him 'The Useof Adaoiea; 
SimUies and Proverbs ; Comedies,' of much 
nothing is known. 

[Wood's Athaiin Oion. ed. Bliaa, i. 341^ ; 
Bitson'sBiblingr. PoeLp. 121 ; I>ibdia'BTjiiogT. 
Aadq. iii. 603, iv. *i6; CoUiar's Hist, of E^gL 
Dram. Ut. L 116,154, new ed. ; Biblit^r. Ar- 
eouut, i. 43-7i Coisar's CoUectanta, i. lOS-IS, 
138-e.] A. H. B. 

(1663-1632), Jesuit, was a native of Cora- 
wall. He entered EieteV Ckillege, Oxford, 
on 20 Dec. 1677, studied in that university 
for five years, and passed over to the Eng- 
lish College of Douay, then temporarily re- 
moved to Rbeima, where he arrived on 
31 Dec. 1662. The following year he pro- 
ceeded to Rome, and entered the English 
College there. He was ordained priest in 
1688, and served as EngUsh penitentiary at 
St. Peter's for a year. His health failing in 
Rome, he was sent to Belgium, where he 
entered the Society of Jesua in 1690, and 
was advanced to the dignity of a proteased 
father in Februsry 1602. He was professor 
of moral theology at Louvain for some time. 
Having been summoned to Spain at the close 
of the year 1594 or early in 1695, he was 
captured by the English fleet, then besieging 
Dunkirk, and sent as a prisoner to Engltrnd; 
but the privy council, being unable to dis- 
cover anything against him, set him at liberty. 
He remained for six months in England, 
living with Mr. Richard Cotton at Wai^ 
blington, Hampshire, where he rendered great 
assistance to the catholic cause. Called 
thence to Rome, he was for some time mi- 
nister at the English college, under Father 
ViteUeschi, the rector. He next went to 
BrusaelsVabout 1699 or 1600), where besuo- 
ceeded Father Holt as vice-prefect of the 
English mission. This important post he 
held for ten years. His zeal gave such ofibnoe 
to the privy council, that, although he had 
never left Belgium, they proclaimed him a 
traitor, and an accessory in the Gunpowder 
plot with Fathers Oamett and John Qerard, 
and further accused him of having formerly 





tiMted with Frederick ^inola about the 
Spaauh iuvuion. In 1610 Baldwin had to 
nuke a journey on biuineM to HomB, daring 
which, when pueins the confine* of Aluce 
and the P&latinst«, ne wm appiehended by 
the aoldien of the Elector Ftdatine, Ftoda- 
rick VI, not far from the city of Spirea, As 
the elector knew that he would be conferring 
a great faTOoi upon King Junes, he kept 
him in cloee custody in varioua public prisona, 
and then eent him to England escorted by a 
gnard of twelve aoldiers, travelling Bome- 
tiroea on horseback and aometimeB in a cart, 
bound with a heai^ chain from the neck to 
the breast, where it was turned and wound 
round his entire body, ' being twice as long 
as would have been required to secure an 
African lion.' As if that did not suffice, they 
hnnK another chain behind him, eighteen 
fbet long, to carry which it was neceesaiy to 
have an asMStant, whom in jeat they called 
his train-bearer. To loosen or tighten these 
chains, foor men, with as many keys, pre- 
oeded him. They allowed him to lu,ve only 
one hand at liberty for the purpose of con- 
ducting food to his mouth, never both hand* 
at once, nor was he permitted the use of a 
knife and fbrk, lest be miffht be driven by 
the infamv of the plot and the anticipation 
of the galtowB to commit suicide. On his 
arrival m this country he was at once eom- 
mittad a close prisoner to the Tower of Lon- 
don. AlthougK nothing was proved against 
him, his captivity lasted for eight years, till 
16 June 1618, when, at the interceeaion of 
the Count de Gondomar,the Spanish ambas- 
sador, he was released and eent into banish- 
ment. In 16S1 Baldwin was rector of Lou- 
Tain, and then (16S3) the fifth rector of St. 
Omcff's College, which, under his government, 
prospered to such a degree as to number 
nearly 200 Bcholam He died at St. Omer 
on 36 Sept. 1632. 

Baldwm left in manuscript several Tolu- 
minouB treatises on pious subjects. A list 
of them is given in Southwell's ' BibUotheca 
Bcriptorum Soc. Jeau.' 

[Olinr'i CollMstanm R J. 49 ; Uon'i KiaL 
Fror. AngL B. J. 374 ; Toner's Sodatas J«sn 
usqin sd nnguinia ei viUe profluioiiem militani, 
H9; Folsy'B RMords, iii. fi01-A2D, vii. 42; 
Dodd'sChnrehHist.ii. aeS; Oliver's Collsctiona 
eoDceraing the Catholic Beligion in CorDwall, 
tee. 236; Boase and Courtney'a Bibl ConiQ- 
biensis, iii. I04S ; Boa»'a Register of Exeter 
Collsge, Oxford, 188; Cat. of State Paper* 
(lS03-10)i Morris'i Condition of OathoUcauoder 
James I (1871), p. eclviii, 1S6; Coxa's Cat. 
Codd. HSS. in CoUagiii Aulisq. Oion. ii. 03; 
DiaricB of the English College, Pauay, 1S2. 107, 
331.] T. a 


DTTLF rd. 603 n. bishop of Whitbem or 
Candida Casa. in Oalloway, -was consooatod 
to that see 17 Jnlr 791 try Aichbishcm Ean- 
hatd of York and Bishop JSthelberht at Haz- 
hara (ATiffh-Saxon C^roToeU, s. a. 761 ; Stif. 
Dna. 790; Hra. Httmt. ffut. Angl. lib, iv.) 
His Bseistmg at the coronation of a Northnm- 
brian king (Eardwulf, Anfflo-SoMm CKrontcfa, 
""'1, and shortly afterward* at the con- 
L of^ Northumbrian archbishtni (Ean- 
hald H of York, Artfflo-SoJWt OiromeU, S.a. 
706), shows that, in his hands, the bishopria 
established as an ou^iost of Anglian inSuenoa 
among the Celts 01 Galloway lost none of 
its onginal character. But Northumbria 
had by this time become so disorganised that 
I found impossible to muntaiu tm hold 
this distant dependency. BaMwulf 
to have been the last Anglian bishtui 
of Whithem (Will. Mauc . Oeita Ptmti^ 
cusi, lib. iii. f. 116). On hi* death about SOS 
(Skehe's Celtic Scotland, ii. 225— the dat« 
seems conjectural), either no bishop was ap- 
pointed, or the bishop of Lindidame, Heatho- 
red (Floe. Wib.M.M. S. p. 626 d), added 
the nominal charge of Galloway to his own 
diocese. The Oalfwegiaus had regained their 
ecclesiastical indepeiKlenOB. 

[Anthoritjea cited above.] T. F. T. 

was educated at St. J 
lege, Oxford fB.A., 1767 ; M.A., 1784). For 
■ome years he was resident in Yorkshire, 
where, under the pseudonym of ' Trim,' ha 
was engaged in a Lteraiy squabble with the 
Bev. William Atkinson and other clergy- 
men of the ' evangelical ' schooL Suba^ 
quently he removed to Ludlow in Shrop- 
uiire, and eventually became rector of Abdon 
in that county. He died in Kentish Town, 
London, 11 Feb. 1817, and was buried in 
Old St Pancras churchyard. 

He wrote : 1. ' A Critique on the Poetical 
Essays of the Rev. William Atkinson,' 1787. 
2. ' Further Remarks on two of the moat 
Singul8rCharactersofth6Aa;e,'1789. 8. 'A 
Letter to the Author of Kemarks on two 
of the most Singular Character* of the Age. 
By the Rev. John Crosse, vicar of Bradfb^ [ 
with a reply by the former,' 1790, with 
which i* printed 'The CHla Podrida; or 
Trim's Entertainment for his Greditora.* 
4. ■ Remarks on the Oaths, Declarations, and 
Conduct of Johnson Atkinson Busfield, Esq.,* 
1791. 5. ' A Congratulatory Address to tlM 
Rev. John Crosse, on the Prospect of his R»* 
covery from a Dangerous Disease,' 1791. 

[Herald and Seneatogiet, ii. 219; Roffa'a 
British Monnmeotal luKriptiou, i. Ko. 2fij 



OlBwrk'n E(HUph> U ats FaiKtu, 

L 88 ; OsnL Mi^. lizxTii. 376 ; Cil. ct Osfbrd 

GmdoatM (IBSl), 26.] T, C 

BAUG, JOHN (14»e-1663), Ibhop «f 
0—( jrj , was bom Kt the little Tillise of 
Core, near Dnnwich in SuffoUt, on 31 Not. 
1496. His pkrenta were in a humble rank 
«f life ; but at the tge of twelve he vee 
•ent to the Cannelite oonTent at Norwich, 
when lie wu educated, and thence he passed 
to Jeeiu CkiUege, Gai)ibrii%e. He was at 
fint an uiponent of the new learning, and 
ma a seuoos Roman catholic, but was con- 
Teited to proteetantiam by the teaching of 
Lord Wentworth. He laid aside his mon- 
astic haUt, ranounced his Towa, and caused 
gnat scamdal by taking a wife, of whom 
nothing is known save that her name was 
Dorothy. This step exposed him to the 
luMtility of the dergjr, aud he aulj> escaped 
punishment by the powerAil protection of 
TlMmaa CromweD, earl of Essex. He held 
the living of Thomden in Suffolk, and in 
1634 was ooHTeued before the archbishop of 
YaA to answer for a sennon, denouncing 
Bomiah nses, which he had preached at 
DoDcaster. Bale is said to have attracted 
(^omwell's attendon I^ hi« dramoa, wluch 
were moralities, or scriptural plays setting 
ibrth the reformed opinions and attacking the 
Komaa party. The earliest of Bale's plays 
was written in 1638, and its title is sufflcientiT 
mt of its BBneralpurport. It is called 
rfe Comedy or Enterlude of Johan 
BaplTetea Preachynge in the Wyldemesse ; 
Openyiige the craftye Assaults of the Hy- 
pociTtes (i.e. the friars) with the glorious 
Baptjma of the Lord Jesus Christ' (.ffa^- ! 
/am J&ceUanv, ToL i.). Bale wrote several , 
ptajs of a gimOar character. They are not i 
ramsfkable for their poetical merits, but are 
TJgoiona attempts to convey his own ideas 
«[ i«ligion to the popular mind. When 
Bale was bishop of Oseory, he had some of 
bis^Bf B acted by boys at the market-crosa 
of Kilkenny on Sunday afternoon. 

CromweU reownised in Bole a man who 
could strike hard, and Bale continued to 
make enemies by his unscrupulous out- 
spokenness. The nil of Cromwell betokened 
a reli^ous reaction, and Bale had too many 
enemies to stay unprotected in England. 
He fled in 1540 with his wife and children 
to Germany, and there he continued his coin 
trorernal writings. Chief amongst them in 
importance were the collections of Wycliffite 
martyrolofpes, 'A brief Chronicle concerning 
tite Eiiamination and Death of Sir John 
Oldcaatie, collected by John Bale out of the 
books and writJngs of those Popish Prelates 


ructe vigour of 
of good taste and 

William Thorpe,' which Foze attributes to 
Tyndale. In 1647 Bale published at Mar- 
burg ' The Examination of Anne Askewe.* 
Another work which was the fruit of his 
exile was an exposure of ths monastic system 
entitled ' 'Die ActM of Engl^he Votaiyes,' 

On the accession of Edward VI in 1647 
Bale returned to England and shared in the 
triumph of the more advanced reformers. 
He was appcdnted to the rectory of Bishop- 
stoke in Hampshire, and published in Lon- 
don a TtoA which he had composed during 
his exile, 'The Imase of bothe Churches 
after the most wonderfull and heavenlie 
Revelacion of Sainct John ' (1660). This 
work may be taken as the bc«t example of 
Bale's polemical power, showing his learning, 
.._ .r lion, and his want 

fa 1561 Bate was promoted to the vicarage 
of Swaffham in Norfolk, but he does not 
appear to have resided there, la August 
16o3 Edward VI came to Southampton and 
met Bale, whom he presented to the vacant 
see of Oasory. In December Bale set out 
for Ireland, and was consecrated at Ihiblin 
on a Feb. 1553. From the beginning Bale 
showed himself an nncompromising upholder 
of the reformation doctrines. His consecra- 
tion gave rise to a oontroversy. The Irish 
bishops had not yet accepted the new rituaL 
The 'Form of Consecrating Bishops,' adopted 
hj the English parliament, had not received 
the sanction oi the Irish parliament, and 
was not binding in Ireland. Bale isfiised 
to be oidained by the Roman ritaal, and at 
length succeeded in carrying his pcnnt, 
though a protest was made by the Dean of 
Dublin during the ceremony. Bale has left 
an account of his proceedings in his diocese 
in his ' Vocacyon of John Bale to the 
Byshopperycke of Ossorie' (Harleian Mi»~ 
cellamj voL vi.). His own account shows 
that ms leal for the reformation was not 
tempered by discretion. At Kilkenny he 
tried to remove ' idolatries,' and thereon 
followed ' angers, ' slaundera, conspiracies, 
and in the end elauKhters of men.' He 
angered the priests oj denouncing their 
Buperetitions and advising them to marry. 
His extreme measures evenwhere aroused 
opposition. When Edward VTs death was 
known. Bale doubted about recognimng 
Lady Jane 0rey, and on the proclamation 
of Queen Mary he preached at Kilkenny 
on the duty of obedience. But the catho- 
lic party at once raised its head. The 
mass was restored in the cathedra], and 


Bale 4 

Bale tliou^t it best to withdi»w to Dublin, 
iTheooe lie Mt uil for Holland. B* vss 
taken prisoner bj the cajitain of a Jhitch 
]iimn-o>war, which was driTen br abeia of 
waathsT to St. Ivea in OonwalL There 
Bale was apprehended on a charge of hi^ 
treaaon, but was releaaed. The aame ibrtune 
befall tiJTTi at Dover. When be airiTed in 
Holland ha nae again imprisoned, and onl; 
escaped bj pajing SOW. From Holland he 
made his way to Basel, where he remuned 
in quiet till the accession of Eliiabeth in 
1569. He again returned to England an old 
and worn-out man. He did not feel himself 
equal to the task of returning to his turbu- 
lent diocese of Omotj, but accepted the post 
«f prebendary of Oanterbury, and diea in 
Canterbury in 1663. 

. Bale was a man of great theolc^cal and 
historical learning, and of an active mind. 
But he was a coarse and bitter contro' 
Teiaialist and awakened equal bitterness 
amongst his opponents. None of the writers 
of the reformation time in England equalled 
Bale in acerbity. Hewasknownaa 'Bilious 
Bale.' His controveiaial spirit was a hin- 
drance to his learning, as be was led away 
by his prejudices into frequent misstate- 
ments. The mo«t important work of Bale 
was a hiato^ of T ^li'ti literature, which 
first appeared in 1548 under the title 'Illus- 
ttium Majoris Britannie Scriptorum Sum- 
marium in quinque centurias divisnm.' It is 
a valuable catalf^ue of the writiDgs of the au- 
thors of Great Britain chronolo^cally tr- 
ranged. Bale's second exile gave him time to 
cari^ on hie work till bis own day, and two 
editions were issued in Basel, 1567-1669. 
This work owes much to the ' Collectanea ' 
and ' Commentarii ' of John Leland, and is 
disfigured by misrepresentations and inao- 
curacies. Still its learning is considerable, 
and it deserves independent consideTatJon, 
as it was founded on an examination of manu- 
Bcripta in monastic libraries, many of which 
have since been lost. The plays of Bale are 
doggerel, and are totally wanting in decorum. 
A Tew of them are printed in Dodslej's ' Old 
Plays,' voL L, and m the ' Harleian Miscel- 
lany,' vol. i. The most interesting of his 
plays, ■ Kyn^ Johan,' was printed by the 


a singular 

e of historv and allegory, the events 
of the reign of Jonn being transferred to the 
struggle between protestantism and pojwry 
in &a writer's own day. Bis polemict^ 
writings were very numerous, and many of 
them were published under assumed names. 
Tanner {BiiL Briti) gives a catalogue of 
eighty-five printed and manuscript works 
attrilmt«d to Bale, and Cooper (wIUmm Ca»- 


.. — ."^*«»»., ^..jnds toe dil...*.« .» .. — - 
Beudes Bale's works above mentioned, 
following are the moat important : 1. 'Act* 
Bomanorom Fontificum usque ad tempora 
Faoli IV.'Basle, Svo, 1686; FruiibibTt, 1667; 
Leyda^l616. 3. 'IfieFageantofthePope^ 
ctmtainiug the lyves of all the Bishops of 
Rome from the b^pinning to the yeaie 1566, 
Englished with tulditions by J. 8. fJobn 
StttdleyV London, 1574. 8. ' A Tragedie or 
Enterlude manifeeting the chiefe promises of 
Gbd nnto man, by all ages in the olde law* 
&Dm the fidl at Adam to the Incarnation of 
the Lord Jesus Christe,' 1538, reprinted in 
Dodsley|. 4. ' New Comedy or Enterlude 
concerning the three lawes of Nature, Moiaea 
and Christe, corrupted \sy the Sodomytea, 
Phairses and Papistes,' l&SB, liondon, 1662. 
6. 'Yet a Course at the Bomyshe Foxe,' 
Zurich, 1643. 6. 'A Mysteiye of Iniquyte, 
contayned within the heretycall GenealogTa 
of Ponce PantolabuB, is here both dyeclosed 
and confuted,' Geneva, 1646. 7. 'llie Apo- 
logye of Johan Bale agaynste a ranks Papyst,* 

[Th* matsrisls for Bala's life are' elii(flj snp- 
plied by himsalf in scattered mentions id his 
many writings, and espscialty in ' The Toeaeym 
of John Bale ta the By ihappfrycke of Omirie ' 
(Harleian Uiscellauy, voL vL). Tbe Parker 
Society pnbtUlied (1S49) the Select Works^ tt 
John Bale, to vhidi is prsBxed a biographical 
Dotiee by SsT.H. Christmas. The fallsat aecoant 
of Sale is givan in Cooper's Athan* Cantalnri- 
giensas.] It, C. 

BALE, ROBERT (Jl. 1461), ehnmicler, 
known as Robert Bale the Elder, ia said to 
have been bom in London. He practised 
as a lawye^ and was elected notary of the 
city of London, and subsequently a judse in 
the civil courts. He wrote a chronicle of 

the dty of London, and collected Ae strar 
records of its usaees, liberties, &c. The fol- 
lowingis a list of his writing according to 

John Bale: — 1. 'Londinensis Urbis Chn>- 
nicon.' S. * Instrumenta Libertatum Lon- 
dini.' 8. 'Oesta Regis Edvrardi Tertii.'' 
4. 'Alpbabetum Sanctorum An^liiB.' S. 'De 
IVsfectis et Consulibus Londini.' 

BALE, ROBERT {d. 1603), a GarmeUt« 
monk, was a native of Narfolk, and whoi 
ve^ yoimg entered the Carmelite monaataiy 
at NorwlA Having a great love of learn- 
ing, he spent a portion of every year in tha 
Cumelite houses at Oiford or Cambridge. 
He became prior of the monastery of bia 
order at Bumham, and died 11 Nov. 1603. 
Bale enjoyed a high reputation for leaning. 

3y Google 


tnd collactod m valiuUe libiuj, whidk lie 
h«qD«Mhed to hit cOBTent. 

Hupincipttl works wen: 1. 'AnneleeO- 
dinis Cuvielitaraiu ' (Bod. Arch. Seld. B. 
73). 3. 'HurtoriftHelueFrophetn.' 8.'0£- 
mnm Simouia Angli ' (Le. oi Simon Slock, e 
|rior of his ordei who wu cauoiUHed). 

[Bale's (Belni) Script. lUiiat. H^oi. BriL 
Catkl. Cent. (1, No. BS; Wood'a AtheiiM Oson. 
(BlinX i' 7 ; Tumer'i Bibl. BnL] C. F. K. 

BAIiES or BATIiES, iliu Etbbb, 
CHIUSTOPHER(eiecuted 1589-90}, priest, 
wu & native of Cunaley, in the diocese of 
Durhun, end studied in the English ool- 
legee at Home and Rheime. From the latter 
he was aent on the English minion in 1588. 
Having been appreliended soon afterwards, 
he wu tried and convicted under the statute 
of 37 Elii. for taking prieet'a urdera beyond 
the saaa, and coming into England to eier- 
cise his saceidotal f tmctiona. He was drawn 
to a gallows at the end of Fetter Lane, in 
Fleet Street, London, and hanged, disem- 
bowelled, ud quartered, 4 March 1689-90. 
Two lajmen suffered the same day for re- 
lieving and entertaining him, viz. Kicholas 
nomer in Smithffeld, and Alexander Blage 
in Oiajr's Inn Lane. 

[Sbxr's AnnalsH, 760 ; CbaUoneT'i UUsioDary 
rnstts (1S03), i. 13fi ; State Paper*, DoiOMCic, 
Elinbetb, ccixx. art. fi7 ; Dodd's Ch. Hiat ii. 
».] T. C. 

bales; peter (I547-PI6IO), caligra- 
phiat, whoae name appears also as Balesius, 
meaks of himself in the jear 1696 (ITari. MS. 
4)76, fol. 20) as beinff ' within two }reares of 
fiftie^' which gives ^e date of his birth as 
I&47. Holinshed also (ui. 1262) speaks of 
Bales as ' an Kngi;«tiin«Ti borne in the dtie 
. of London,' but be;rond this nothing what- 
ever is known of his parentage. Of his edu- 
Mticn it ia recorded that he spent several 
jeers in Oxford at Gloucester Hall (Wood, 
AOen. Ox. i. 666, ed. 1813), where his micro- 
acopic penmanship, his writing irom speakinc 
(shorthand), and dexterous cop^inz, attracted 

ritattention,andvhere his eonmict secured 
him the respect of many men at hia own 
hall and at St. John's ; but there is no evi- 
dence whether he was at the university as a 
■chtJar or as a professor of his art, for which 
Englishmen in hia day '(Bah^ art. Qiotk- 
iilum) enjoyed espedal repute. In 1676 it 
is certain he had risen to great eminence. 
Hia skill enabled him (D'lsBiaLi, Ouriaeitiet 
^i4^erafure,p. 100) to astonish 'the eyes of 
beholders hy showing them what they could I 
not see ' when they were shown it, for ex- 
ample, the Bible written to go into the com- 
pua of a walnut (Sari. MS. 630, art. 2, I. \ 

43 Bales 

U); and thia brought him aomDchtame that 
he, on 17 Aug. 1676, presented Elisabeth, 
then at Hampton Court, with a specimen 
of his work mounted under crystal or glass 
as a ring (together with 'an excellent ap«^ 
tacle by him devised' to allow the queen 
to read what he had written); and EiLw- 
heth wore this ring duot times upon her 
finger (BoLIireBBB, iii. 126SJ, calling upon 
the lords of the council and tlie ambaaaadora 
to admire it. Balee resided in the upper 
end of the Old Bailie, near the sign of the 
Dolphin; he advertised himself as a writiiur 
schoolmaster 'that taacheth to write aU 
manner of handes, after a more apendie way 
than hath heretofore been taught ; ' he {«<>• 
miaed his pupils that 'you may ^so leome 
to WTit« aa fast as a man speaketh, by tii» 
arte of Brachigraphie by him devised, writing 
but one letter for a word ; ' and that ' you 
may have anything faire written in any kind 
of hand ububU, and bookea of copiea bire as 
yon shall bespeake.' Many of the citixens 
and their children became his scholars. Ha 
was employed also in transcribing publio 
documenta into book form, one of thesa 
{Sari. MS. 2368), as even aa type^ being a 
beautiful specimen of his dexterity; and 
Wslsingham and Hatton called him into 
use for other government purpoaes, such aa 
deciphering and copying secret correepond- 
ance, and imitating the handwritingof mter- 
cepted letters, in order to add matter to them, 
which might bring replies to serve state enda. 
Hisservices were turned to account in the dis- 
covery of Babington's plot in 1586 (Camdbb'b 
Amvil*. anno 1686). Bales therefore hoped 
forappointmenttosome permanent post; but 
his hope was not realised, and a Mr. Peter 
Ferriman, hia friend, wrote to Sir Thomas 
Randolph in 1689, urging hia claims on tha 

Emment (MS. Collectim of JV. «»««, 
, late of Qray's Inn). In 1590 Bales 
ished 'The Writing Schoolemaster,' for 
teaching 'swift writing, true writing, faire 
writing,' which was to be bought at his own 
house; and he dedicated the little volume to 

Sir Christopher Ration, his 'aingulor good 
lord and master.' His patron '^Isin^iam 
dying in 1690, and Hatton dying in the 
next year, 1691, Bales petitioned Buighley 
for ' preferment to the office of armas, either 
for Uie roome of York Herald or for tha 
Pureuivantes place ' (Zemtdovme MSS. voL 
xcix. art 50). There is no evidence that this 
was given to him ; but in 1693 he obtained 
the support of Sir John Pickering, then lord 
keeper of tha great seal. In 1^4 Jodocus 
Hondiua, caligraphist and engraver, visited 
England to collect specimens or copybook 
slips from the most celebrated masters of tha 

I, Google 




pen in Europe, and engaged Beles to produce 
■lips for him which ware dul; engraved and 
published. Inl596occurredthetriAlof skill 
between BcJm and a rival penman, Daniel 
Johnson, his neighbour, living in 'Paulea 
Gburchyarde, near the Bishops PaUca.' He 
who WTOta best, and whose chosen scholar 
wrote best, was to receive a golden pen of 
the value of 20t The contest, being post- 
poned from St. Bartholomew's daj (24 Aug.), 
commenced on Monday, Michaelmas day, 
hetween seven and eight in the morning, at 
•the Black Frvers, within the Conduit Yard, 
next to the Pipe Office,' before five jnd^es 
and a concourse of about a hundred people. 
It ended in Bales's triumph ; he had tne pen 
•brought to his house by fours of the judges 
»ai delivered imb> him absolutelie as his 
ownej' and though Johnson disputed hi* 
victory, printing an appeal, which ne pasted 
on posts all over the city, declaring that 
Bales had only obtained possession of the 
price hv asking permission to show it to his 
wife whowa8i!l,andbydecIaring'afardlBof 
untruths,' Bales demaiisbed his olfactions, 
clauae by clause, in ' The Originall Cauae ' 
{SarL MS. 676 enprn), written 1 Jan. 
1696-7. Thenceforth he Used a golden pen 
sa a sign, and remained master ^ the field. 
In 1687 appeared a second edition of ' The 
Writing Schoolemastar,' with a longer list of 
Oxford friends setting forth Bales s t^ents 
in commendatory verses, Kogliah and Latin. 
In 1698, office not being yet found for 
him, ' Mr. Wysaman eolycvted the Earle of 
Essex to have a clarke's place in the courta 
for hym; aa I take yt, to be clarke to her 
majestie, of her higlmess bills to be signed' 
(Suffmng$ of John Danuell, MS.; from 
the Fleet, 1602). In 16^ John Banyell, 
having found some of the Earl of Essex's 
lattara to the countess, employed Bales to copy 
them, assuring him it was at the countess s 
desire. Bales suspected the truth of this, 
and asked ' Why doe you cause mee to wryte 
one letter soe often, and so lyke a hand you 
cannot readef He threatened, too, if he 
found anythingfreasonable, to lay an infor- 
mation against Danyell, and Banyell reAising 
to lend him and his friend Ferriman SOL, a 
declaration of the whole was made by them 
to the countess, and delivered to her, 2 April 
1600. In 1601, on 8 Feb., the earl himself 
■was arr^ned ; Bales met Banyell on the 
way to Westminster Hall to be present at 
the trial, and informed him of this declara- 
tion ; in 1603, Danjell beinc tried in the 
Star Chamber on a charge of causing these 
letters to be forged. Bales gave evidence 
there against him. 
It is not known when and where Bales 

died. Davies in tus' Scourge of Folly,' p,164r 
nicknames him Clopbonian, alludes to tha 
sign at his house of a hand and golden pen, 
and speaks of him as goiuK frimi plaoa to 

eioe for the last half-vear. Bom which it is 
own that be was aUve in 1610, the datv- 
of the poem, and it is conjectured that he waa. 
poor and in disgrace. But no other mention 
of him has been found, and it is not known 
whether the Peter Bales, MA., preaching 
at St. Mary Woolnoth, 1643, and publishing 
one or two sermons, waa of hie family or not. 
A petition to be taken into ' honourable 
service ' is still extant in his hand iLarudmme 
MSS. ToL cxix. art. 103). In this Bales 
styles himself ' cypherary. From a petition 

{resented to the House of Lords QIO Jan. 
340-1) by his son John ^des, we learn that 
Peter Bales was at one time tutor to Fiinca 

A copy of 'The Writing Schoolsmastec ' 
is at the Bodleian, and another at Lambeth 
Palsoe. There is not one at the British. 
Museum. In the text, Bales lays down 
such rules as ' For comfoitino' of Uie si^t,. 
it is vena good to cover the deahe with 
sreene' (cap. iv.), and it ' is good at the first, 
lOT more assurance in good writing, to writs 
betweene two lines ' (cap. viL). 

[BioK Srit, ; Evelyn's Namismata, fol. IS97; 
DanysU's Dysastan, 4to, HS. (see Bhg. Brit. 
p. 6«6 note); Hona's Evary Day Book,!. lOSS.] 
J. H. 

1870), musical cranpoeer, the third child of 
William Balfe, was bom at 10 Pitt Street, 
Dublin, 16 May 160B. His father came of 
a &mi[y which had numbered among ita 
membera several profeasional mnsicians ; his 
mother's maiden name waa Eate Ryan. BaUs'a 
first musical instruction was received from hia 
father, who was himseUno mean performer on 
the violin. Under bis guidance toe boy mads 
such rapid progress that it soon becsms 
necessary to place Mm under a more ad- 
vanced master. His education was accord- 
ingly entrusted to William (yRourke, though 
he seems also to have received helpiu his 
from Alexander Lee, James Barton, 

a bandmaster named Meadows. At this 
early period of his life Balfe already dis- 
tinguished himself both as executant and 
composer, bis first public appearance having 
been made as a violinist at a concert given 
on 20 June 1817, while a polacca from his 
pen was performed, under the direction of 
his friend Meadows, before lie was seven 
years old. Cn CBourk^s leaving Dublin, 
Balfe studied with James Barton for two 
years; at the end of that time, just as he 

beginning his professional carset as * 





violiniit, hU Either died. Thu wu in 1833. 
At ftbont the Bune time en eccentric rel*- 
tion of his mother'A) wlio h&d ■wmwBd a 
Ibrtnne in the West Lidiea, ofieied to adopt 
Jtmng Balfe if he would go out to live with 
aim. Bat the boj would not fonaka his 
piofewon, and determined to try his fortune 
in London. Cbulet Edward Horn, the 
unger, happened at that time to be fulfilling 
an angagunent in Dublin, and to him Balfe 
went, emboldened by the pni«e he had be- 
•towed on a eong of the foung Irishman's, 
with a request to be taken to London as 
an articled pupiL Horn recognised Balfe's 
genius, and the result was that articles were 
signed for a period of seven yeara. Balfe ae- 
companied hu new master to London, where 
he arrived in January 1823. After an un- 
■ncceaaful d£but at the Oratorio concerts on 
19 March 1823, be recognised the necessity 
of fnither stndy. Accordingly the next few 
yeaia were spent nnder the tuition of C. E. 
Horn and nis &theT, Carl Friedrich — a 
ihoTOnghly sound musician, who was then 
oiganiat en St. Qeorge's Chapel at Windsor. 
Meanwhile the young composer supported 
himaelf andasMSted bis mother bv his earnings 
aaaTiolinist in the orchestras of Brury Lane 
^wktre and die oratorio concerts. "When be 
waa about ei^teen, finding that his voice was 
developing the pure quality for which it waa 
afterwards so remarkable, ne was induced to 
try his fortune on the operatic stage, and 
Bf^eared at the Norwich Theatre as Caspar 
m a garbled veraion of Weber's ' Der Prei- 
•chiila.' Fortunately for the cause of music, 
this experiment was a decided failure, and 
Balfe returned to London, where better luck 
awaited htm. His geniality and talent had 
already made him many friends, and at a 
dinner at the house of one of them, a Ur. 
Heath, he met a Count Masiara, who was 
so struck by the resemblance between Balfe 
and an only son whom he had recently lost 
that he offered to take the young 

with him to Italv. The count was not only 
• liberal patron but alio a wise adviser, for 
on their way to Bome he introduced Balfe 
to Cherabini, who was so much struck by 
his talent that he wished him to remain and 
•tndy in Paris. But Balfe preferred to con- 
tinue his journey to Italy, though he parted 
with the stem master on the b^ of terms, 
Chembini making him promise that if he 
had ever need of them he might demand his 
■erriess on the plea of ' friendship based on 
admiration.' At Home Balfe Uvea for several 
months with Count Maitara. But little is 
known of his career there, save that he 
studied in a somewhat desultory manner 
-ander tha composer Paer. In 1626 his 

Etron returned to England, hut previous to 
I departure he sent Balfe to MUan, where 
he studied singing and composition with Oalli 
and Federid. Here he waa introduced to 
the manager of the Scala, an Englishman 
named Glossop, who commissioned him to 
write the music for a ballet, ' La Pfirouse.' 
This work achieved remarkable success, and 

! Qloasop was induced to engage Balfe as s 
singer. Unfortunately, before tnedajr arrived 
for his first appearance, the numsaement of 

I the theatre was changed, and the young 
musician had once more to find a fi«ah flelS 

, for his talents. He returned to Paris, went 

I to see Cherubini, and here again fortune be- 
friended him. The Italian maestro intro- 
duced him to Rossini, who, it is said, was so 
charmed by his ninmng of the air from tbo 
'Barbiere," Largo al factotum,' as to promise 
him an engagement at the Italian Opera, 
provided be would study under BordognifW 
a year previous to his dibtU. The necessary 
funds were provided by a friend of Chem- 
bini B, and the Florentme composer himself 
superintended Balfe's studies. Under these 
favourable auspices he appeared in 1837 at 
the Theatre des Italiens, aa Figaro in Boe- 
sini's ' Barbiere,' the other ch^acters being 
eung by Graziani, Levasseur, Bordofmi, 
Madame Sontag, and MdUe. Amigo. Hia 
success was so great that he was engaged 
for three years at a salan- of 16,000 frsncs 
for tbe first vear, SO.OOO for the second, and 
SG,000 for the third. Balfe's voice was » 
baritone, of more sweetness of quality than 
strength, but his singing was always dis- 
tinguished for purity of delivery and power 
of expression. During his engagement at 
Paris, Balfe did little or nothing to increase 
his reputation as a composer. He wrote 
some additional mnsic (or a revival of Zin- 
garelli's ' Borneo e Oiulietta,' and began 
an opera on the subject of Chateaubriand's 
' Atola,' but before the end of his engage- 
ment his health broke down, and he was 
Italy. At Milan he 

obtamed an engagement as leading 

at Palermo, but o 


are he stoppe 
^ , where he met Qris-, 
who san^ in an occasional cantata he vnote 
at the tmie. He appeared at Palermo in 
Bellini a 'La Straniera' on 1 Jan. 1830. In 
the conrse of his engagement he wrote and 
produced his first opera, ' I Rivali di se 
•tessi,' a little work without chorus, which 
was written in the short space of twenty 
days. On the termination of his engagement 
at Palermo, Balfe sang at Hacenia and 
Bergamo ; at the latter place he first met 
bis future wife. Mile. Lina Rosa, an Hun- 
garian singer of great talent and baaMy, 


Balfe 4 

Tbom he Bhortly kfterwarda mairied. Hia 
next Bngaffement -wu ■£ Patik, when h« 
•upwmt«iid«d the pnoduction of BoMini'i 
*Ho«i in Egitto,' and brou^lit oat b new 
work of his own, ' Un AvTertimeDto fti 
G«Ioai,' in which the celebrated buffo Bon- 
coni nude hi« second appeannca on the 
opMKtie stage. From Pavia he returned to 
Milan, where he receiTed a commission for 
an opera for the Scala. This work, ' Enrico 
Qoarto al Passo del Mamo,' though very 
■ueoesBfid from an artistic point of view, 
'brought Balfe only 300 francs, though eren 
thia small pecuniary success was compensated 
for hj the fact that the work attracted 
the attention of Malibran to the composer. 
With thia great artist ha naxt went on an 
operatic and concert tour which ended at 
Venice, and on the recommendation of 
Hslibran and her impresario, Fuzci, Balfe in 
1833 returned to England, He was com- 
missioned bj Arnold to writ« an English 
opera for the opening of the newly built 
Ljceum Theatre, and in six weeks he pn>- 
dnced the ' Siege of KocheUe.' Owing to 
■ome bitch in the negotiations, the work 
was not brought out oy Arnold ; but it 
was piomptlr secured bj Alfted Bunn, the 
manager ot Drorj Lane, where it was pro- 
ducedwilji immense success on 29 Oct. 1836. 
The libretto was by Edward Fitiball, a 
Tersifler who is said once to have described 
himself as a ' lyric poet,' and was founded on 
• romance by Madune de Genlis ; the prin- 
cipal parts ware sung by Henry Phillips, 
Paul Bedford, and Miss Shirreff. Balfe's 
next work, ' The Haid of Artois,' was written 
to a libretto fomished by Bunn, the first of 
those astoniahing farragoes of balderdash 
which raised the Drury Lane manager to 
die flnt rank amongst poetasters. The 
c^era (for which Balfe received 100/.) was 
written for Malibran, who appeared in it 
with the greatest success on 27 May 1836. 
The ' Maid of Artois ' was followed at abort 
intervals hy ' Catherine Grey ' rtibretto by 
Oaot^ Linler), 'Joan of Are' (libretto by 
Fitiball), and 'Diadeste' (libretto by Fits- 
ball), all of which were produced at Drury 
lAna in 1837 and 1838, though only the last, 
an opera bu&, was ss successful as the com- 
poser's earlier works had been. In 1838 Balfe 
waa oommissicaed by Laporte, the manwer 
of the Italian Opera, to write a work for Her 
Hqesty s Theatre. In accordance with this 
lequeat h« composed a version of the ' Merry 
"Wivee of Windsor,' which was produced on 
19 July 1836. 'FalstafF,' which contains 
some of its compoaer'B bMt music, achieved 
great success, as could hardly fail to be the 
cMe, since tu chief paiti were rang l^ aiioh 


artists as Griei, Albertani, Bnhini, 1 
rini, and Lablache- Bunn's management ol 
Drury Lane coming to an end in 1838, Balfo 
accepted an engagement in an opa« otxsf 
pany at Dublin, after fulflllinff which ha 
produced several of hia operas in the prin- 
cipal towns of Ireland, ano after a suoceasfnl 
tour in the west of England letumed to 
London and resolved to start an English 
opera company on his own account. Ha 
opened the Lyceum on 9 March 1841 with a 
new work of his own, ' Eeolanthe ' (libretto 
by Fitiball) ; but though the oi>era was in 
every respect successful, internal diseenaions 
broke up the company, and before the end of 
May the theatre had to be closed. Once more 
the disheartened composer left England, and 
again it was in Paris that his good fortune re< 
turned to him. A concert was given in order 
to introduce his works to the Parisian public, 
and the result was so satiafacto^that Scribe, 
unsolicited, offered to write hmi ■ Ubretto 
for the Op^ra Oomique. This work, ' Le 
Pnits d'Amonr,' was produced in April 1843, 
where it achieved remarkable success. Every 
mark of distinction was showered n^on tha 
composer; Louis-Philippe offered him the 
cordon of the Le^on of Honour, and, when 
his nationality prevented ^lim from accept- 
ing it, proposea that he should become a 
naturalised Frenchman, offeiine to procura 
for him a post at the Paris Oonservatoire. 
In the same year as hie Parisian triumph, 
Balfe was retailed to London to superintena 
the production of an English version of ' La 
Puits d' Amour ' at the Princess's Theatre, 
and also to arrange with Bunn for a new 
opera for Drury Lane. This work was his 
famous 'Bohemian Girl,'the libretto of which 
was concocted by Bunn on the foundation 
of a ballet by St. Georges, the subject of 
which in its turn was taken from one of the 
novels of Cervantes. The ' Bohemian Girl ' 
was produced at Dmry Lane on 37 Nov. 
1843, the OTincipal characters beiiw played 
by Miss Rainforth, Hiss Betts, Harriaon, 
Sttetton, Borrani, and Damset. The work 
ran for more than a hundred nights, and waa 
translated into German, Italian, and French, 
being received everywhere with the greatest 
success. The following year (1814) wit- 
nessed the production at Paris of 'LeaQnatre 
Fils Aymon ' and in London of ' The 
Daughter of St. Mark,' in the libretto of 
whiui latter work Bunn excelled himself. 
These were followed at a short interval by 
•L'£toiledeS«vme'(PaTis,1845). In 1844 
on Uie secession of Sir Michael Gorta, Balfo 
was appointed conductor of the Italian Opet* 
at Her Haiee^s Theatre, then under the 
of Lumlqr, & pott for whieh lia 





mt emmently fitted bv his personal skill u 
u InBtnuDQiitaliflt and Toc&liflt and liis in- 
timate knowledge of operatic detaili. His 
duef compositions dnrmg this period were 
the 'Bondman' (Drury Lane, December 
1848), "The DeTU's in if (Surrey, 1847), 
and th« ' Haid of Honour' (Govent Garden, 
1847). The next few years were spent in 
Tariom musical tonra, both in England and 
abroad, the only work of importance which 
he composed being the ' Sicilian Bride^' pro- 
duced at Bnuy Lane in 1862. In tlie 
aame year he Tisited St. Petenbuiv, Vienna, 
■ltd Italy, where he wrote an Ituion opera, 
'Ktton e Duea,' which was produced in 
186^ and was played in an English rersion 
in London in I88S. In 1867 he returned to 

kd. and was soon occupied in com- 
lOT the Pyne-Harrison company at 

t Gtardeu tne works which were its 
s sapport, the'Roseof Castille' (October 


Q>ecember 1860), the 'Puritan's Daughter' 
(Notomber 1861), 'Blanche de Nerets' 
(Norember 1862), and the 'Armourer of 
Nantes' (February 1863). These, with a 
cantata, 'Maieppa,' and an operetta, the 
' Sleeping Queen,' were the last works of 
Balies produced during his lifetime. In 
1664 be left the house in Seymour Street, 
where he had lived for the last few years, 
and moved to Rowney Abbey, a small estate 
in Hertfordshire whidi he luid bought. It 
was whilst living here, and on a visit to his 
danghter (the Duchess de Friss), that he 
wrote his last opera, the ' Knight of the 
Leopard,' the libretto of which was founded 
by the author, Arthur Matthison, on Sir 
Walter Scott's 'Talisman.' On this work 
Balfe bestowed more than ordinary care, and 
it was his hope that it would be performed 
on the English stage with Mile. Tietjens 
and HesBTs. Sims Reives and Santley in the 
principal parts. With this aim before him 
be declined an offer which was pressed upon 
him by Napoleon HI to have it produced in 
Firis: but nis hope was never to be gratified, 
and the work wia only destined to be pro- 
duced in an Italian version and witn a 
changed name four years after the composer's 
d«*th. At the end of 1869 his ' Bohemian 
Oirl * was produced in French at Paris, and 
coce more loreign honours and decorations 
were conferred upon the Irish composer. In 
the spring of 1870 he returned from Paris 
to Rowney, but the severity of the winter 
and a domestic affliction he had sustained in 
the loss of his second daughter, Mrs. Behrend, 
had weakened bis constitution to an alarm- 
ing itgree. In September he was taken ill 
with spasmodic asthma, a complaint &om 

which he had long suffered, and though tot 
a time he seemed to rallv, he gradually sank,' 
and died at Rowney Abbey on 20 Oct. 1870, 
He was buried at £ensal Oreen, and eight 
years later a tablet was erected to his memory 
m Westminster Abbey. 

In estimating Balfe E position amongst th» 
musicians of his centurr, it is necessary to 
bear constantly in mind the circumstances 
under which he won his renown as an operatic 
composer. From his Irish parentage he in- 
herited a gift, of melody which never deserted 
him throughout his prolific career ; from 
England he can have gained but little, for 
in those days Englisn music was practically 
non-eiistent ; it was from France and Italy 
that he received his musical education, and 
it was on French andltalian boards that his 
first laurels were won. But the period which 
Balfe's life covers saw the polm of musical 
pre-eminence transferred irom Italy and 
France to Germany. When the 'Siege of 
Rochelle' was written, Wagner was un-' 
known. Forty years later, when ' II Tali&- 
mano ' was prodnced, the only living Italian' 
composer of^ eminence had proclaimed to a 
great extent his adherence to the principles 
preached by the German school. Thus it is' 
that opinions difier so widely as to the merits 
of Balfe's music. To musicians who judge 
him from the point of view of the old ideij, 
his brilliancy, melody, and fertility of invent 
tion will entitle him to a place beside Ber- 
lini, Rossini, and Auber, while, on the other 
hand, by those who look for deeper thought 
and more intellectual aims in music, he will 
be regarded as a mere melodist, the ephe- 
meral caterer to a generation who judged 
rather hj manner of expression than by the 
value of'^wbat was expressed. The truth, aff 

usual in such cases, lies midway between. 

these extremes. His invention, knowledge 
of effect, and above all his melody, will keep 
his works from being forgotten ; and if they 
are deficient in those higher qualities de- 
manded by the taste of the present day, that 
is no reason why, within tneir limits, they 
should cease to please. Balfe's music may 
not be the highest, but of its kind it attains 
a very high degree of excellence. A thorough 
master of the means at his command, and 
intimately aware of the limits of his powers, 
he never Bttempt«d what he could not per- 
form, and the result was that be produced 
such a number of works which are always 
satisfiwtory and oAen delightfiil. 

nCmnj's Ufa of Balfe ( 1 86fi) ; Barrett's Balfe 
and his Works (1882); Harmonicon fen 1S23; 
eontampomry oBwupiipsrs ; Add. M3S. 292SIi 
2949S; infbrmadon from SladBue Balfe.1 


3y Google 

Balfe A 

BALFIL VICTOmE (1837-1871). [8e« 

1839), Bovatiit,, wa« bom of humble peasan- 
trj in tbe porinh. of Monilcio, FnrfkrBhire, 
SmCland, on 1 March 1767. Being a twin, 
he WM cared for bf a relative. H« wai 
phfricallf we&L HiB educatioa was of the 
Bcantiest. Wbena mere lad he was apfoen- 
ticed to a weaver. Later ha tanght in a 
school in bii native parish, and many lived 
to remember lum grata&Uy for his rougli 
and read; but aucceasful teachinK of them. 
Li his twenty-nzth jear (1708)lia became 
one of the clerks of a merchant manufacturer 
in Arbroath. In 1791 ha married. He com- 
menced author at tiie age of twelve, Notvery 
loniF after be fltlsd ' the poets' '' '' 

Later he contributed verse 

to the ' Bntieh C!hi«nicle ' newi 
the ■ Bee ' of Dr. Andaison. Li 1793 ha was 
one of tbe writers in the ' Dundee Bepoai- 
tOTj' and in 1796 in the 'Aberdeen Sfag^ 
sine.' Four years after liis removal to Ar- 
tuoath he ohanged his situation, and two years 
later, on the death of his first employer, ha 
earned on the business in partnerahip with 
his widow. On her retirement in 1800 ha 
took another paitnei, and, having succeeded 
in obtaining a oovemment contract to supply 
the navy with canvas, in a few years he 
posseBBBd considerable property. During the 
warwith France, hepuUiahed patriotic poems 
and acogs in the ' Dundee Advertiser,' which 
were reprinted in London. To the 'Northern 
Minstrel' of NewcaatleMin-Tyne he furnished 
many songs, and a number of poems to the 
Montrose 'Literary Mirror.' He wrote an 
acconnt of Arbroath for (Sir David) Brew- 
■ter's ' Eni^cloptedia,' and several papers for 
"nUoch's ■ PhiloBophical Journal.' In 1814 
he removed to Trottick, near Dundee, as 
manager of a branch of a London house. In 
the fblloniug year it became bankrupt, and 
Balfour was again thrown on the world. 
Ha found a poor employment aa manager of 
m. manufacturing estabUahment at Balgonie, 
Fifeahire. In October 1618, (at the sake of 
bis children's education, he transferred him- 
self to Edinbu^b, and obtained a situation 
as clerk in tbe great publishing house of the 
Messrs. Blackwood. Unhappily in the course 
of a few months he was struck down by 
paralysis, and in June 1819 was obliged to 
relinquish his emplovment He recovered 
BO far that he could be wheeled about in a 
■peciallv prepared cbair. His intellect was 
untouched, and he devoted himself to litera- 
tnre. In 1819 appeared big 'Campbell; or 
the ScottJjh FrotMtioner' (S vols.). The 


... le year 

be edited Richard OaU's 'Fbems,' with m. 
memoir. In 1620 he published ' Oontem> 
plation, and other Poems ' (1 voL). In 182S 
came his second novel of tbe ' Fanner'e Thre* 
Daughters'(3 vols.), and in 18S3 'The Found- 
ling of Olenthom ; or the Smuggter'a Cave, 
al(omsnce'(3vols.). In 1826 he republished 
from Constable's ' Edinburgh Ha^me '' Chsi- 
racters omitted in Crabbe s Parish Roister ' 
(1 vol.), and his ' Highland Mary* (4 vols.) 
in 1827. He died on 12 Sept 1829. The 
' Remsina,' entitled ' Weeds and Wildflowers,* 
were edited by Dr. D. M. Moir (li) with a 
sympathetic memoir, whence ours is mainly 
jnwn. Balfour wrote his novels for ' th« 
Minerva Press,' as needing ' daily bread,' but 
he never pandered to the low tneraie of its 
habitual readera. Pathos and shrewdness of 

Canning sent him a grant of lOOl. in reoo^ 
nition of his alnUty and misfortunes. 

[Balfour'B Bmnains, edited b/ Dr. D. H. Udr.) 

BALFOTTB, Sib ANDREW (1630-1 W4), 
botanist, vraa bom on 16 Jan. 1630 at Balfour 
Castle, Denmiln,FifeBhire; the youngest son 
of his parents. Sir Michael Balfbur, nod 
Joanna, daughter of Jamea Durham of Pike- 
row. HiseldestbrotheTJamesrseeBALKiux, 
Sib Jaxbb, 1600-1667J was thirty years his 
senior, tbe family consisting of five sons and 
nine ^oghters. He waa baptised on the day 
of his birth, and his education was conducted 
in tbe parish school of Abdie, and afterwards 
at the university of St. Andrews ; at tha 
latter he began hie study of natural history 
and modicine, and then came to Oxford. H« 
spent some yean in foreign travel ; in France 
he studied in Paris, Montpellier, and Caen, 
also in Italy at Padua, but spent most tima 
in Paris, studying medicine, anatomy, and 
botany, in the royujnrden, of which Joncquet 
waa then prefect. On his return, after taking 
his degree of UJ>. at Caen on 20 Sept. 1661, 
he stayed long in London in tha practice of 
his profession, Harvey, De Mayone, Glisson, 
and Wharton being named as his compeers. 
He travelled aa tutor to tbe Earl of Roas 
again on the continent, and spent four yeara 
in France and Italy, visiting Zanoni at Bo- 
Itwna, whoahowed him the unpublishedplates 
of bis ' Historia Pluitarum, and Torre at 
Padua, After fifteen years' travel abroad h« 
returned to St. Andrews, where he recom- 
menced the practice of medicine, but after- 
wards removed to Edinburgh. A year or two 
aiter hia settlement at the latter place he befran 
hit botanic garden! procuring seeds from Dt, 





Robert Morison of Blois, and afCerwarda of i 
OxfoidfUidH. HafcliBintof Paris, Knd others, . 
be aoon had more than a thousand spedes in ' 
enltiTation. He founded the public botanio 
gwdens at Edinbuwh about 1680 by the , 
good offices of Loid Patrick Murray of Ii»- 
TiatODe, and he transferred thither bib own 
plants to the care of SutherUitd, the first 
curator, who published a catalc^e in 1683. , 
Un Lord Murray's death in 1671, the co«t of 
maintenance fell apon Balfour and Sir Robert 
Sihbald, until the utUTeraity granted an an- 
nual eubeid; from the coiporate funds. He 
died 10 Jan. 1694, aged 62, leaving his cu- 
riosities and manuscripts to Sibbald. After 
his death his son puhUahed at Edinbunrh in ' 
1700 ' Letters writ« to a Friend ' [Lord Mur- 
ray], containing excellent directions and ad- 
vices for tiavellinf through France and Italj. 

IS78), lecturer and authoress, was bom in 
theNew Forest, Hampshire, on 21 Dec. 1606. 
Her parents' name was Liddell ; she was 
their only child, and on the death of her 
hther in her childhood, her mother, who was 
a woman of much intellectual power, left 
Hampshiie and took up her residence in 
Loodon. Hiss Liddell was educated with 
sxtreme care bj her mother; and in 1827 
became the wife of Mi. James Balfour, of 
the Ways and Means Office in the House of 
Commons, her new home being in Chelsea. 
Thete, in 1837, some sociaLstic movement 
opposed to her views was being actively 
organised ; she wrote a tract sfsinst it, com- 
pletely breaking it up, for which Mrs. Ckrlyle 
called upon her to thank her, and began a 
friendship with her ; and there also, in the 
•ame year, in the month of October, she first 
turned her attention to the teetotal agitation 
iOur OlifOcroirr, reprinted as a penny pamph- 
let from the ' Scottish Review '). Having 
taken the pledge at the Bible Christiana' 
chapel, a very humble meeting-place close by 
her house, and having from that moment 
adopted teetotalism as the earnest business 
of her life, Mrs, Balfour, in 1841 (after re- 
moving to Maida Hill), began her career as 
a temperance lecturer at the Greenwich 
Ijterary Institution, and with much power, 
bnt mtich also of modesty and quiet charm, 
continued the public advocacy of her prin- 
njjes for nearly thirty years. Her lectures 

were not, however, confined to the temper- 
ance topic. She lectured on the influence of 
woman on society, and kindred subjects ; and 
she held the post for some years of lecturer 
on belUt lettru at a leadiiig ladies' school. 
Her publications, mostly to advocate temper- 
ance, but also with a theological aim, and 
covering a varied surface, had an immense 
sale, and were very numeroua. They were 
as follows: 1. ' Moral Heroism,' 1846. 
2. ' Women of Scripture,' 1847. 8. ' Women 
and theTemperance Movement,' 184&. 4. 'A 
Whisper to the Newly Married,' 1860. 
5. 'Happy Evenings,' 1651. 6. 'Sketches 
of EnD-riBhLiter8ture,'18fi2. 7. 'TwoOhrisl^ 
mas I)ays,'lS62. 8. 'Morning Dew Drops,' 
with preface by Mrs. Beecher Stowe, IwS. 
9. ' Working Women,' and several short 
sketches, as "instructors,' of Mrs. Barbautd, 
Mrs. Trimmer, Mn. Sbennan, Hannah More, 
&c, 1854. 10. 'Introductory Essay to 
Ann Taylor's Maternal Solicitude,' 1866. 
11. 'Bands of Hope,' 1S67. 12. 'Dr. Lig- 
num's Sliding Scale,' 1868. 13. 'FWnk's 
Sunday Coat,' 1860. 14. 'Scrub,' 1860. 
15. 'Toil and Trust,' 1860. 16. "Tha 
Victim,' 1860. 17. 'The Warning,' 1660. 
18. 'TheTwoHomee,'1860. 19. 'Sunbeams 
for all Seasons,' 1861. 20. 'Drift,' 1861. 
31. 'Uphill Work,'1861. 22. 'Confaasionsofa 
Decanter,' 1862. 28. 'History of a Shilling,' 

1862. 24. 'Wanderings of a Bible,' 1862. 
26. 'A Mother's Sermon," 1862. 26. 'Our 
Old October,' 1863. 27. 'Cousin Bessie,' 

1863. 28. ' Hope for Number Two,' 1863. 
29. 'A Little Voice,' 1863. 30. 'A Peep 
out of the Window,' 1863. 81. ' Club 
Night,' 1864. 32. "Troubled Waters,' 1864. 
S3. 'Cruelty and Cowardice,' 1866. 34. 'Bible 
Patterns ot'^aood Women,' 1867. 35. 'Waya 
and Meana,' 1668. 36. 'Harry WilBon,'18f0. 
37. 'One by Herself,' 1B7S, 38. 'All but 
Lost,' 1873. 89. ' Ethel's Strange Lodger,' 
1873. 40. 'Lame Dick's Lantern,' 1874. 
41. 'Light at last,' 1874. 42. 'Women 
north Emulating,' 1877. 43. ' Home Makers,' 
187a Besides these, 'Lilian's Trial' was 
being published at the time of Mrs. Balfour's 

I death in the 'Fireside;' 'Job Tuflon' ap- 
'peared as late as 1882 in the National 
Temperance publications; nnd'TheBunnish 
Family,' and ' The Manor Mystery,' are other 
tales brought out posthumously. Of these 
works several were printed again and again, 
and the 'Whisper to the Newly Married' 
reached as many as twenty-three editions. 
Mrs. Balfour contributed many of these 
shorter tales, in the first instance to the 
' British Workman,' ' Day of Days,' ' Hand 
and Heart,' 'Animal Wortd,' 'Meliora,' 
' Family Visitor,' 'Home Words/ 'F"wBMd(,' 

I, Google 

Balfour 50 

'Band of Hope Beview,' uid the 'Onward 
wries. Otheri were issued lU Social Science 
Tracts, and aome publiatied by the Scottish 
and the British Temperance Leagues. 

Mn, Balfour's last pubhc appearance waa 
at the Memorial Hall, Farrin^on Street, in 
Hav 1877, when she wa^ elected president 
of the British Women's Temperance Lea^e. 
She died at Croydon S Jul; 1876, af^ 70 
Teara, and was buried at the Paddinj^ton 
Cemetei;, the Rev. Dawson Bums, H.A^, 
preachinfrher memorial discourse (which was 
afterwards puhliahed) in the Church Street 
Chapel, Edgware Road. 

A son of Mrs. Balfour, Mr. J. a Balfour, 
waa M.P. for Tamworth on the liberal side. 

rTamplai and Tamperanes Jonrnal, 10 Jnlj 
1878; Hand and Heart, 12 Jul; 1878; The 
Oracle, 22 July 1S82. p.Mi NoUe* prefixed to 
Home Mak*n, 1878.] J. H. 

BALFOUB, FRANCIS, M.D. (^ 1812), 
Anglo-Indian medical officer, appears to have 
taken the degree of M.D. at Edinbui^b. He 
entered the East India Company's service in 
Bengal as assistant-surgeon on 3 July 1769, 
was ap]>oint«d full surgeon on 10 Aug. 1777, 
and retired from the service on 16 Sept. 
1807 (DonwBLL and Miles' Indian Medical 
O^cera, 4^). He afterwards returned to 
Bdinbuigh ; but the dat« of his death is un- 
certain. Ha Hipears to have been living in 

Balfour lived for aeveral years on terms of 
some intimacy with Warren HaetinOT. He 
dedicated a book — ' The Forms of Herkem * — 
to him in 1781, and addressed him a letter in 
the same year complaining of the want of 
courtesy shown him I^ other officials in the 
East India seirice at Lucknow (Addit. MS. 
301G1, f. 109). In May, June, and July 1783, 
Balfonr, while at Benorea, corresponded fre- 
quently with Hastings in an abortive attempt 
to disclose a plot between the resident of 
Benarea, Francis Fowke, and Rajah Cheyte 
Sing, which he claimed to have discovered 
(Addit. MSS. 29159, ff. 267, 388, 394, 400; 
29160,ff. 49, 50,89,83, 104, 116). Balfour 
not only interested himself in politics and 
medicine, but devoted much time to Oriental 
studies. ' The Forma of Herkem , . . trans- 
lated into English ... by FVancis Balfour,* 
waa published at Calcutta in 1781, and re- 
published in London in 18U4. It is a state 
tetter-writer in Persian ; a vocabulary is 
given by the translator at the end. Balfour 
was one of the earliest members of the Bengal 
Asiatic Society, founded, under the presi- 

atie Reaearche* ' (' Traniactions of the Bengal 


Aaatic Society ") Balfour contributed in 1700 
a pa^ on Arabic roots, showing how tba 
Arabic language had entered into the Per- 
sian and the language of Hindostan (iL 206), 
and in 1606 a paper entitled ' Extracts from 
Tehzeehul Mantik ; or the Essence of Logic, 
proposed as a small supplement to Arable 
and Persian Grammar, and with a view to 
elucidate certain points connected with Ori- 
ental literature' (viii. 89). 
Balfour's medical works were as follows ; 

in Fevers,' vol. I Calcutta, 1784; 2nd ed. 
Loudon, 1796 ; 3rd ed. Cupar, 1616 ; 4th ed. 
Cupar, 1616, A German translation of the 
book, with a prefece by Herr Lauth, ap- 
peared at Strasburg in 1786. Balfour here 
expounds his &vourite theory, that feven 
are under the direct influence of the moon, 
and reach their critical stage with the full 
moon. 3. 'Treatise on Putrid Intestinal 
Remitting Fevers,' 1790; 2nd ed. 1796. 
4. A paper on the Barometer in the'Asiatic 
Researches' (iv. 195), 1796. 6. A paper on 
the Biumal Variations of the Barometer, 
' Edinburgh Phil. Trans.' (iv. pt. i, 26), 1798. 
6. A paper on the Effects of Sol-Lunar In- 
fluence on the Fevers of India in 'Asiatin 
Researches' (viii. 1), 1806. 

fAatfaoritJeB eitsd above ; Watt's Bibl. BriL ; 
Balfonr's works; Diet, of Liring Aathore, ISlA.l 
8. L. L. 

(1861-1882), naturalist, the third son of 
James Maitland Balfour, of Whittinghame, 
East Lothian, and Lady Blanche, dau^tar 
of the second Marquis of Salisbury, was Dom 
at Edinburgh, during a temporary stay of luB 
parents there, on 10 Nov. 1861. 

His first years were spent at Whitting- 
hame, where a love for natural science, care- 
fully fosterad by his mother, early developed 
itself in him, and led him. while still a boy, 
to make not inconsiderable collections of toe 
fossils and birds of his native county. After 
two years spent in a preparatory school at 
Hoddesdon, Herts, he entered at Harrow in 
1866. In the ordinary studies of the school 
he did not greatly distinguish himself, but, 
under the giiidance of one of the master*, 
Mr. G. Griffith, he mode rapid progress in 
natural science, especially in geology. His 
attainments in this direction, tf^thsr with 
the increawng proofs that he possessed ft 
character of unusual strength, led thorn 
around him thus early to conclude that be 
would before long make his mark. In Octo- 
ber 1870 he entered into rewdence at Trinity 
College, Cambridge, and, being now able to 




devote bis wbole time to his fsTOurite studies, 
Boon began to show what mumer of man he 
waA. At EaB(«t 1871 he became natural 
acience scholar of bin coUeve, and very shortly 
Afterwards, under the guidance of the Trinity 
ptnlectorof physiology. Dr. Michael Foet«r, 
threw himself with great ardour into the 
inTSBtigation of certain obseuni poinU in the 
development of the chick. For by this time 
his earlier love for geologv had given way to 
ft de^ro U> attack the difticult problems of 
animal monihology, and these he, like others, 
aaw could be best approached by the study 
of embiyology, that is the history of the de- 
velopment of individual fonna. The results 
■t which he arrived in this, so to speak, appieu- 
tice work were published in the ' Quarterly 
Journal of Microscopical Science* in July 

In December 1873 he passed the B.A. ex- 
amination in the natural sciences tripos, and 
almost immediately alter started for Naples 
to work at the Stazione Zoologica, which had 
recently been establislied by Dr. Anton Dohrti. 
He foresaw that the embryonic history of the 
elasmobranch fishes (Bharks, rays, &c.), about 
which little was at that time known, would 
probably yield results of great morphological 
importance. Nor was he mistaken. His first 
year's work on these animals yielded new 
lacta of supreme importance concerning the 
development of the kidneys and allied organs, 
concerning the origin of the spinal nerves, 
and concerning the initial changes in the 
ovum and the early stages of the embryo. 
And these facts did not, in his bands remain 
barren (acts. With remarkable power and 
iuMght he at once grasped their meaning, and 
ahowed how great a Lght they shed on the 
nl^ioox of sharks both to other vertebrates 
*nd especially to inTertebrat«8. He made 
them tell the tale of evolution. 

a felLowship, while both in England, and 

Erhaps even more abroad, biologists at once 
It that a new strong man had arisen among 
tbem. He elasmobranch work took, how- 
ever, some time to complete ; it was carried 
on partly at Cambridge, partly at Naples, for 
the next two or three years, and the finished 
nonograph was not published till 1678. 
Ueanwhile, in 1876, he was appointed lec- 
turer on animal morphology at Cambridge, 
and he threw himself into the labour oi 
teaching with the same ardour, and showed 
ID it the same power, that were so oon- 
■Kcuona in his original investigations. Hie 
elasa, at first small, soon became large, and 
before long he had pupils not content with 
knowing what was known, but anxious like 


himself to explore the unknown; besides, 
students in embryology came to him tram 
outside the Cambridge school, it may almost 
be said from all parts of the world. No 
sooner was the elasmobranch monograph off 
his hands than he set himself to write a 
complete treatise on emb^ology, the want 
of such a work being greatly felt. This opus 
magnum, which appeared m two volumes, 
one in 1860, the other in 1881, is in the first 
place a masterly digest of the enormous 
number of obsen-ations, the majority made 
within the last ten or twenty years, which 
form the basis of modem embryology. As 
a mere work of erudition and of lucid ex- 
position it is a production of the highest 
value. But it is much more than this. In 
it there are embodied the results of so duuit 
inquiries carried out by Balfour or by his 
pupils under his core, tnat the book comes 
near to being even in matter an original 
work, while on almost every page there is 
the touch of ■ master hand. £ve^ problem 
is grasped with a strong hold, eoDweba are 
brushed away with a firm but courteous 
sweep j and as the reader passes from page 
to page, subtle solutions of Imotty points 
and bright suggestions for future inquiry 
come upon him again and again. Not once 
or twice only, but many times, the darkness 
in which previous observers bad left a subject 
is scattered by a few shining lines. It is a work 
full of new light from beginuing to end. 

Nor w»s the world tardy in acknowledging 
the value of the young morphologist's labours. 
In 1 878 he was elected a fellow of the Royal 
Society, and in 1881 received a'royal medal' 
for his discoveries. Qzfordwasmoatanxious 
to gain him as a successor to the late Pro- 
fessor G. RoUeston, and Edinburgh made 
repeated efilbrts to secure him for her chair of 
natural history. But he would not leave his 
own university, and in rect^nition of his 
worth and loyalty a special professorship of 
animal morphology was in thespringof 1883 
instituted for him at Cambridge. 

In June 1662, his health having been im< 
paired by an attack of typhoid fever during 
the pienoui winter, he started for Switxer- 
land, hoping by some Alpine climbing, of 
which he had become very fond, and in which 
he showed great skill, to make complete the 
recovery of his strength. On 16 July he and 
his guide set out from Cormaveur to ascend 
the virgin peak of the Aiguille Blanche de 
Peuteret. They never came back alive. A 
few days later their dead bodies were found 
on the rocks by an exploring party. Either 
on the ascent or descent, some time apparently 
of the next day. the 19th, they must have 
fallen and been killed instantaneously. Hia 
B 2 





I England tad 

ioAy wu brought hoi 
buned at Whittinghami 

Probably few lives of this generation were 
Ro full of promise as tbe one thus cut short. 
Ths rema^bls powers which Balfour poa- 
sMsed of rapid jet exact observation, of quick 
insight into the meaning of the things ob- 
Kired, of imaffinstiTe daring in hypothesis 
kept straight Dy a singularly clear logical 
sense, through which the proven woe sharply 
distinguished from the merely probable, made 
all- biologista hope that tbe striking work 
which he bad olreadj done was but tbe 
eameet of still greater things to come. Nor 
do biologists alone mourn him. In bis col- 
lege, in bis university, and elsewhere, be was 
already reco^sed as a man of most unusual 
administrotire abilities. Whatever be took 
in hand he did masterly and with wisdom. 
Yet to bis friends bis intellectual powers 
aeemed a part only of bis worth. High- , 
minded, generous, courteous, a brilliant fasci- 
nating companion, a steadfast loving friend, 
be won, as few men ever did, tbe hearts of 
all who were privileged to know him. 

[Panonal knowladgs.] M. F. 

BALPOUB, Sib JAMES, Loeo Pjitbu- 
SSBICH (d. 1S83), Scottish judge, was a son 
of tjtr Michael Balfour, of Mountquhanny, in 
Fife. Educated for the priesthood, be adopted 
tbe legal branch of the clerical profession, as 
was common in Scotland at this period. . 
Havinr taken part with his brothers, Uavid , 
and Oilbert, in tbe plot for the assassination , 
of Cardinal Beaton, he shared the fate of 
the conspirators, who, on the surrender of 
tbe castle of St. Andrews, in June 1547, to 
tbe French, were allowed to save their lives 
by service in the galleys. John Knox, his 
fellow prisoner in the same galley, who 
looked upon Balfour as a renegade, and de- 
nounces him as a manifest blasphemer and 
the principal misguider of Scotland for bis 
desertion from the party of the reformers, 
records bis release in 1549, which, accord- 
ing to Spottiswoode, a less adverse authority, 
was due to his abjuring hie profession. Soon 
after be became official of the archdeaconry 
of Lothian, and chief judge of the consis- 
torial court of the archbishop of St. An- 
drews. He continued for 

of session. The abolition, in 1560, of the 
ecclesiastical consistorial jurisdiction, one of 
the first fruits of the Ileformation, led to 
great coniiision with reference to the im- 

Slant causes that had been referred to it. 
sides others, all those relating to marriage, 
legitimacy, and wills, were in its control, and 
it was found necessary to institute a commis- 
sary court at Edinburgh in its stead. Balfour 
was the chief of the four first commissaries, 
and the charter of their appointment, on 
8 Feb. 1G6S, is printed in the treatise which 
has received the name of 'Balfour's Prao- 
ticks.' With other partisans of Botbwell 
and Botbwell himself he is said to have 
escaped from Holyrood on tbe night of 
lUzzio's murder, but MacgiU, the lord clerk 
register, having been deprived of that office 
for his ahare in tbe plot, Balfour succeeded 
' the vacancy. Common rumour, supported 
this instajice by probable evidence, as- 
signed to Baubur tbe infamous part of haviiw 
drawn tbe bond for Damley's muider, and 
provided the lodging, a house of one of his 
brothers, in tbe Kirk o' Field, where the 
deed WBS done. Though not present, sccord- 

SLipport tbe policy of Mary of Ouise, then, 
passing over to that of tbe lords of tbe con- 
gregation, was admitted to their councils, 
ana betrayed tbeir secrets. He was re- 
warded by the preferment of tbe parsonage 
of Flick, in Fife. Soon after Queen Mary's 
return to Scotland, he was nominated an 
extraordinary lord, 12 Nov. 15fll, and on 
16 Nov. 1663 an ordinary lord, of tbe court 

^acards which appeared on tbe walls of 
Edinbiirffb immediately after the commis- 
sion of ue crime. His appointment, during 
the short period of Bothwell's power, to 
the incongruous post ~ for a lawyer — of 
governor of Edinburgh Castle ; his acting 
as commissary in the divorce suit by Lady 
Bothwell against ber husband, and as 1<h4 
clerk register in tbe registration of Mary's 
consent to tbe contract of marriage witb 
Bothwell, leave no doubt that he was a 
useful and ready instrument in tbe hands 
of the chief assassin, and received his re- 
ward. With an adroitness in changing sides 
in which, tboujjb not singular, he excelled 
tbe other politicians of the time, he fore- 
stalled tbe fall of Bothwell and made terms 
with Murray by tbe surrender of the c&atle, 
receiving in return a gift of the priory of 
Fittenweem, an annuity for his son out of 
the rents of the priory of St. Andrews, and 
a pardon for his share in Bamley's death. 
According to the journal ascribed to Mary's 
secretary, Nau, it was by the advice of 
Balfour, 'a traitor who offered himself first 
to tbe one party and then to the other,' tbat 
the queen left Dunbar and took the march 
to E!dinbu»b which led to her surrender at 
Carberry nnil. He was present at the battle 
of Langside, in tbe regent's army. Having 
surrendered tbe office of loid clerk register 
to allow of the reinstatement of Macgill, e 
friend of the regent Murray, Balfour received 





■ penuon of 60(M. and the presideaey of tha 
court of ■euion, from whicE William Baillia, 
Lend ProTvid, wu removed on the ground 
thkt he vu not, u the act instituting it re- 
quired, of the clerical order — a mere pre- 
tance on the part of the leader of the pro- 
teaUuit party. That he betrayed Bothwell 
Ly givinir the information which led to the 
inisrcaption of the casket letten it doubted, 
not becftuse Buch an act would be in the 
least inconiistent with his chaTBct«r, but 
because it is deemed by many a more pro- 
bable solution of the myster; that the letters 
wBTu (abricatioiu. During the regency of 
Uurrav he was suspected of intriguing with 
ihe adnereuts of the queen while ostensibly 
belonging to the party of the regent, and he 
was deprived of the otfice. of president in 
1666. Shortly before the death of Murray, 
Ualfour was imprisoned, on the sccusatioQ of 
Lennox, for his share in DamleT'e murder; 
but a bribe to Wood, the regents secretary, 

trocnred his release without trial, and though 
e lost the presidency of the court he retained 
the priory of Pittenweem. After the secession 
of Lennox to the regency, he was forfeited 
on 3U Aug. 1571, but he made terms with 
Morion in the fallowing year b^ abandoning 
his associates on the queen's side, Maitlaud 
of Lethingtou and Kirkcaldy of Grange, 
and negotiating the pacitication of Perth in 
1573. Not unnaturally distrusted, even b^ 
those he pretended to serve, and doubting his 
own safety, he soon afterwards fled to France, 
where he appear* to have remained till 1680, 
•nd in 1679 the forfeiture of 167 1 was renewed 

tioa oi the bond for Damley's murder which 
he had bimself drawn, but more j^bably of 
tlie snbaequent bond in support ofBothwell's 
marriage with Mary. The last certsin ap- 
pearance of Balfour in history is in a long 
L>tt«r bv him to Mary, on 31 Jan. I&Sa 
offering her his services ; but he is beh'eved 
to have lived till 1663, from an entry in 
the books of the privy couitcil on 24 Jan. 
1584, restoring his children, which refers 
to him aa then dead. By his wife Margaret, 
the heimsi of Michael Balfour, of Burleigh, 
he bad three daughters and six sons, uie 
pldeat of whom was created by James Lonl 
Balfour of Burleigh in 1606. Balfour ap- 
pears to hare been a learned lawyer, and is 
piaiaed br his coDtemporary, Henr^son, for 
the put he took in the commission issued in 
1660 for the consolidation of the laws. Some 
parts <rf the ecHnpilation, published in 1774 
&t>m a manuscript in the Advocates' Librarr, 
were taken fitmi the collection probably 

made by him in connection with this com- 
mission. But the special references to the 
Book of Balfour (XiW de Bt^four) and the 
fact that there was a subsequent commission 
issued by Morton in 1574, in which, although 
he was a member, his exile in France cannot 
have admitted of his taking a leading part, 
deprive him, in theopinionttf the best autho- 
rities, of the claim to the authorship of tha 
whole manuscript, which has unfortunately 
been published under his name, and is known 
as ' Balfour's Fracticks,' the earliest text-book 
of Scottish law. The character drawn of him 
by an impartial historian is borne out bv con- 
temporary authority. 'He had servea with 
all parties, had deserted sll, yet had profitad 
by all. He had be«n the partisan ol every 
leader who rose into distinction amid the 
troubled elements of those times. Almost 
ever^ one of thasa eminent statesmen or 
soldiers he had teen perish by a violent 
death — Murray assassinated, Lethington fell 
by his own hand, Orange by that of the 
common executioner, Lennox in the field, 
Morton on the scaffold. . . . Theirs was, 
, upon the whole, consistent guilt. Balfour, 
on the other hand, acquired an acuteness in 
antitdpating the changes of party and the 
probable event of political conspiracy which 
enabled him rarely to adventure too far, 
which teuffht him to avoid alike the deter- 
mined boldnees that brings ruin in the case 
of failure and that lukewarm inactivity 
which ought not to share in the rewards of 
success' (TiTLBE, Ltfe of Craig, p. 106). 
Member of a house wluch had, in the words 
of Knox, * neither fear of God nor love of 
virtue further than the present commodity 
persuaded them,' he was himself, in the 
oriefer verdict of Robertson, ' the moat cor- 
rupt man of his age.' 

[Knox's Hist^iTy of th* KeibrmaUnD ; SpoUis- 
wnode'i History uf the Chiinh of Scotland; 
Ksitb't History; BsBnatyDs's Journal,' Sir 
James Hclvills's Memoir*; Ooodal's Prefiue to 
Baifoor'B Fracticks.] M. M. 

BALFOUR, Sib JAMES (1600-1657), of 
Denmiln and Kinnaird, historian and Lyon 
king-of-arms, the eldest son of Sir Michael 
Baliour of Denmiln in Fife, comptroller of the 
household of Charles I, and Joanna Denhsm, . 
wasbominl600. Tbeyoungestofthefamily 
was Sir Andrew Balfour [q. v.l an eminent 
botaniat, the friend of Sir Kobart Sibbald, 
who has written his life, along with that of 
Sir James, in a small and now scarce tract, 
' Memoria Balfoimona sive Historia rerum 
pro Lit«riB piomovendis gestarum a olsrissi- 
mis fratribus Balfouriis DD. Jacobo faarone 
de Kinni^ equite, liOoae r^ armonim, at 





BT). Andrea' M.D. equito aurato, a R. S., i 
M.D. equite aunto, 1699.' The bmil; of j 
thie branch of the Balfoun wu to remark- : 
able for it« numbers that Sir Andrew told ' 
Sibbald hie father had lived to see 300 de- I 
acendantB, and Sir Andrew himself twice 
that number de«cended from his father. Yet | 
the male line is now eitinct, aod, with the : 
eieeption of the two snbjecta of Sibbald's 
memoir and tbdr brother David, who b»- ' 
came a judge, they do not teem to have been . 
men of note. After a good education at home I 
Balfour was sent to travel on the continent, 
and after hit return, although he had ehown 
some inclination for poetrv in hia youth, | 
whenhe translated the'Pantliea'ofJohannaa 
LeoclueuB (John Leech) into Scottish verse, 
he devoted himself to the study of the his- 
tory and antiquities of Scotland. It was his I 
sood fortune, remarks Sibbald, to be 

time : Archbishop Spottiswoode and Calder- 
wood, the church historians; David Hume 
of Oodscroft, the writer of the history of 
the Douglsaes ; Wishart, afterwards Bishop 
of Edinburgh, the bif^rapher of Montrose ; 
Robert Johnston, who wrot« the history of 
Britain from 1577 ; the poet Drummond of 
Hawthomden, the histonan of the Jameses ; 
the brothers Pont, the geographers ; with the 
circle of friends. Sir Robert Gordon of Stra- 
loch. Sir John Scot of Scotstarvet and others, 
who contributed to the great atlas of Scot- 
land published bjBIaeu at Amsterdam; and 
Robert Haule, eonunissa^ of St, Andrews, 
a diligent antiquary and collector of the 
stamp of Balfour himself. Balfour waa 
himself addicted to heraldry, and, to perfect 
himself in it, went to London in 1 628, where 
he made the acquaintance of the English 
College of Heralds and Dodsworth and 
DugdsJe, then the leading English historical 
antiquaries. To the ' Monasticon ' of Dug- 
dale he contributed a brief account of the 
religious houses of Scotland. On his return 
he was knighted by Charles I on 2 May 1630, 
made Lvon king-of-enns, and crowned hy 
George Viscount Dupplin as king's commis- 
sioner by warrant dated SO April 1630. He 
was created a baronet 22 Dee. 1633, and 
deprived of the office of Lyon by Cromwell 
about 1654. During the civil war he r^- 
mained in retirement at Falkland or Ein> 
naird, collecting manuscripts and writing 
historical memoirs or tracts. 

As none of his works, except his ' Annals 
of the History of Scotland from Haleolm III 
to Charles ll,' and a selection of hia tracts 
(edited by Mr, James MaJdment, 1887), have 
been pinted, it is worth while to give Sib- 

bald's list of these in m^uscript, moat of 
which are now preserved in the Advocate*' 
Library, although soma were lost at tha 
siege of Dundee, where they had been sent 
for safety. 
The list is as follows : 1. ' A Treatise on 

espeoially tl 
rf the Ord< 

8. 'An Account of the Ceremoniea at the 
Coronation <^ Charles I at Holyrood ; ' and 
4. ' Of Charles at Scone.' S. ' An Account 
of the Coats of Arms of the Nobility and 
Gentry of Scotland.' 6. 'A Genealogy of 
all the Earls of Scotland from their Creation 
to 1S47.' 7. ' An Account of the Funeral 
Ceremonies of some Noble Persons.' 8. 'An 
Account of those who were Imighted when 
he was Lyon.' 9. ' An Account of the Im- 
presses, Devices, and Mottoes of several at 
our Kings and Queens.' 10. 'The Crmte, 
Devices, and Mottoes of the Scotch Nobility.' 
11. 'Injunctions by Sir James Balfour, Lyon 
King, t« be observed by all the Officeta-at- 
Arms.' 12. ' The True Present State of the 
Principalitj' of Scotland.' 13. ' Lists of the 
various Officers of State in Scotland and of 
the Archbishops of SL Andrews.' 14. ' Me- 
morials and Passages of State from 1641 
to 1664.' 16. < A Full Description of the 
Shore of Fife.' 16. ' A Treatise on Gems and 
the Composition of False Fredous Stones.' 
Besides theee he wrote several miscellaueoua 
works, chiefly on heraldic suty'ects. 

More important than the original work of 
Sir James Balfour was his diligence ss a col- 
lector, which preserved, shortly after th* 
dispersion of the treasures of tne monastic 

and registers of the Scottish bishoprics ai 

Dunfermline, Dryburgl^ Arbroath, and Aber- 
deen, the Registers of the Priory of St. 
Andrews and the Monasteir of Cupar. A 
full list of these and his other manuscripts 
is given by Sibbald. His valuable library, 
along with that of his brother Sir David, 
was dispersed by auction after the death of 
the lBtt«r, and the catalo^e printed at th« 
close of Sibbald's memoir is a valuable record 
of the library of a Scottish gentleman in the 
seventeenth century. Balfour was four times 
married, and died in 1667, survinuf hia&ther 
only five years. He was interred in Abdie 
Church. The ' Annals ' are not of much 
value, except in that part which is contem- 
porary, and even in that they are jejuna, 
preserving, however, some interesting parti- 
culars, chiefly in relation to the ceremoniea 
in which he took part as Lyon king. 

[Kbbald's lUmoria Balfoariana, !»»; Br1< 


Balfour s 

tonr'm EuUi*i««I Woriu, •ditad by lamas H*ig 
from tba Uiuiueript ID AdToeatu' library, 
1824.] X. M. 

BALPOUB, JAMES (1706-1796), phi- 
loetmher, was bom at Filng, neu £diiibuigli, 
in 1706, and, after studying at Edinbui^ and 
atLejden,wa£called to the Scottish Mr. He 
held the offices of treasurer to the foculty of 
■ilTocBtes am) aheriff-subatltilte of the county 
of Edinburah. In 1764 he was appointed to 
the chair of moral philosophy in tne univer- 
sity of Edinburgh, and in 1764 transferred 
to that of the law of nature and nations. 
He was the author of three philosophical 
books : 1. ' A Delineation of the Mature 
and Obligation of Morality, with Reflexions 
upon Mr. Hume's book entitled " An In- 
quiiy coDceming the Principles of Morals."' 
This book was published anonymously, the 
first edition in 1763, the second in 1763. 
2. ' PhilosophidJ Bsaays,' published anony- 
mously in 1768. S. 'Philosophical Dissec- 
tatioos,' published in 1782 under the au- 
thor's name. These writings are marked by 
» calm tone of good sense and good feeling, 
but are not very powerful in thoufi'ht *^ 
U'Cosh, in his work — *'■- ' °—"-^ 

a the ' Scottish Philo- 

•ophT,' sa^ of him : ■ He sets out (in his 
" DelineBtion ") with the prindple that 
priTsle happiness must be the chief end and 
abject of ereiy man's nursuit ; shows how 
the good of others affords the greatest bappi- 
iteasi and then, to sanction natural conscience, 
he calls in the authority of Ood, who must 
approve of what promotes the greatest hap- 
pineai. This theory does not gire morality 
a sufficiently deep foundation m the consti- 
tution of man on the character of Ood, and 
could not hare stood against the assaults of 
Hume. ... In his " PhilosojJiical Essays " 
1m wTot« against Hume and Lord £aimes, 
«nd in defence of actiTe power and liberty. 
Like all active opponents of the new scepti- 
amm, ha felt it necessary to oppose the fa- 
vourite tiieory of Locke, that all our ideas 
«rB derived from sensation and reflexion.' 

Balfour's mother was a Miss Hamilton, 
of Airdrie, great^^randaunt of the late Sir 
William Hamilton, Bart., professor of lo^ic 
and metaphysics in the university of Edm- 
burgh 1836-1866. His eldest sister married 
Oavin Hamilton, bookseller and publisher 
in Edinbnijgh (a^. U is believed, a member 
of the Airdne &mily), whose eldest son was 
Bobert Hamilton, professor of mathematics 
in Harischal College and University, Aber- 
deen, antbor of « treatise on the national 

s Balfour 

Scottish Philosophy ; Lsttsr to the writer from 
John M. Balfou-Ualvitle, Esq., of Pilris and 
Hotmt Hslville, grsa^gnndson of Pnrfeisor 
Balfour.] W. O. B. 

BALPOUB, JOHN {d. 1688), third 
Babon BtLPOUB op BrBLBtsK, succeeded bia 
father Bobert, second Lord Balfour of Bur- 
leigh [q. v.], in 1663. In his youth he went 
to France tor his education. In an 'afiair of 
honour' he was there wounded. He returned 
home through London early in 1649, and mar- 
ried Isabel, daughter of another scion of hie 
house— Sir Wifiiam Balfour [q. v.] of Pit- 
cullo, Fife, lieutenant of the Tower. The 
young married pur set off for Scotland in 
Marc£. They found the father strongly dis- 
pleased. The displeasure took the preposte- 
rous shape of asking the general assembly 
of the kirk of Scotland to annul the mar- 
riage. The petitbn was quietlv shelved. 
The plea for the dissolution of the tie wae 
'the open wound' he still bore, and which 
paternal wrath deemed a disqualification for 
marriage. He died in 1688, leaving beeidee 
Robert, his heir and successor, two sons and 
six daughters. This Lord Balfour of Bur- 
leigh has been traditionally styled 'Cove- 
nanter,' which he aasuredly never was. On 
Sir Walter Scott must be laid the blame — 
if blame it be — by having appropriated the 
name and designation in his ' John Balfour 
of Burley' in 'Old Mortality.' John Bal- 
four, the 'Covenanter,' was historically 'of 
Kinloch,' not of Burleigh, and the principal 
actor in the assassination of Archbishop 
Sharp in 1679. Forthiscrime his estatewaa 
forfeited and a large reward offered for his 
capture. He fought at Brumclog and at 
Bothwell Bridge, and is said to have escaped 
to Holland, and to have there tendered nia 
services to the Prince of Orange. It is ge- 
nerally supposed that John Balniur of Burtev 
died at sea on a return vovage to Scotlani 
But in the ' New Statistical Account of Scot- 
land,' under ' Boseneath,' strong presumptions 
are stated for believing that he never left 
Scotland, but found an asylum in the parish 
of Roseneath, Dumbartonshire, under the 
wing of the A^yll &mily. According to 
this account, having assumed the name of 
Salter, his descendants continued there for 
many generations, the last of the race dying 
in J816. Scott noted in his ' Old Mort^ty^ 
that in 1608 a Lieutenant-colonel Balfour 
de Burleigh was commandant of the troops 
of the TTing of Holland in the West Indies. 

[Authorities as nndiir BaLrooB, Robbbt, 
second Lord Balfour; Scott's Old Mortality, 
note 2, B ; Anderson's Scottish Nation ; Lslter 
from the pressnt Lord BoUbsr of Bmleigba 
EcDoet.] A. B. a. 





leai), botuuBt, wu bom in Edinburgh on 
16 SepC. 1B08, hiB bther bavinf^ been a. aur- 
seon in the army, and one of ma near rela- 
tiTea having been Jamee Button, ftutbor of 
the ' Theory of the Earth.' After eompletr 
'mg his earlv education at the High School of 
Eaiaburgh ne studied at St. Andrew's and 
Edinbiugh Universitiea, graduating H.A. 
and M.D.Ediu., the latter in 1882. He gave ^ 
up the intention of seeking ordination in the 
cfiuTcb of Scotland, for which he at flrat 
prepared, became M.R.C.S. 1631, F.R.C.S. 
(Edin.) 1833, and, after studying some time in 
continental medical schools, eommeuced me- 
dical practice in Edinburgh in 1831. He had 
previoualy been greatly attracted to botanical 
■tudiea by Professor Qraham's lectures and 
excursions, and continuing to enlarge his 
botanical knowledge, in 1^6 he was proici- 
uent in establishing the Botanical Societv of 
Edinbunh, and in 1838 the Edinburgh Bo- 
tuiiealdlub. lulSlOhe commenced togive 
*xtr»-«cademical lectures on botany at Edin- 
burgh, and had considerable success. lu 
1841 lie succeeded Dr. (afterwards Sir) W. 
J. Hooker aa profeasor of botany at Qlasgow 
Univereity, and thenceforward gave up me- 
dical practice, In 1846, on the death of 
Graham, Balfour became profeagor of botany 
at Edinburgh, and was nominated regius 
keeper of the Rojal Botanic Garden and 
queen's botanist lor Scotland. Becoming 
F.Ra. (Edinburgh) in 1836, he was for many 
years an active secretary of the society. For 
thirty yean he was dean of the medical fa- 
culty of the university of Edinburgh, in 
which capacity he was moat valuable to the 
medical school, and very popular with the 
students. His botanical excursions with pup ila 
were most energelically conducted, aod ex- 
tended to almost every part of Scotland. He 
ascended every important peak, and gathered 
every rarity in the flora, tinder his care and 
in co-operation with the curators, the Mao- 
nabs, father and sou, the Royal Botanic Gar- 
dens were much enlarged and improved, and 
a fine palm-house, an arboretum, a good mu- 
seum, and excellent teaching accommodation 
provided, tie was the first in Edinburgh 
to introduce classes for practical instruction 
in the use of the microscope. He retired from 
o&ce in 1879, when he received the title of 
emeritus professor of botany, became assessor 
in the university court for the general council, 
and each of the three universities with which 
he bad been connected confen»d on him the 
degree of LL.D. For man^ yean he waa 
a fellow of the Royal Society of London, 
and a member of a large number of British 
and foreign acieulific societies. He died at 

Inverleith House, Edinburgh, on II Feb. 

Inducted into botany before microacoi»cal 
work had been largely developed, and before 
the advent of modem views on vegetable 
morphology and physiology, Balfour wa« 
almost necessarily for the most part a sya- 
t«matic botanist His orif^nal work was not 
extenuve, and it is as a t«acher and writer 
of text-books that be was chiefly known. 
His teaching was punetaking and conscien- 
tious, earnest and impreBsive, and charao- 
tensed by wealth of illuatration and a faculty 
of imparting his own enthusiasm. He was 
impartial in the breadth of hia teaching, and 
ever anxious to assimilate new knowledge. 
His character was deeply religious, and he saw 
in the objects of nature mdubitable evidences 
of a great designius mind. His geniality 
was contagious, and it is related of him 
that on hie botanical excursions, as the party 
neared the habitat of some rare Alpine herb, 
the wiry and enercetic profeew» — ' W6ody 
Fibre ' as they called hmi — would outstrip 
all in his eagerness to secure it } and that 
in toiling up a long ascent, his jokes and 
puns would keep the whole party in good 

Balfour wae for many years one of tlw 
editors of the ' Annals of Nstuwl History ' 
and of the ' E!dinhuigh New FhOoaophical 
Journal,' and contributed important articles 
to several cyclopeedias. In bio^jghy he 

,' Lond. 1866; and a ''Sketch of D. 

text-books went through numerous editions, 
and included a 'MfinuU,' 1848, revised 18eU( 
a 'Class Book,' 1862; 'OutUnes' 1S64;' Ele- 
ments,' 1869; a ' Fint ' and a ' Second Book,' 
with other minor manuals ; ' Botanist's Com- 
panion,* 1860; 'Botaniat's Vade Hecum;' 
' Guide to the Royal Botanic Gardens, Eldin- 
burgh,' 1873. His ' Introduction to Falnon- 
tolodcal Botany,' 1872, was the least suc- 
cesmil of his botanical works. He wrote 
several botanico-religioua books, such as 
' Phyto-Theology,' l&ol, entitled in its third 
edition, ' Botany and Reliffion;' 'I^anta of 
the Bible,' 1867 ; ' Lessons &om Bible Planta,' 
1870. He also wrote the botany in UocCrie's 
' Bass Rock; X848. 

BALFOUR, NI8BET (1748-1823),a most 
distinguished officer under Lord ComwaUia 
in the American war of independence, was not 
(as Draper's ' American Biography ' asserta) 


Balfour 5 

the Bou of ft small bookseller in Edinliurg'h, 
but tha }a«t representatiTB of the Balfours 
of Dunbog in the countv of Fife. Hsjry 
BaUout, the tint Uird of rhmbog-, was tbe 
lliiid son of Jolin, third Lord Balfour of Bur- 
leigh [q. v.], sjid in the middle of the lost 
ceaturjr officers bad very little chance of rising 
to higher rank who were not of good family. 
He was bom at Dunbog in 1743, and entered 
tbe army as ensign in the 4th regiment in 
17flt. He was promoted lieutenant in 1765, 
and captain in 1770, but did not see service 
till the outbreak of the .\niericAn war. He 
distinguished himself at the battle of Bunker's 
Uill, where he was severely wounded, and St 
Long Island and Brooklyn. InAuKuatl776 
bia services were so conspicuous at the taking 
of New York, that he was sent home with 
tbe despatches announcing the success, and 
was promoited major by brevet. He at once 
returned to Amenca, and stmck up a warm 
fnendship with many of the younger officers, 
includingLord ComwaUis and Lonl Rawdon. 
He was present at the battles of Eliiabetb- 
town, Brandywiue, and Oermantown, and, 
after being appointed lieutenant-colonel of 
the 33rd regiment in 1778, accompanied 
Comwallis to Charleston. AfMr the capture 
of tbe cit^ he was appointed commandant at 
Ninsty-Su, and there ' by his attention and 
diligence,' says Gomwallis, succeeded in rais- 
ing 4,000 militia amona' the loyal colonists. 
la the following year he accepted the diffi- 
cult and invidious post of commandant at 
Charleston, and there acquitted himself to 
the complete satiaiaction a( Comwallis. He 
obeyed to the letter the rigoroua orders of 
Comwallis against the colonist*, and incurred 
much odium for carrying out the execution 
of a planter named Isaac Hayne, which Lord 
Kawdon had ordered. ' You have done what 
few officers in our serrice are capable of 
dointr,' wrote Comwallis to Balfour on 
12 Nov. 17R0, 'and have voluntarily taken 
reeponsibility on yourself to serve your 
country and your friend' (CorwBatlit Dt»- 
fMiteA«i, Comwallis to Balfour, 1.46). When 
the war was over, Balfour was rewarded for 
his service^ with the rank of colonel and the 

[■ointment of aide-de-camp to the king. 

I was also appointed, with a lawyer named 
Spranger, on a commission to award the 
money granted by parliament to those lo^ 


colontsta who had suffered in the w 


t military society, and in 1790 
Hr. Stewart, of Castle Stewart in Wigton- 
shire, who hod married his only slater, re- 
turned him to parliament for tbe Wigton 
Bnrghs. In 1793, nn the outbreak of the 
war with Frnnce, he was promoted major- 

r Balfour 

gnsral, and received the command of t, 
igade in the force which hie old comrade. 
Lord SawdoD, now Lord Moira, was to take 
to the west coast of France. With the rest 
of Lord Moira's army, Balfour joined tha 
Duke of York in Flanders in 1794. Though 
Lord Moira returned home, Balfour volun- 
teered to continue his services in any capa- 
city in which he could be usefiil, and sasiated 
General Ralph Abercromby in commanding 
the reserve till December 1794. He never 
again saw active service, but continued to 
sit in parliament, first for Wigton Buigha/ ' 
and then for Arundel, till 1803. He vras 
mode colonel of the S9th regiment in 1794, 
and promoted lieutenant-general in 1798, 
and general in 1603. He retiredto his family 
seat, Dunbog, and there died at the advanceii 
age of eighty, in October 1823, being then 
sixth general in seniority aft«r sixty-two 
years' service. Ha bequeathed Dunbog to 
his nephew William Stewart, who took the 
name of Balfour. Bis reputation was made 
in the American war, and the firiendship of 
such generals as Hastings and Gomwallis 
■ justify it 

Royal Military 
For his sBrvicts in America consult 
Bajicroft's History of the United States, passim, 
and the contomporaiy aoconnts of the war in 
South Carolina ; saa also tbe Oemwaltia Da«- 
patches, edited by Boos, ISfiS. For the cam- 
pai|{i> ID Flandera, see the Jonmols and Latten 
of Sir Harry Calvert.] H. M. S. 

BALFOtTR, ROBERT (1660P-1626F), 
Scotch philoaopher and philologist, is believed 
to have been Dom about ICGO. According 
to the statement of David Buchanan, be de- 
rived bis lineage from a diatinmiishad family 
in Fifeshire, but he has himself informed us 
{OoTranentaritti in CUomtdem, 196) that he 
was bont in Forfarshire, prol^bly near Dun- 
dee. From a achool in his native district he 
was sent to the university of St. Andrews, 
and thence he proceeded to the univer- 
sity of Paris, where he attracted much at- 
t«ntion by toe ability with which he pub- 
licly maintained certain philosophical theaes 
against all oppugnere. Afterwards he was 
invited to Bordeaux by the archbishop of 
that see, and there he became a member of 
the college of Guieune. He was elected pro- 
fessor of Greek, and at length, probably 
1586, was appointed principal of the coll^ 


which be cc 


govern for many years. 
It appears that he was alive in 1636, but the 
date of his death is not recorded. Balfour 
left behind him the character of a learned 
and worthy man, the only &ult attributed 
to bim by one liiographoi being hie Mduu* 





kdherence to the Roman catholic faitH. Hia 
oontomporaiT^, Dempster, tajs he vu ' the 
phmniz of his age ; a phiioaopber profoundlj 
■killed in tlie Greek and Latin languages ; a 
mathematician worth]' of being compat^ 
with the ancients ; and to those qualifications 
he joined a wonderful suavity 01 manner, and 
the utmost warmth of affection towards hia 
countrymen.' His reputation as a scholar 
rests mainly on his commentary on Aristotle. 
He titles of hia works are : 1. ' Oelaaius, 

Ivrrayjia ritP nrrd rijn ir Nu;at^ Ayiaw XuiwiAair 
vpavBimtv' Paris, 1599, 8to; Heidelberg, 
1604, fol. An edition of the Greek teit, ac- 
companied by aLatiu translation. Gelasius. 
with Balfours translation, has been reprinted 
in sereral editions of the Concilia. 2. ' Cleo- 
media Heteora Grnce et Lattne. A Roberto 
Balforeo ex MS. codice Bibliothecte Blus- 
triasimi Cardinalta loyoeii moltia mendia 
repurgata, Latinft versa, et perpetuo com- 
mentario iUustrata.' Bordeauic, 1606, 4to. 
Thia work waa commended by Barthiua and 
Other learned men, and even in the present 
century it was held in such estimation that 
it was republished by Professor James Bake 
at Leyden in 1830, 8to. 3. ' Piol^^mena in 
libros Topicorum Ariatat«lis,' 161G, 4to, 
4. ' Commentarii in Organum Lcf^um Aria- 
totelia,'BoTdeaux,1618,4to. 6. 'Commentarii 
in lib. Ariat. de Philosophia tomus secundus, 

!|no post Organum Logicum, qiUMnimque in 
ibros Ethicorum occnmint difficilia, dilucide 
eiplicantur,' Bordeaux, 1620, 4to. 

[Buchanan, I)e Scriptoribos Scotis, 129 ; 
Dempster, Hist. Eccleeiastica Oentis Scotorum, 
1 le ; Irring's Livu of Scottish Writers (1830), 
i. 234-40; Anderaoa's Scottish Nation. 1. 217; 
Chainben'B Biog. Diet, of Eminent Scotsmen, ed. 
Thomson, L 68 ; Cat. of Priatal Books in Brit. 
Miu.] T. a 

BALFOUH, ROBERT (d. 1663), second 
Babox Baltoubof Bdblbioh, military com- 
mander, waa son of Sir Robert Amot of Femie, 
chamberlain of I^fe. He married Margaret, 
daughter of Michael Balfour of BuAeiali 
and Margaret, daughter of Lundie of Luudie, 
and his wife succeeded her father (who was 
created 7 Aug. 1606 Lotd Balfour of Bur- 
leigh) as Baroness Balfour of Burleigh. 
TfaeieupoUjbyaletterfrom the king (James I) 
Amot becune Lord Balfour of Burlragh, 
the second bolder of the title. At the as- 
sembly of the Scottish parliament in 1640 
(11 June) the 'estates' appointed him their 
president. He was contmued in the office 
in 1641, and was one of the commiasionars 
for a treaty of peace with Enrland in 1640-1. 
He was also conetitutod of the privy council 
* ad ntoffl aut culpam ' by the parUoment sf 

Scotland 11 Nor. 1641. Buring the warsitf 
Montrose he waa energetic on the side of the 
government He assumed milita^ com- 
mand, but waa not succecsful. Hontrca* 
defeated him 12 Sept. 1644 near Aberdeen, 
and again (with General Baillie) at Kilsyth, 
IS Au^. 1646. He was opposed to the cele- 
brated and unfortunate ' engagement * to 
maicb into England for the rescue of the 
king. He had weight enough to diaauade 
Cromwell then from the inraaion of Scot- 
land. In 1649, under the act for putting 
< the kingdom in a posture of defence,' he 
waa one of the colonels for Fife. He waa 
further nominated in the same year one of 
the commissioners of the treasury and ex- 
chequer. He died at Burleigh, near Kinross, 
10 Aug. 1GG3. His wife died before him (in 
ieS9). They had one son [see Bukvil 
John, tltird Lord Balibur of Bnrleig^] and 
four daughters. 

[liinoDt'aADiuils, US.; Balfour's Annals, U3.; 
DoQgUti's Pserage of Sootland, by Wood, 2 vols, 
folio, 1813; Qfurge Crawford's PeersitB of Seot- 
lanl, 17ia.fbliu,pp. S3-4;Sihha1d's EinroMsod 
fife ; Andsrwm'B Scottish Natioa.] A. B. Q. 

BALFOUR, ROBERT {d. 1767), fifth 
Baron Balfocs of Buklbisb, Jacobite, 
when a youth fell in love with a ' pretif &ce,' 
far inferior in rank, much to the annovanoe 
of the family. He was sent to travel abroad 
in the hiyae that he would foraet bis attach- 
ment. Before he set out he declared to his 
lady-love that if in his absence ahe married 
he should kill her husband. Notwithstanding 
the threat, she did marry a Henry StAuhouse, 

return his first inquiry waa after the girL 
On being informed of her marriage, he pro- 
ceeded on horseback (with two attenduits) 
directly to the school at Inverkeithing, 
called Stenhouse out, deliberately shot him 
(wounding him in the shoulder), and quietly 
returned to Burleigh. This was on 9 April 
1707. The poor schoolmaster lingered twelve 
days, and tlien died. Balfour was tried for 
the murder in the high court of justiciary on 
4 Aug, 1709. The defence was ingenious, but 
inadequate. He was brought in guilty, and 
sentenced to be beheaded on 6 Jan. 1709-10. 
But a few days prior to this he escaped from 
the prison (' Heart of M idlotbian ') by eicbaug- 
ingclotheswithhis sister, who resembled him. 
He skulked for some time in the neighbour- 
hood of Burleigh, and a great asb-tree, hollow 
in the trunk, was long shown as his place of 
concealment. On the death of his &ther,in 
1713, the title devolved on him. His next 
appearance was at the meeting of Jacolntea 

., Google 




kt Loehnuben, 29 May 17U, when 'the 
Pietender'a ' hnlth wu drunk at the croBt, 
on tfaor ImetiB, Lord Burleigh denoiuKnng 
dunnation •gainst all who would not drink 
it. He en^iged in the rebellion of 1716. 
Foi this he w>a attainted b; act of parlia- 
ment, and hia e«t«t«e forfeiMd to the crown. 
He died, without iuua, in 1757. 

[ADdciaoB^ Srattiah NatioD ; Haclanrin'i Cri- 
■unal Trials 1 Bae'i HiHoi? cf the ReMlioo.] 
A. B. Or. 

BALFOim, Sis WILLIAM (A 1660^ 
parliamentuy general, of the lunily of Bal- 
four of iWnllo, flfeehire, a^pean to have 
been bant before the acceeaion of James I 
to the Eng^i■^1 throne, for in 1642 he ob- 
tained a naturalisation bill {Lordi Journal*, 
3S Ha; 1642). He entered the Dutch mt- 
vice and continued in it till 1627. In that 
Tear he became lieatenant-colonel in the 
Earl of Morton's regiment, took part in the 
expedition to the iale of Rh6, and was noticed 
■• Deing one of the officen moat faToured bj 
the Duke of Buckdngham (FosnES, L^ of 
£Uot, ii. 7B). In January lESS he was 
charged by the king, in conjunction with 
Colonel Italbier, to raise 1,000 horse in 
niedand, but the suspicions this ivcgect 
•ronaed in the Commons obliged the king to 
abandon the plan, and to assure the house 
that theae troops were never meant to be 
employed in England. On the death of 8ir 
Allen Apelay, 8ir William, who is described 
as one of the gentlemen of the king's privy 
chamber, was appointed governor of the 
Tower(18 0ct. 1630, CW.S. P., Dom.). In 
October 16S1 he was employed on a coufi- 
doitial misaion to the Netherlands. He also 
received buhj other marks of the king's 
tkyoar, indoding the grant of a lucrative 
patent for making gold sod silver monev in 
the Toiwer (1033). Nevertheless Balfmir, 
* from the banning of the Long parliament, 
accotding to the natural custom of his 
coimtrj, forgot all his obligations to the 
king, and miade himself very nacious to 
tiMM people whose glory it was to be thought 
anemiM to the court ' (CuKSBDOir, iv. 1 47). 
Perliapa religious motives had something to 
do wiUi this change of parties, for Balfour 
was a violent opponent of popery, and had 
once beaten a pneat for trying to convert his 
wife {Btraffiird Corr. ii. 166). Strafford was 
entrusted to Balfour's keeping, and though 
ofibred 20,000/. and an advantageous match 
for his daughter, he refiised to connive at 
tbe earl's eecape, or to admit Captain Bil- 
linKsley and his snapicious levies to the 
Tower <a Uay 1641, RtrsHWOBTH, iii. i. 360). 
The king, therafbre, persuaded or obliged 

Balfour to resign hia poet in the following 
December. The accounts given of the causes 
of this reeignatioD differ considerably (Ci-a- 
BHRDOV, iv. 101 ( GAsnuBB, HitUny of 
England, x. 108 j and the pamphlet entitled 
A TtrribU Plot offoitut London and Wett- 
mnuter). When the parliament raised an 
army Sir William was appointed lieutenant- 
general of the horse, under the nominal com- 
mand of the Earl of Bedford. He com- 
manded the reserve at Edgehill, broke several 
regiments of tbe king's foot, and captured 
part of his artillery. Ludlow describes 
nim spiking the Mug's guns with his own 
hands, and all accounts agree in praise of 
his services. He did not take part in the 
first battle of Newbury, having gone abroad 
to try the waters on account of bis health 
(LoTde Journal*, 2 Aug. 164S). In the 
^ring of 1644 he was detached from the 
armv of Eaaei vrith 1,000 horse to reinforce 
WaUer, and shared the command at the vic- 
tory of Alresford. Uie letter of SO March 
1644 to Essex, relating the battle, was or- 
dered to be printed. lie then r^oined Es- 
sex, accompanied him into Oomvrall, and 
took Weymouth and Taunton (June 1644). 
When the infuitry was forced to surrender, 
he broke through the king's lines, and 'by 
an orderly and well-governed march passed 
above lOO miles in the king's quartera,* 
and succeeded in joining General Middleton. 
At the second battle of Nuwbuiy be com- 
manded the right wing of the parLamentary 
horse (see Manchette/t Qaarnl with Oom- 
veU, Camden Society ; and tbe letters wgnad 
by Balfour, p. 66). This was Balfour's last 
public exploit ; with the organisation of the 
new model he retired from military service. 
The House of Commons appointed a com- 
mittee 'to consider of a fit recompense and 
acknowledgment of the faithful services done 
by him to the public ' (91 Jan. 1646), and the 
House of Lorda votc^ tbe payment of his 
arrears (7,000^) and specially recommended 
him to the Commons (21 July). But some 
intercepted correspondence seems to have 
awakened suspicions and caused delaysinthis 
payment (see Commimt' Joumali, 36 March 
and 12 April 1646). Sir William Balfour's 
wiU was proved in 1660. 

[Clnrendon's History of the Sebellion ; Tiears's 
ParliamBntary ChroEicle ; Calendar of Domsstic 
State Pspers; Sicmft's Cbsmpions (1647^ eon- 
tains a portrait and pansgyrio of 8ir William 
BalfouTJNo.zTiii.); in tbe Straffbrd Coirespon- 
denee (vol. i 88, 97. 120) are sonw pam^gea 
which appear toprore that Balfour was indebted 
to tbs king's favoDT for the Irish esbite which 
he is said to have porcbaaed ftam Lord Ralfbac 
(rfChmvlsT.] CH.r. 





BAliFOUB, WILLIAM (1785-1838), 
lieutenant-colonel, vaa & boy-ensign in the 
40th foot at the Helder, and won the ap- 
proval of Sir John Moore. He terved on 
the staff of Major^ner&l Brent Spencer in 
the Meditemnean and at the capture of 
Copenhafren, and received a brevet lieu- 
tenant-colonelcy for Benice in the field with 
the 40th in the Peninsula and south of France 
in 1813'14. After a few years on half-pay, 
he became lieutenant-colonel of bis old regi' 
ment,commandil]ff it for several years in New 
South Wales, and he waa afterwards in com- 
mand of the S2ad foot in Mauritius. He 
retired from the annj ia 1833, and died in 
February 1836. 

[Army list* ; London Oazattes; Gent, Mag. 
183B.] H.M. C. 

BALaTrr,CHAELES, M.D.(170e-1767), 

physician, was bom at Derweut Ilall, Derby- 
Hhire, in 1706, and was educated at Chester- 
field grammar school and St. John's College, 
Cambridge, where he too1< the degree of M.B. 
in 17al, and M.D. in 1760. He practised at 
Peterborough, and was secretary of the Ute- 
raryclubthere. Hecontributedtothe'Philo- 
aophiciLlTransactianB'(No.434,p. UlS),and 
in 1741 he published, anonymously, a trana- 
lalion of Boccaccio's 'Decameron.' Thlshas 
been several times reprinted, and is the only 
good tranHtation in English. He wmtesome 
medical essays, and particularly a treatise 
' De Morbo Milisri' (Lond. 1758). He died 
at Peterborough 28 Feb. 1767, and was buried 
in the chancel of St. John's Church, where 
is a marble monument to his memory, de- 
scribing him as ' a man of various and great 
teaming.' The statement that he translated 
the 'Decameron' is evidenced by the notes 
of his school friend, Dr. Samuel Pegge, in the 
Collie of Arms, who expressly mentions the 

BALGUT, JOHN (1686-1748), divine, 
was bom IS Aug. 16841 at SheffleUl. His 
&ther, Thomas, who was master of the 
Sheffield grammar school, died in 1696, and 
was succeeded hy Air. Daubuz, under whom 
John Balguy studied until admitted at St, 
John's College, Cambridge, in 1702. He 
wasted two years in reading romances, but 
upon meeting with Livy turned to olaraical 
studies. He graduated as B.A. in 1706-6 
nnd L26. Upon leaving Cambridge 
lie taught for a time in the Sheffield gram- 
mac s^ool, and 10 July 1708 became tutor 

to Joseph Banks, son of Mr. Banks of Scof.- 

ton in Nottinghamshire, and grandfather ot 
the famous Sir Joseph Banks. In 1710 he 
was ordained deacon, and in 1711 priest, by 
j Sharp, archbishop of York j and in the last 
year entered the family of Sir Henry Liddel, 
of Ravensworth Castle, Durham, who pre- 
sented him to the small livings of Lamesby 
and Tanfield. He wrote a new sermon 
every week for four years, and afterwards 
burnt 300 sermons in order that his son 
might be forced to follow the example of 
original composition. In 1716 he miarried 
Sanh, daughter of Christopher Broomhead, 
of Sheffield, and left Sir H. Liddel to senle 
in a house of his own, colled Cos-Close, in 
the neighbourhood. In 17 18 he took part in 
the Bangorian controversy, defending Hoad- 
ley against Stebbing. Bishop Hoadley and tho 
booksellers — who thought that the pnblie 
were tirad of the subject— induced him t« 
desist after publishing two pamphlets ; and 
Hoadley persuaded him also to auppreas in 
1720 a letter to the famous Dr. Clarke which 
it was thought might injure the doctor's 
chances of preferment, though dealing with 
the pureljr philosophical question of natursl 
immortality. Balguy was a disdpte and 
admirer of Clarke, and his chief pubUcationa 
were in defence of Clarke's philoeophical and 
ethical doctrines. They are : — ' A Letter to 
a Deist,' 1726, in which he attacks Shaftes- 
bury ; ' The Foundation of Moral Goodness,' 
1728, which is an answer to ShaftesbuiVs 
disciple, Hutcheson, and argues, aft«r Clarke, 
that moralitv does not depend upon the in- 
stincts or adections, but upon the ' unalter- 
able reason of things.' A second part, pub- 
lished in 1729, is a detailed reply to the 
criticisms of a friend (Lord Darcy, aa the 
younger Balguy tells us), who had defended 
Hutcheson. In 1730 he published ' Divine 
Rectitude,' in which he a^ued that 'the 
first spring of action in the Deity ' was 'rec- 
titude ; ' whilst Mr. Qrove declu«d it to be 
'wisdom,' and Mr. Bayea to be ' benevolence.' 
It waa followed by 'A Second Letter to a 
Deist,' defending Clarke against Matthew 
Tindal's ' Chriatianity as ffld as the Cre»- 
tion,' and by a pamphlet called * The Law of 
Truth, or the Obligations of Reason essential 
to all Religion.' These tracU were collected 
in a volume dedicated to Hoadley. In 1741 
appeared ' An Essay on Redemption,' of a 
rationalising tendency, and considered 1^ 
Hoadley to be stron^rin the 'demolishing' 
than the ' constructive ' part. He also pub- 
lished (1727- 6) an essay and sermon upon 
party spirit. Two volumes of his eermoni 
were published in 1748 and 1760 (NiOHOLa, 
Aneaihtet, iii. 220, and ix. 787). 



On 36 Jul 1727 Bolguf wm coUftted by 
Bokdley to & prebend in S^isbur^ and 
through the fnandsliip of Biahop Talbot 
obtained from the chapter of Dimiam (12 
Auff, 1729) the Ticarage of NorthBllerton in 
YorkHhire, worth 27(M. a jear. He had 
nuiij Mends in all parties, including Di- 
■hops Benson, Butler, and Seeker, and liord 
Banington. His tracts, which are t«Tse and 
well written, are all applications of the 
princtpies of which Clarke is the chief ei- 
ponent. He became an invalid, and saw 
little Bocietf except at Harrogate, which he 
feeqnented, and where he died, 31 Sept. 
174Ib, leaTing an only child, Thomas [see 
BALStnr, Thohab] living. 

BAiaUY, THOMAS (1718-1786), di- 
■rina, SOB of John BalguT [q. v.], was bom 
«t Cox-Close 27 Sept. 1718, educated at the 
Kipon Free School, and admitted to St. 
John's College, Cambridge, about 178S ; was 
B-A. I7S7, M,A. 1741, SXP. 1758. He was 
elected to a Piatt fellowship at St. John's in 
March 1741, which he held till 1748. In 
1744 he became assistant tutor to his friend 
m. Powell, tutor, afterwards master of St. 
J<^in's College, and gave lectures on moral 
philoeophy and the evidences ' for sixteen 
ye«n.' In 1743 he was deputy public 
orator, and in 1768 tutor to the Duke of 
Northumberland. He states in his father's 
' Life ' that he owed all his preferments to 
' (he favour and friendship of Bishop Hoadle^,' 
irho had given his father a prebend of Salis- 
buiy. HiH&ither,sBprebendarj,pre8ent«dhim 
(1748) to the rectory of North Stoke, near 
Grantham in Lincolnshire, which he vacated 
inl771 on becoming vicar of Alton in Hamp- 
shire. Through I^adley's influence he oo- 
tained a prebend of Winchester in 1758, and 
became archdeacon of SaUabury in 1769, 
and afterwards archdeacon of Winchester. 
Thomas was, however, less of a latitudinarian 
than his father, and opposed the sgitotion for a 
relaxation of Uie articles. Li 1769 he pub- 
lished a sermon upon the consecration of 
Bishc^ Shipley (Nichols, Antedolet, ix. 
634), which was answered by Priestley in 
'Observations upon Church Authority.' In 
1772 he published an archidiaconal charge, 
in which he defended subscription to articles 
of religion ; and in 1776 a sermon at the 
consecration of Bishops Hurd and Moore, 
which was answered in remarks ' by one of 

s fnend Dr. Powell, with a 
'life' of the author; and in 1783 'Divine 
Benevolence asserted,' part of an unflnished 

6i Baliol 

treatise on natural religion. In 1785 he re- 
published his lather's essay on Redemption, 

and a collection of sermons and chargee, 
Balguy was one of the admiring disciples of 
Warburton, and his name frequently appears 
in Warburton's correspondence with Hurd. 
On Warburton's death in 1781 he declined 
the appointment to the vacant bishopric of 
Gloucester on the ground of failing health 
and approaching blindneas, and diea 19 Jan. 
1795 at his prebendal house at Winchester. 
A monument to him is in the south aisle of 
the cathedral. His discourses, edited by 
Bev. James Brake (a relation to whom his 
manuscript* were bequeathed), were repub- 
lished at Cambridge in 1820. 

ghsmben's Dictionary ,' Warbrnton's Lstten 
ard; Nichola's AnBolotfs, iii. 230, viii. 16T, 
and siHewliPra; Niehuls's Ulnstratiuna, iii. 618; 
Prelnee tu DiBcOorses hj Drake.] L. 8. 

BALTOI^ ALEXANDER de (>». 1 246 P- 

1309 P), lord of Cavers and chamtjerlain of 
Scotland, ia one of the members of the Baliol 
family about whose pedigree great confufion 
exists. He was certainly not Ale.tander, 
son of Hugh Baliol of Barnard Castle, an 
elder brother of John Baliol the king, for 
this Alexander died in 1279 without issue, 
leaving a widow, Eleonora de Genovra (Hi- 
hek's Fadera, i. 10, 770). It is probnble, 
but not certain, that be was the sane penion 
as Alexander de Baliol, the son of Henry de 
Baliol, chamberlain of Scotland, wlio died 
in 1246, and Lora or Lauretta de Valoines, 
the coheiress along with her sister Christian, 
wife of Peter de Maulo of Panmnre, of the 
fiefs of the Valoines family in England. If so 
he can be traced in the records of Hertford- 
shire between 6th end S2nd Edward I in con- 
nection with the manor of Benington in that 
county, wliich he inherited through hie mo- 
ther (^iDLurrBKBCCK's Hrrt/brdthiit, vol. ii.). 
This identification would account for his ap- 
pointment to the office of chamberlain of 
Scotland, which had been field bv his father, 
his great-grandfatlier, William de Berhelev, 
Lord of Reidcastle, and one of his matenuil 
ancestors, Peter de Valoines. But tliere are 
two diflicullies attending it. Alexander cle 
Baliol the chamberlain is never mentioned 
as possessing Heidcastle in EoH'arsliire, the 
estate of Henry de Baliol, and it is difficult 
to account for his constant association with 
tlie estate of Cavers in Teviotdale, and not 
with any English flef^. Possibly the latter 
circumstance is due to the references being 
in the Scottish records. It appears that in 
82 Edward I (1304) Bennington was sold 
by AlexnndtT de Baliol to John de Bin- 
sted, and the conjecture seems admiseible 

D,. z..;l,COe>^IC 

Baliol I 

that Baliol niftjr have made Scotland the 
chief place of hii residence, though retaining 
Ewlish flab in right of his mother and bis 
wife. His preference for Scotland would, 
be coofinned by his succession to the high 
office which his father Eeoi^ had held. 
Whatever may be thought of this hypothesis, 
it is certain that Alexander de Baliol the 
Scottish chamberlain first appean as Dominus 
de Cavers in the Scottish records in 1270. 
Seven years later he was commigaioned, as 
lord of Cavere, to aerve in Edward's Welsh 
wars. In 1284, under the same designation 
of Dominus de Cavere, be was one of the 
Scottish barons who bound themselves to 
receive Margaret, the Maid of Norway, as 
queen in the event of failure of male issue 
of Alexander HI ; and as, in the same year, 
he received a summouB to attend Edward's 
army, he munt atill have retained English 
fiefs. In 1287 he is for the flnt time men- 
tioned in a writ by the guardiana of Scotland 
as chamberlain of Scotland, an office in 
which be succeeded John Lindsa;, bishop of 
fllaagow. Two years later he took part in 
the negotiations which resulted in the treaty 
of Sahibnry, 6 Nov. 1289, confirmed by the 
parliament at Brigham 14 March 1290, by 
which Edward the Prince of Wales was to 
marr^ Margaret, and Edward I solemnly re* 
cognised tbe independence of Scotland. Her 
death prevented the marriage, and Edward 
soon forgot or ignored hi» engiLgements. On 
6 June 1291 Baliol and his wife Isabella de 
Cbilham, widow of David de Stmthbogie, 
earl of Athol, received a letter of attorney 
and safe conduct from Edward permitting 
them to remain for a year in Scotland. He 
BtiU continued to hold the office of chamber- 
lain after the seisin of Scotland had been 
given to Edward I, as the condition of bis 
determining the suit as to the succession of 
the crown of Scotland ; but intheb^inning 
of 1292 we find Robert Heron, rector of 
Ford, associated with Baliol in this office, 
and as a writ of 1 Feb. of that year men- 
LS that Heron's wages had been granted 

appointed to control Baliol in the 
of the office. On 30 Dec. 1292 certain ot 
the records of Scotland which had been in 
the bands of Edward were redelivered to 
Alexander Bnliol as chamberlain of Soot- 
land. Baliol ie last mentioned as chamber- 
lain on 16 May 1294, and it seems probable 
that the dispute* between Edward and John 
Baliol led b) bis deprivation by the English 
king after or perhaps even before the cam- 
pnign of 1296, when Edward forced John 
Baliol to resign the crown and carried him 

1 Baliol 

captive toEngland, In 1297 John de Sandale, 
an English baron, appears as chamberlain of 
Scotland. From entrien in the accounts of 
the expenses of John Baliol when a prisoner 
in England with reference to a horse of 
Alexander de Baliol, it would seem that he 
shared the captivity of his kinsman. Oa 
13 Jan. 1297 Edward made a presentation to 
the church of Cavers, upon the ground that 
the land.1 of Alexander de Baliol were in his 
hands. A few scanty notices between 1398 
and 1301 indicate that he took part on the 
English side in the war with Scotland ; and 
from one of these we learn that he had 
mnnoiB in Kent, the wood of which he re- 
ceived the king's license to sell. 

Amongst the barons present at the siego 
of Caerlaverock in 1300 waa 

Mas Alisssndres d« Bailloel, 
Ke a tout bien ten metloit 1« oel| 
JauDe banUre avoit el champ 
At range escu voidie da champ. 
In 130S he seems to have shown symptoms 
of again fall ing off from the English side, 
for his chattels in Kent, Hertfordshire, and 


1 that year aeised by 

1304, in Edward's b 

the first year of Edward II he w 

to join John de Bretagne, earl of Richmond, 

in the Scottish campaign. 

His estates in Kent, of which tbe chief 
was the castte and manor of Chilham, were 
held by him in right of bis wife Isabella de 
Chilham, by whom be left a son of his own 
name. The date of his death ie unknown, 
but OS he was summoned to all the parlia- 
ments of Edward I between 1300 and 1307, 
and is not mentioned as summoned to any 
of Edward II, he probably died soon after 
the accession of that monarch. His son 
Alexander had a son, Thomas de Batiot of 
Cavers, who sold that estate to William, 
earl of Douglas, in 136S, and ie the last 
of the BalioU who appears in the Scottish 


r Bolls of Scotland, i.; Doeumenta 

Sir F. PalgTBTe; BiBtorical Docamsnu Scotland, 
1280-1306, edited by Rav. J. Stavimsoiii Acts 
Pari. Scotland, Record edition, voL i. ; Dugdale'a 
Baronage ; Snrtees' Hialory of Durbsni ; Clat- 
tcrbuek^ History of Hertfordshire; Crawford'a 
History of the Officer* of State of Scotland.) 

BAUOL, BERNARD db, the elder 
(Jl. 1186-1167). There ie great difficulty in 
filing with precision the early history of the 
family of Baliol, which was destined to play ao 
ill-omened a part in the annals of Scotland, ft 



etrcumitaiice which no doubt contribat«d to 
the obscurity of its records and the extino 
tion of it4 n&me. The founder of the house 
in EJuUmd was the Norman baron Guide or 
Guy de Bsliol, whose French &e& of Baillsul, 
in the depwrtment of L'Ome, two leagues 
from Argenton, Dampierre, Hsrcourt, and 
Vinoy, in Normandy, were long retained by 
lue descendants, and afforded a refuge when 
their English inheritance was forfeited along 
ivith the Scottish crown, which John wore 
BO short a time and Edward failed to re- 
cover. Guy is said, in a manuscript on which 
Surtaes, the historian of Durham, relies, to 
hare come ' to England with the Conqueror, 
And to him gave William Rufue the wuony 
of By well in Northumberland, and the foresta 
of Teesdale and Charwood, with the lordship 
of MiddleCon in Teeedale and Gainsford, with 
•11 their royalties, franchisee, and immuni- 
ties • (Bowk* MS., Shbtbes Durham, iv. 60). 
Bernard or Barnard Baliol is stated by the 
•ame nuaaserint to have built ' the fortress 
'which he called Castle Barnard, and created 
buigemM and endowed them with the lilie 
franchises and liberties as those of Rich- 
mond, astatementcorroboratedbytheancient 
and noble ruin which still overhangs the Tees. 
with ■ its uttermost walls of lime and brick 
and ' innermost cut in rocks of stone,' as the 
ballad runs, and by the charter of his son, a 
second Bernard, which confirms his father's 
ersnt to the burgesses (aPKTBBs,iT, 71). In 
1135 the first Bernard did homage, along 
with David I of Scotland, to the Empress 
Matilda, daughter of Henry I, but prior to 
the battle of the Standard, 1138, he re- 
nounced his homa^ and joined the party of 
Stephen. Along with Robert de Bruce, Lord 
of Aiinandale,a common interest then unitiog 
the ancestOTB of the future rivals, he was 
Mnt before the battle by the northern barons 
to make terms with David I, but without 
•ueceSB. Continuing to support Stephen, 
Bernard de Baliol was taken prisoner with 
him at Lincoln on 3 Feb. 1141. The charter 
of the second Bernard, still preserved, is 
nnfbrtonately without date, and there is 
no cbaTter-evidence to fix hia Other's death, 
bnt a fine exacted in U Henry H (1167), 
for neglecting to certify the number of his 
knights' fees, is assumed with probability by 
Surtees to refer to the time of his succes- 
sion, and to make the fact wbidi history re- 
cords of the capture of William the Lion at 
Alnwick in 1174 by a Bernard de Baliol 
along with other nortbem barons applicable 
to the second and not the first bearer of the 

[DngdaU's Banmage, correctad by SnrlMi^ | 
DarbM), iv. 01.] "" " 

} Baliol 

BAIJOL, BEIUfARD ss, the younger 
(/. 1167). Dugdale does not reoagnise a 
second Bernard, but for the reasons stated in 

the last article, the opinion of Surtees appears 
preferable, though it must be admittedthat 
his existence rests on the evidence of orae 
charter and the improbability of a single life 
having covered the period from 1136, when 
the firat Bernard must have at least attained 
majority, to nearly the close of the century. 
This Bernard joined Robert de Stuteville, 
Odonel de Umfraville, Ranulf de Glanville, 
and other northern barons, who raised the 
siege of Alnwick and took William the Lion 
prisoner in 1174. Our only further informa- 
tion about him consists of grants to varioos 
abbeys, one of which, to Rievaulx, was 
' for the good of his own soul and that of bis 
consort Agnes de Pinknej, and the confirma- 
tion of the privileges granted by his father 
to the burgesses of Barnard Castle. He was 
succeeded by his son Eustace, whose ex- 
istence is only known from charters of which 
the earliest, dated in 1190, is a license to 
marry the widow of Robert FiUpiers for a 
fine of 100 marks. He was succeeded about 
1216 by his son Hugh, the fatberof John de 
Baliol I, whose son was John de Baliol II, 
king of Scotland. 

king of Scotland, and Isabel, daughter of 
John de Warenne, earl of Surrey, on bis 
father's death in 1314succeeded to his French 
6eh, on which he lived till 1324, when he 
was invited by Edward H tc England, which 
he again visited in 1327, with the Tiew of 
being brought forward as a pretender to the 
Scottish crown. A more favourable oppor- 
tunity presented itself after the death of 
Robert Bruce in 1329. Baliol was again 
summoned to England SO July 133U, with 
permission to remain as long and return as 
often as he pleased in order that prepara- 
tions might be made for the invasion of Scot- 
land. Placing himself at the head of the 
disinherited barons whose lands bad been 
fbrfeited by Bruce for tbeir adherence to 
England, of whom the chief were Henry 
de Beaumont, Gilbert de Umfraville, and 
Thomas, Lord Wake of Liddell, and a small 
force of 400 men-at-arms and 3,000 foot, 
Baliolaailed from Ravenspur, near the mouth 
of the Humber, and landed at Kinghom, 
in Fife, on 6 Aog. 1332. The death of 
Randolph, the valiant regent who found 
a feeble succeasor in Donald, earl of Her, 
gave Baliol an advantage h» wu prompt 


Baliol fi 

to leize. After defeating the Eerl of Fife, 
who reposed hii Unding, he marched by 
UunfeirnliDe to the river Earn, surprised 
uid routed Mur at Dupplin Moor inth great 
elaOKhtar on 12 Aug., and took posseasion 
ol Perth. A threatened blocksde of that 
town by the Earl of March having been 
abandoned, Baliol was crowned at Scone 
on 34 Sept. by William Sinclair, bish^ of 
Dunlreld. Leaving Perth in ehai^ of the 
Earl of Fife, who soon surrendered it to the 
Scotch, Baliol marched towards the border, 
and at Roxburgh on 33Nov. met Edward m, 
acknowledged him as superior and lord of 
Scotland, and bound himself to serve in all 
hie wars. He further engaged to put him in 
poeaession of Berwick and to marry the prin- 
caia Johanna, already betrothed to David II. 
It was soon seen bow &affile was his tenure 
of the country he affected to dispose of, for 
on 16 Dec. he waa surprised at Annan W 
Archibald Douglas and coro|)letely defeatea. 
His brother Henry was slain, and he had 
liinuelf difficulty in escaping across the 
English border. In the following year, 
9 March 1333, with additional aid from 
England, Baliol returned and established 
his camp near Roxbur^, with the view of 
besieging Berwick. The Scot« lost about 
this time the services of two of their bravest 
leaders, Sir Andrew Hurray of Bothwell, 
and Sir William Douglas, the knight of 
Liddesdale, and Edward, having himnelf ad- 
vanced with a great force to the siege of 
Berwick, defeat«d Archibald Douglas, who 
had succeeded to the chief command, at 
Halidon Hill on 12 July, which forced the 
capitulation of Berwick. 

In February IS84 B^iol held a parliament 
at Edinburgh, where, on the 12th of that 
month, bis engagements to Edward were 
renewed and Berwick was annexed to the 
English crown. Not satisfied with this 
severance of the great fortress which waa 
the key to the borders tTom the Scottish 
kingdom, Edward demanded and Baliol 
agreed at Newcastle-on-Tyue to the absolute 
surrender to the Eiu'lish crown of the 
forests of Jedburgh, Selkirk, and Ettrick, 
the countiesofRozbui^h, Peebles, Dumfries, 
and Edinburgh, the coiutAbularies of Had' 
dington and Linlithgow, with all the towns 
ono castles in the territory annexed. This 
comprised the whole of ancient Lothian, the 
richest and most important part of Scotland. 
Edward at once parcelled it into sherilFdoma, 
and appointed a chamberlain and justiciary 
for Lothian. On 18 June he received the 
homage of Baliol for the whole kingdom of 
Scotland, and, as if to mark the ignominy of 
his vassal with a deeper stain, declared that 

« Baliol 

his private estates were not to be understood 
as ulling within the surrender of the rights 
of his coimtry. In the autumn of this year 
a dispute ' as to the succession of Alexander 
da Mowbray, one of the disinherited barons, 
between bis brother as heir male, who waa 
at first supported by Baliol, and his daughter 
OS heir general, whose cause was espoused 
by Henry de Beaumont, earl of Bucbw), and 
David da Hastinga, earl of Athole, exposed 
the weakness of Baliol, who was (wmpelled 
to change sides and abandon Mowbray through 
fear of these powerful earls. The return of 
Sir Andrew Murray from England, and of 
the Earl of Moray, now acknowledged as 
regent on behalf of David II,gave able leader* 
to the Scottish patriots, and Baliol was forced 
to take refuge in England. In winter he 
was agaiu brought back, rather than restored, 
by the aid of Edward, and after wasting 
Annsndale celebrated Ctkristmas at Renfrew, 
where he created William Bullock, an eccle- 
siastic, chamberlain of Scotland. In July of 
the following year Edward again invaded 
Scotland, and although the fortunes of war 
were not all on one side, Ouy, count of 
NamuT, a mercenary ally of Edward, beiny 
defeated on the Borough Muir and forced 
to leave Scotland, the capture of the Elarl of 
Moray and the aid of the Howbrays and 
others enabled Edward to conclude a treaty 
at Perth 18 Aug. lS3fi, by which the Earl of 
Athote and all who submitted to the English 
king were to be pardoned for their rebellion, 
and the ancient laws and usages of Scotland 
as in the days of Alexander HI restored. 
Athole, who was named lieutenant of Scot- 
laud, now espoused the side of Baliol, but 
was soon after surprised and slain bv tlie 
Earl of March, William Douglas of Liddes- 
dale, and Sir Andrew Murray, in the forest 
of Kilblain. Baliol succeeded in detaching 
John, the lord of the Isles, from the national 
cause hy ceding to liim Cantira and Knap- 
dale in Argyle, and several of the principal 
Hebrides, along with the wardship of the 
young heir of Athole, on 12 Dec. 1335. A 
loan of 300 marks by Edward on 16 Oct. 
1335 and a dnilv pension of 5 marks during 
pleasure, granted on 27 Jan. 1336, indicated 
the poverty and dependence of Baliol. The 
command of the English troops was given 
not lo Baliol but to the Earl of Iiancaster. 
In August Edward himself suddenly re- 
turned to Perth, which was the chief fortreis 
held bv Baliol, and overran the north-east of 
Scotlind. After establishing a weak lino 
of forts from Dunottar to Stirling and rein- 
forcing the garrison of Perth, he returned to 
England, leaving his brother, the Earl of 
Cornwall, in commind. Sir Andrew Momy 





mkd« an ineffectnal ■ttempt to take Stirling, 
but lucceeded in reducing the more northern 
forts after Edward's departure. In the flpring 
of the following jear, 1337, he took Falk- 
land, J^uchaiB, and St. Andrews in Fife, 
Oupar alone boldiuK out under the com- 
mand of Bullock, Bidiol's chamberlain. By 
m Budden diversion to the west he aurprised 
and took Bothwell Castle, and, haTing thus 
secured the passage of the Cljde, made a 
raid into Cumberlaiid, and on bis leturu in- 
vested but did not take Edinbuivh. In 1838 
this gallant commander, who had upheld 
tba cause of Scottish independence for forty 
yean, since he was associated with Wallace 
against Edward I, died. Kobert, the steward 
of Scotland, succeeded him as regent, and 
impared for the wege of Perth, where Baliol 
■ttU was, and Edward, having no confidence 
in his nulitary talentA, required him to en- 
troat its custody to Sir Thomas Ughtred, an 
English commander. Before the end of the 
year Baliol, who had borne no part of any 
moment in the war nominally conducted on 
his behalf, but really for that of Edward, 
letired to England, llierehe appears to hare 
remainad until the defeat and capture of 
Darid n at Nerille's Crou, 17 Oct. 1346, 
encouraged him again to return to Scotland. 
Taking np his residence at Caerlaverock 
Castle, on the Solway, and aided by English 
mo^-at-arms onder Percy and Neville, be 
made a raid as far as Glasgow, wastins Niths- 
dale and Cunningham. The title, but not 
the eont«nta,of a treaty in this year between 
Lionel, duke of Clarence, son of Edward III, 
and Percy and Neville, has been preserved, 
which makes it probable that the ambitious 
prince had set on foot the intrigue for his 
succession to the Scottish crown with Baliol 
which WBS afterwards renewed with David II. 
Meanwhile the Scote had accepted Robert 
the Steward, grandson of Robert the Bruce 
on the mothers side, as regent ; and though 
the FrWgliith king in official documents con- 
tinues to style Baliol ' our dear cousin 
Edward, king of Scotland,' he negotiated at 
the same time with his captive, David 11, 
knd finally, in 1364, released bim for the 
large ransom of 90,000 marks, by annual 
inrtalments of 10,(}00, on non-payment of 
which be was to return to prison at Berwick 
or Norham. The Scotch preferring the 
French alliance and failing to pay the instal- 
ment due in 1356, David honourably sur- 
rendered himself, and in 1366 Edward mu»- 

bnrgh, on 31 Jan., made an absolute eurrendar 
of the whole kingdom of Scotland to Edward 
by delivery of n portion of-.Jta soil along 

with hie golden crown, in return for an 
obligation of payment of 5,000 marks and 
a pension of 2,000/. which Edward granted 
on the previous day at Bamborough. This 
was the last of Baliol's acts as king ; but his 
ignoble life lasted till 1367, when he died 
without issue at Wbeatley, near Doncester, 
where, during his last years, 'reft of the 
crown, he stiU might share the chase,' as is 
proved by the writsgrantinghim a license to 
sport in the royal forests and pardon to some 
<^ the neighbouring gentry who joined in his 
amuRement. Except for the brief period of 
his success at the bead of the dismherited 
barons at Dupptin Hoor, he showed no quali- 
ties worthy of respect in a warlike age. His 
character was similar to that of hie father, 
unequal to the honour and peril of a crown, 
and content to survive the disgrace of doing 
what lay in his power to sacrifice the inde- 
pendence of his country, 

[Symer's Fadera, vol. iii. ; Foidnn't and 
'Wyntoua's CbroniclFS givs the svents of his life 
from ths Scottish, Knyghtoa, Adam of Mnri- 
mnth, and WalBiDKhsm from the fingUsh sida. 
Lord UailsH'sAnnala is still ths fullest and most 
accurate mod em accouct of this period of ScottiEh 
history, but Tytler's Hiitory of Scotland and 
LoDgman's Bistory of the Beign of Edward III 
may ulsa ha eoDinlted with advantsga.l 


BAUOLk HENRY m (d. 1246), chant- 
berlain of Scotland, was the son of Ingelram 
and grandsonofBemard do Baliol, of Barnard 
Castle. His mother was daughter and heiress 
of "WilliBm de Berkeley, lord of Eeidcostle 
in Forfarshire, and chamberlain of Scotland 
under William the Lion in 1166. William 
de Berkeley wassucceeded in this high office, 
not yet divided into those of the treasurer 
and comptroller, and entrusted with the su- 

girintendenceofthe whole royat revenues, by 
bilip de Valoines and his son William de 
Vatoines, lords of Panmtire. The latter died 
in 1219, leaving only a daughter, and Henry 
de Ballot, who bad married his sister Lora, 
obtained the chamberUineliip which had been 
held by the father both of his mother and bis 
wife. Although iuvittid bv King John to 
take his side shortly before Magna Cliarta, it 
is probable that, like his sovereign, Alexan- 
der II, he Joined the party of the Darons. He 
is mentioned in theScottiah records invarioiia 
years between 1223 and 1244, and tlie ap- 
pointment of Sir John Maxwell, of Caerlu- 
verock, who appears as chamberlain in 1331, 
must either have been temporary, or BnliiH 
must have retained the title after demitting 
the office, which Crawford (OJ^art of State, 

E. S61) supposes him to have done in 1231, 
a 12S4 he succeeded, in-right of hia wife aa 

., Google 



eobmresi, along with Christian de Valoinesi 
her niuce, wife of Peter de Msule, uicastor of 
the Maules of FaninuTe, to the English fle& 
of the Valoinei, vacant bj the death of 
ChriBtian, countasa of Embz, k rich inheri- 
tance, sitiuted in six ahires. In 1241 he t.t- 
tended Henij III to the Qascon war, and, 
dyin)!' in 1246, was buried at Helrose. It ii 

Cbable, but not certain, that Alexander de 
iol of Cavera, also chamberlain of Scotland 
[aee BiLioL, Albuudbr j>b], was hie son. 
His only daughter, Constance, married an 
EngUahman of the name of Fishbum. 

[Documents in FftDmnra Charter Chest j 
Act. PnrL ScoL i. 403a, iOSb, i07b, iftSb; 
Chroniels of If slrose ; Dugdnls'i Baroaaee ; 
Crawfoid's Lira of Offioan oTSCata, p. 2S0T 

BAIJOL, JOHN SB (A 1369), of Barnard 
Castte, founder of BalLol College, Oxford, 
was the Bonof Hugh, the grandson of Eustace, 
and the great-grsjodaon of Bernard da Baliol 
the ^oungarfq.v.]. He married DerorguiU, 
one of the daughters of Alan of Oallowaj, 
constable of Scotland, br Maigaret, eldest 
daiuhter of David, earl of Huntington, brother 
of WiUiain the Lion. In his own right and 
that of his wife, coheiress of two great in- 
heritances, Baliol was one of the wealthiest 

OS of his t 
many as thirty 
sides oneJiali of the lands of Oalloway ; 
though his possession of the latter must have 
beenprecanous during the reign of Alexan- 
der rt, who bvoured the claim of Roger de 
Quince;, husband of Helen, t he elder daughter 
of AUn of Galloway, to the whole, while the 
Qalw^ians supported Alan's natural son, 
Thomas de Quloway. According to the 
Chronicle of Lanercost, Thomas de Oallowaj, 
being taken prisoner in 1236, was committed 
to the custody of Baliol, who kept him in 
the dungeons of Barnard Castle, where he 
remained until, in extreme old age, he was 
released at the instance of Edward I. 

B^ol was one of the regents of Scotland 
during the minorit t of Alexander III, but was 
deprived of that office and his lands forfeited 
for treason in 1255, when a new regency was 
appointed through the iofluence of Henry III. 
Slaking terms with that monarch, Baliol es- 
caped the consequencee of his forfeiture, and 
sioed with Henry in the barons' war (1SA8- 
flo). He was taken prisoner at Lewes, but, 
having been released, did all that was in his 
power to support the rovsl cause, along with 
the barons of the nortn, against Simon de 
Hontfbrt. About the yeaTl2SShe gave the 
first lands for the endowment of the colle^ 
at Oxford, which received his name, and this 


IS largely increased bj hiswiU, 
and after his death by lus widow, Cevcnguila. 
He died in 1369, leaviuff three aons, Hugh, 
Alexander, and John, who succeeded to the 
family estates by the death of hia elder bi^ 
thers, without issue, and afterwards became 
king of Scotland. Devorguila survived her 
husband, dying 28 Jan. 1290. There is a 
writ in the ' Hemorial Rolls of Edward I,' 
dated 1 June 1290, ordering the eoslomary 
inquisition after her death. 

[Historical Documents, Sootland, 12B6-1404, 
arranged by Bar. J. Htarenaon,;. 16S; ActsI^. 
Soatlaiid, voL i. ; Fordun ; ChioDiele of Iadbt- 
cost Theworkof HBi)rySaTagB,miut«rofBslio( 
College, Mitttlsd Balio-FergDS, Oxford, 1M4, is 
untrustworthy as to the Baliol genaali^, but 

BAIJOI^ JOHN DB (1249-1816), king 
of Scotland, was the third son of the pre- 
ceding John de Batiol, of Barnard Castle, 
and Bevor^Lla, daughter of Alan of Gal- 
loway, His elder brothers, Hugh and AIce- 
ander, having died without issue in 1271 
and 1278, John succeeded to the large in- 
heritance of the Baliole of Barnard Castle in 
Northumberland, Hertfordshire, Northam^ 
ton, and other counties, as well as to their 
Norman flefs, and in ri^t of bis mother to the 
lordship of Qalloway. Prior to the disputed 
sncceesion which arose aifter the death of 
Alexander HI, Baliol scarcely appears in 
history ; but by an inquest as to tne extent 
of the vill of Kempeton, in Bedfordshire, in 
1290j we learn that he was for^ yean of 
age in the year preceding, and was thmi 
served heir to his mother Devoigtula, who 
died on 28 Jan. 1290. He also then suc- 
ceeded to other manors in England, Fothe^ 
ingay and DrifBeld. On 16 Nov. 1290 John 
Baliol, already styling himself ' herae regni 
Scotite,' grants to Anton; Beck, bishop of 
Duriiam, the manors which Alexander HI 
held in Cumberland, or the sum of fire 
hundred marks if Edward I did not confirm 
the grant. On the death of Margaret, the 
Haid of Norway, grandchild of Alexaader 
HI, on 7 Oct. 1260, no Ibm than thirteen 
claimants presented themsdves for the crown 
ofSootlana; butof tbeseonlythreeaerioostT 
contested the succession. John de Baliot 
clumed in right of bis maternal grandmotiier, 
Margaret, the eldest daughter of David, eaii 
of Huntingdon, brother or William the Lion, 
and grantbon of David I. Bobart Bruce, 
earl of Annandale, claimed in right of his 
mother, Isabel, the second daughter of the 
same earl; and John Hastings claimed in 
right of his grandmother, A4a, the third 



The cUim of Bruce wa» ratted 
his being one decree neater 


de«ceDt ; that of BaJQol on hrs descant from 
the eldest daughter; &nd that of Haatiogs 
on the ground th&t the kingdom wss part- 
ible, M an estate, among the descend- 
anta of the three daughters. By the prin- 
ciples of modern law the right of Baliol 
wonld be incontwtable ; but these principles 
were not then settled, and it was deemed a 
fair qnestion fbr argument hy feudal lawyers 
of the thirteenth century. But what tri- 
bunal wai competent to decide it F At an 
eariier period it would have been submitted 
to the vbitrament of war. The parliament 
or gnat council of Scotland, which hod 
alreiady began, id the reigns of the Alex- 
anders, to organiM itself after the English 
model, ot by development &om the Curia 
Regis, might have seemed the natural tri- 
bunal, hut tbii would have been only a pre- 
liminary contest before the partisans of the 
rival elaimanta reeortad to arms. The legal 
instinct of the Norman race, to which all 
the competitors belonged, suggested or ae- 
qniesced in a third course, not without pre- 
cedent in the graver disputes of the latar 
Middle Ages — a reference to a third party ; 
and who could be more appropriate as a 
leferee than the great monsrcn Ol the neigh- 
bouring kingdom^ to whom each of the com- 
petitors owed aUegiance for their fiefs in 
England F This course was accordingly pro- 
poned by Fraser, bishop of St. Andrews, in 
a letter to Edwaid before Margaret's death, 
but when the news of her illness had reached 
Scotland. After some delay, caused by the 
death of Eleanor, the mother of Edward I, 
that monarch summoned a general assembly 
of the Scottish and English nobility and 
commons to meet him at Norhsm on 10 Hay 
1281. Its proceeding were opened hy an 
addre«*liom Roger deBrabaion, chief justice 
of England, who declared that Edward, 
moved by seal for the Scottish nation, and 
with a desire to do justice to aU the com- 
petitors, had summoned the asaemhly as the 
superior and direct lord of the kingdom of 
Scotland. It was not Edward's intention, 
the chief jostice explained, to assert any un- 
due riffht against any one, to delay justice, 
orto diminish liberties, but only, he repeated, 
as superior and direct lord of Scotland, to 
afTortr justice to all. To carry out this in- 
tention more conveniently, it was necessary 
to obtain the rect^nition of his title as supe- 
rior by the members summoned, as he wished 
their advice in the business to be done. 
The Scottish nobles asked for time to consult 
tboae who were absent, and a delay of three 
weeks woa granted. When the assembly 


t Baliol 

again met, on 2 June, at the same place, the 
nobles and clergy admitted Edward's supe- 
riority, but the commons answered in terms 
which have not been preserved, but are de- 
scribed by an English annalist as ' nihil 
efficax,' nothing to the pur^iose. No atten- 
tion was paid to their opinion, and another 
address, reiterating Edward's superiority, was 
delivered by the Bishop of Bath and WeUs, 
who called on the competitors to acknow- 
ledge his rie-ht, and their willingness to abide 
by the law Defore their lord mward. This 
was done by all who were present, and by 
Thomas Randolph as procurator for BalioL 
who was absent. Next day Baliol attended 
and made the acknowledgment in peraon. 
The acknowledgment was embodied in a 
fbrmal instrument signed by all the competi- 
tors on 4 June, which declared their consent 
that Edward should have seisin of the land 
and cobles of Scotland pending the trial, 
in the condition that ue should restore 
two months after its decision. Im- 
mediately after the recognition of hie supe- 
riority, and the seisin given in ordinary 
feudsl form, Edward surrendered the custody 
of Scotland to the former regents, adding 
Brian Fitzallan to their number, and ap- 
pointing Alexander de Baliol chamberlain 
and the Bishop of Caithness chancellor. 
The castles were delivered to Edward's offi- 
cers, Umiiaville, earl of Angus, alone re- 
fusing to give np Dundee nntu promised an 
indemnity. On 15 June Baliol and Bruce, 
along with many other barons and the regent, 
took the oath of fealty to Edward, and his 
peace having been proclaimed as superior 
of Scotland, the proceedings were adjourned 
to 2 Aug. at Berwick. Before the adjourn- 
ment the court for the trial of the succession 

Scotchmen by Baliol and Bruce respectively. 
The court met on the appointed day, and the 
competitors put in claims, but o^y three 
were pressed Dy Bruce, Baliol, and Hfiatings. 
After the petitions had been read there was 
another oajoumment to 2 June 1292. The 
queation was then raised by what law the 
case was to be determined, whether hy 
the imperial laws or by the law of England 
and Scotland, and if the lattor differed, by 
which. The commissioners asked time to 
consider the point, and at their next meet- 
ing, on 14 Oct. declared that the king ought 
to decide according to the law of the king- 
dom over which he reigned if there were any 
applicable, and if not make a new law witn 
the advice of his council. They added that 
the same principles should govern the snc- 
cession to the crown as that to eartdoms, 

., Google 


baroniea, and other indiTisible inheritances. 
Brucea^d Baliol now gave in their pleadings. 
The former rested hia claim ^1) on a decU- 
ration of Alexander II in hie favour at a 
time when he had no issue ; (2) on the law 
of nature, which he aUeoed preferred the 
nearer in degree as heir ; (S) on certain pre- 
cedeiits derived from the Celtic law of tan- 
iatry, by which the brother had been pre- 
ferred to the son as nearer in degree in the 
■ucceuion to the Scottish crown ; (4) on 
similar instancee in other countries, where 
the direot line of descent had been passed 
over; and (6) on the impossibility of suc- 
cession through a female, as Baliot's claim 
WBS based on the right of his mother, Devor- 
ffuila. To these arguments Baliol answered 
(1) that Alexander's declaration was only in 
the erent of bis having no issue, an event | 
which had not occurred ; (2) that the feudnl 
law and not the law of nature was appli' 
cable ! (8) that the cases in which a brotlier 
bad been preferred to a son were inapplicable, 
for a son was nearer to bis father than his 
father's brother, so that these cases told the 
other way, and were precedents for preferring 
the more remote degree ; (4) that whatever i 
might be the law m other countries, the 
feudal Uw of England and Scotland recog- | 
nised representation in the elder line in suc- 
cession to earldoms and baronies; and (5) : 
that the argument against descent through 
females was equally adverse to the claim of 
Bruce, who alro claimed through his mother. 

The commissioners decided in Baliol's fa- 
vour, declaring ' that by the taws and usages 
of both kingdoms in every heritable succes- 
sion the more remote by one d^ree lineally 
descended ftom the eldest sister was prefer^ 
able to the nearer in d^ree imning Ecom the 
second sister,' and on 6 Nov. Edward con- 
firmed their decision, 

A question which had been nominally re- 
served, whether the kingdom was partible, 
was now taken up, and decided in the nega- 
tive, and on 17 Nov. 1292 the final judgment 
was pronounced: 'As It is admitted Uiat the 
kingdom of Scotland is indivisible, and as 
the liing of England must judge the rights of 
his own subjects according to the laws and 
usages of the kingdom over which he reigns, 
and as by those of England and Scotland in 
the succession to indivieibU heritage the more 
remote in d^ree of the first line of descent 
is preferable to the nearer in degree of the 
second, therefore it is decreed that John 
Baliol shall have seisin of the kingdom of 

Two days later the seal used by the re- 
gents was broken, and they were ordered to 
give seisin to Baliol. On 20 Not. he swore 

B Baliol 

fealty to Edward at Norham upon Scottisti 
ground, on the SOtb he was crowned at Scon^ 
and within a month, on 26 Dec., he did 
homage to Edward at Newcastle. 

There is no reason to doubt the justice of 
the decision between the competitors ; and if 
the rules of descent were uncertain in such 
a case before, this solemn decision, after 
careful argument, aided in fixing the prin- 
ciple of representation and the preference for 
the senior line of descent. But the aclfnow- 
ledgment of Edward's title as superior, which 
the necessities of the case had wrung bma 
the competitors and the barons, was a dif- 
ferent matter. It was attempted to be sup- 
ported by returns obtained &om the English 
monasteries and religious bouses of prece- 
dents dating back to Saxon times of a smiilar 
recognition; but no returns were sought firota 
Scotland, while those received were evidently 
prepared to suit the wishes of Edward. The 
earUer precedents from Saxon time« and from 
the reigns of Canute, William the Conqueror, 
and Rufus were instancee of isolated con- 

Siests of brief duration and doubtful extent. 
mention is made of the more recent points 
in the long-protracted controversy, the sur- 
render of all such claim by Richard Cmur 
de Lion in the treaty of Canterbury, or tha 
treaty of Salisbury, by which Edward him- 
self had acknowle^ed the independence of 
Scotland, or the remsal of Alexander lU to 
do homage. A further eonsequence of the 
recognition of Edward's title as superior, 
which had apparently not been fbreeem by 
Baliol, but can scarcely have been oyerlooked 
by the astute feudal lawyers who counselled 
l.dward,orbythat monarch, was soon brought 
to light. As Edward wee superior, an appMl 
la^ from the court. of his vassal Baliol to 
bis own court at Westminster. Within six 
months atler the decision in favour of Baliol 
a buTgess of Berwick, Roger Bartholomew, 

Siresented such an appeal. Baliol in vain re< 
erred to the clause of the treaty of Salisbury, 
hy which no Scotch cause was to be hean) 
out of Scotland, and he was compelled to 
make an implicit surrender of the right to 
independent jurisdiction. Shortly alter ha 
was nimseif summoned in a suit at the in- 
stance of Hscduff, earl of Fife, to appear 
before the judges at Weetminster, and declin- 
ing to attend he was condemned (or con- 
tumacy in Cctober 1393, and it was ordered 
that three of his castles should be seised 
to enforce the judgment. He again yielded, 
and promised to appear at the next English 
parliament to answer in the suit. He ac- 
cordingly attended the parliament held in 
London in May 1294, but either ouitt«d it 
suddenly to avoid being compelled to take 

I, Google 




JiBTt in the French w&r then in contempla- 
tion, fbr whieh offence hia Enfrlish fie& were 
forfeiud, as is stated bj John 01 Wslsinghun, 
or granted the revenue of these for thiee 
jreua as aa aid to the English king, accord- 
ing to the more common acooont oi the Eng- 
li^ chroniden, consenting, at the same time, 
to surrender Berwick, Boibui^, and Jed- 
bui^h to the English king. The Scottish 
writers attribute Baliol's quMrel with Edward 
to Ilia being required to plead in person in 
Macduff H Huit, and other indignities put 
upoD him when in England. 'Whatever the 
precise cause alleged, the real question at 
ataks was tlia independence of Scotland ; 
and on his return to Scotland Baliol or his 
parliament deteimined to Iwave the displea- 
sure of the English monarch. The Bum- 
mons addressed to him and his barons to 
■end men to the flench war were treated 
with contempt; and at a parliament at 
Scone all the English at Baliol's court were 
dismissed, the fids held bv the English for- 
feited, and a council of four bishops, four 
eails, and four buons appointed to advise 
or control BalioL 

Next fear an aUiance with Philip the 
Fair was made, b; which the French and 
Scotch kings promised to aid each other in 
the event of an English invasion of their 
respective countries, and Philip agreed to 
give hie niece, Isabel de Valence, the daughter 
of the Count of Anjou, in marriage to Baliol's 
heir. In 1296, Edward having invaded Gas- 
coBj, the Scotch proceeded to carry out their 
part of the treat;, and with a large force, 
nettdedbTsixearlsandnotbj^Baliol in person, 
ravaged Cumberland, but failed to take Car- 
lisle. This was towards the end of March, 
and Edward, with his usual promptness, be- 
fore the close of the month advanced in 
person with a better disciplined army to 
the eastern border, and stormed Berwick 
(30 March). While there Henry, abbot of 
Arbroath, brought him a formal renuncia- 
tion of Baliol's homage and fealty, which 
Lad been agreed upon by the Scottish parlia- 
ment. In words of ftorman French, pre- 
served by the Scottish chroniclers, Edward 
exclaimed, ' Has the foolish fellow done such 
folly P If he does not wish to come to us, 
we sboll go to him.' No time was lost in 
the execution of the threat. On SS April 
his general, John de Warenne, earl of Surrey, 
captured Dunbar; in May Roxburgh and 
Jedbuigh surrendered ; and in June Edin- 
bitrgh Castle was taken by Edward himself. 
Stirling, Perth, and Scone yielded without 
resistance, and on 7 July, in the churchyard 
orStracathro.ia Forfarshire, Baliol renounced 
Lis alliance with the French king, and three 

days later, at Brechin, Baliol gave up his 
kingdom to Antony Beck, bishop of Durtiam, 
as the repreeentative of the English king, 
and, apparently on the same day, appeared 
before Edward, who was then at Montrose, 
and delivered to him the white rod, the uaual 
feudal symbol of resignation by a vassal of . 
his fief into the hands of hia superior. (The 
notary's instrument, dated Brechin, 10 July, 
is printed by Stevenson, ' Documents illus- 
trative of Scottish History, ii. 61, and the 
surrender at Montrose, of the same date, is 
in the 'Diary of Edward's Scottish Cam- 
pai^,' ii. 26.) Edward went as far north as 
Elgin, ending his triumphant progress there 
on 26 July. 'He conquered the realm of 
Scotland,' sa^s a contemporary diary, ' and 
searched it within twenty-one weeks without 
any more.' Bat the conquest was rather of 
Baliol than of Scotland ; for although Ed- 
ward took the oaths of the leading men in 
the districts he passed through, he did not 

he had returned to Berwick, carrying with 
him the coronation-stone of Scone, the re- 
galia of Scotland, and the black rood, sacred 
as a supposed relic of tlie cross of Christ, 
and SB the gift of Queen Margaret. At 
Berwick Edward convened a parusment for 
Scotland, and received the homafp of alt 
who attended. He allowed the nobility who 
submitted to retain their estates, and con- 
ferred on the clergy the privilege of free 
bequMt they had not hitherto enjoyed in 
Scotland; after appointing officers of state 
as his deputies, of whom Elarl Warren, as 
guardian of Scotland, was the chief, and 
entrusting the castles to Elnglish custodians, 
he returned to London. 

John fioliol and bis son Edward were caiv 
ried OS captives to England, and remained 
prisoners, at first at Hertford and after 
August 1297 in the Tower, until 18 July 
12w, when, on the request of the pope, they 
were liberated. Placed under the custody of 
Raynald, hishop of Vicenza, the delegate sent 
by the pope to make pence betweeu France 
and England, Baliol pledged himself to live 
where the pope ordered. After various 
wanderings to Wissant, Cambrai, Chicillon, 
in November 1S02, Baliol took refuge on his 
French estatw, where he led an obscure life 
until his death, without making the slightest 
effort to recover the kingdom he had lost. 
For a time he was rBgaraed as its virtual 
sovereign, and when Wallace, b^ his valour 
and generalship, roused the patriotism of hia 
countrymen, abandoned by the king and most 
of the nobles, and drove out the English, 
recovering for a brief space the independence 
of Scotland, he goveriied under the titU g{ 



'giurdian of the realin of Scotland and 
leader of ita annj in the name of Lord John 
(Baliol), bj the oonsettt of the community.' 
But in tiie fiitare of Scotland, whether pro- 
Hperoiu or adrerse, John Baliol had no lonrei 
any share, The war of independence, th( 
caieeia of Wallace and Bruce, grandion of 
the competitor who better undentood the 
temper of the Scottish people and became 
their king, lie outaide of the biogra^j i^ 
Baliol. He died early in 1816 at Caatle 
Oalliard, in Normandy, according to tradi- 
tion, blind, and prob«bly about sixty-five 
years of age, of which four only had been 
spent on the throne and fifteen in exile. By 
hiBwife Isabel, daughter of John deWarenne, 
earl of Surrey, he left, besides other children, 
a son Eldward, who succeeded to his French 
estatee, and made an attempt to recover the 
Scottish crown [see Batjoi,, Edwabb Db]. 
The Scots gave to Baliol the byname of the 
' Toom Tabard ' ('Empty Jacket '), or 'Tyne 
Tabard ' (' Lose Coat ), as the English gave 
John that of Lackland. His christian name 
of John was not allowed to he borne by John, 
earl of Carrick, who, when he succeeded, 
took the title of Hobert IIL A tradition of 
late origin and doubtful foundation grew up 
that his family name, owing to hie impotent 
character and abandonment of his country, 
became so discredited that those who in- 
herited it took the name of Baillie, a common 
one, while that of Baliol is sji unlmown 
name in modem Scotland. The retreat of 
the head of the family &om Barnard Caatle 

cipal cadet, the Baliola of Cavers, . . , 

sufficiently account for tiie diaappeaiance of 
the name. 

bj Sir F. Falgnve in Docnmsnta and Records 
iilustncing the Htstotj of Scotland, pieMured 
in thetreaanry of berMqesty'sEioheqner, t837> 
but his Qommentary on them is to be accepted 
with rowrve, as that of a panisan of Edirard. 
For the otber fiuita in the life of Baliol, reference 
must be made to the ordinary histories, of which 
the chief English ebrooiclMare those of Bishaneer, 
Hewingfind, and John of Walaingjtain. The 
BcottiA antboritiea, Barbour's Brace, Wyntoon's 
and Fordnn's Cluranielss are of aammrliat later 
date. 8om« iniportant documents are coDtsined 
in Doclunents ilinatmtive of the Bistory of 8oot- 
Und. 12SS-I3QS, adit«d by Bev. J, SCaveDSon, 

and the HiMoriee of Tjtler and Burton. The 
anonymons Life of Edirard I, Che greatest ot the 
PUntsj{enets, represents the English view of the 
origin of the war of independeDce in an extreme 
form, vhieh Bhould be corrected by reference to 

70 Ball 

the more imntrttal Eogliih hietories of Hellam, 
Peamn, and Green, and Fanli, Qeachichta von 
England, vol. iv.] X. M. 

(1757-1809), rear-admiial, of an old Glott- 
ceetershireuuDily, and not improbably a lineal 
or collateral descendant of Andrew Ball, the 
Mend and companion of Blake, after serving 
for some time in the Egmont with Captain 
John Elphinstone, waa on 7 Ang. 1778 pro 
moted to the Atalanta sloop as lieutenant, 
and served in her on the North American 
and Newfoundland stations till Mar 17SIX 
On 17 Aug. 1780 he joined the Santa Monica, 
a frigate lately captured trom the Spaaiarda, 
and went in her to the West Indies, whera 
in April 1781 he had the good fortune to be 
moved into the Sandwich, Sir Oeo^ Rod- 
ney's flagHihip, and followed the admiral to 
the GiMaltar, for a passage to Ewland. 
There he was appointed to Sir Oeoise^ new 
flag-ship, Fomudable, on 6 Bee. 1761, went 
out wiUi him again to the West Indiea, uid 
serredwith him in his great victory of 12 AtoU 

1782. Two days afterwards he teo^ved hb 
commander's oommission and was appointed 
to the Germain, in which he oontuAied on 
the same station until posted on 20 March 

1783. Very shortly after his return to Eng- 
land he, like many other naval officers, went 
over to France on a year'a leave, partly lor 
economy whilst on half-pay, part^ with k 
view to learning the languago. Nelsott, then 
a young captain, was one of those wlu did 
tlie same, and was at St. Omer whilst Ball 
was there. He wrote to Oaptain Locker 
on 2 Nov. 17S3 : ' Two noble captuns aro 
here — Ball and Shepard ; they wear fine 
epaulettee, for which I think tham great,' 
coxcomba, They have not visited me, and I 
shall not, be assured, court their acquaint- 
ance.' Epaulettes were not worn in our navy 
till 1706, but in France they marked the rank, 
and possibly enough were found to serve in 
lieu of letters of mtroduction. On 4 Nov, 
1784 Ball, writing from Oloucester, reported 
himself aa having returned from forugn 
leave. He continued, however, on halF-pay, 
notwithstanding his repeated applications to 
the admiralty, till July 1790, when, on tha 
occasion of uie Spanish armament, he waa 
api>ointod to the Nemesis, 28 guns, a frigato 
which he commanded on the home station 
for the next three years. He was then ap- 
poinl«d to the Cleopatra, 32 guns, and con- 
tinued for the three following yean <»i ths 
Newfoundland station under vice-admiral 
Sir Richard King and Reai^«dmiral Hurray, 
He was then transferred to the Aivonaut, 
64 guns, and returned to England is August 


Ball ^ 

1796. On luB aniTol he waa appointed to 
the Alexander, 74 guiu, uid ipent the fol- 
lowing viuter off Brest, under the eommiind 
of Vice-admiral Colpojs. Some little time 
eft«rwarde he waa ordered out to join Lord 
St. ViiMMOt off Cadia^ and in the b^inning 
ct Hay 1796 waa aent into the Mediteirauean 
under Uieordera of Sir HoiatioNelaon. When 
he mnt on board the Vangnaid to fj hie 
reepecta, Nelson, perhapa remembennir hia 
pique of fifteen yetn befoie, aaid, 'What, 
are Tou come to have your bone* broken P 
Ball anawered that he bad no wish to have 
hia bonea bnAen, untesa hia dut; to his Itins 
and eoimtr; required it, and then thev should 
not be spared. The Vangaard, with the Orion 
and Alexander, sailed from Glibrsltar on 
9 Haj, and en the 2l8t, off Cape Sicie, waa 
diamasted in a violent gals of wind. Her 
eaae ivaa ainioet desperate, and after she waa 
taken in tow by the Alexander the danger 
aeemed ao great that the admiial hailed 
Captain Ball to cast her ofC Ball, howerer, 
perMfered, and towed the shijp safely to St. 
fietro of Sardinia. Sir Horatio lost no time 
in going on board the Alexander to express 
hia mtitude, and, cordially embracing Cap- 
tain Ball, exclaimed 'A friend in need is a 
friend indeed 1 ' {Nelton't De»paUha, iii, 21 n). 
It waa the beginning of a close and lifelong 
fiiendship, which took the place of the former 
jealou^ ; and Nelson, being reinforced by a 
conwdwable squadron, proceeded to look for 
the French fleet, wbioi be found and de- 
Btrc^ed in AbouMr Bay on 1 Aug. The 
Alexander and Swiftaure had been detached 
in the morning to look into Alexandria, and 
did not gat into the action till two hours 
after its commencement, when they found 
themaelTes directly opposed to the French 
fla^-«hip rOrient, which blew up about ten 
o'dock. The fire has been sn^ipoeed to have 
been kindled by some combustible missiles of 
the nature of fire-balle, which the I'Orient 
and all the French ships hsd on board, and 
it was probably &om misunderstanding Cap- 
tain Ball's description of this that Coleridge 
framed the extrftordiuary story of the ship 
having been set on fire by some inflammable 
compoaition which Ball had inTented, and 
whidi waa thrown on board from the Alex- 
ander. In thia there is certainly not one 
word of truth ; for at that time the whole 
feeLng of the English navy was intensely op- 
Hieed to all such devices. On 4 Oct l798 
Ball waa ordered to go to Malta and insti- 
tute a close blockade of the island. The 
blockade then begun waa continued without 
intermiaaion for the next two years, when 
the French garrisOD, having suffered the direat 
extremities of bmine, was compelled to capi- 

;i Ball 

tulate. The force employed in the siege waa 
exceedingly small. On shore there were not 
more thui 600 marines, English and Fortu- 

Kese, and some 1,G00 of tbe Maltese, who 
ted the French snd were devoted to Ball. 
Ball, on his part, devoted himself to th«r 
interests. He left the Alexander in charge 
of hei first lieutenant, andpersonally took 
command of the militu. TLe sarrison waa 
reduced entirely by fiimine, which pressed 
almost as severely on the islanders as on the 
FrencL They might indeed have starved 
with the French, had not Ball on his own 
reBponaiMlity sent the Alexander to Oiigenti 
and seixed a nnmber of ships which were 
laden with com and ^ing there, with strin- 
gent orders from the Neapolitan court not to 

After the reduction of Malta, Ball was for 
some time commissioner of tbe nav; at Gib- 
raltar, at which place Nelson wrote to him 
from the Baltic on 4 June 1601 : ' My dear, 
invaluable friend, . . . believe me, my heart 
entertains the very wannest affection for you, 
and it has been no fault of mine, and not a 
little mortification, that you have not the 
red nbbon and other rewards that would 
have kept you afloat ; but as I trust the war 
is at an end, you roust take your flag when 
it comes to you, for who is to command oui 
fleets in a future war P . . . I pity the poor 
Maltese ; they have sustained an irreparable 
loss in your friendly counsel' and an able 
director in their public concerns ; you were 
truly their father, and, I agree with you, 
they may not like stepfathers. . . . Believe 
me at all tiroes and places, for ever vour sin- 
cere, affectionate, and &ithful friend.' Ball's 
services were, however, soon after rewarded, 
not, indeed, with a red ribbon, but with a 
baronetcy, and he was appointed governor of 
Malta, where he spent the remainder of his 
life, and where, after his death, which took 
place on 20 Oct. 1809, his remains were in- 
terred. Notwithstanding Nelson's wishes and 
often expreased advice, he virtually retired 
from the naval service, and though in course 
of seniority he became rear-admiral in 1806, 
he never hoisted his flag. His affectionate 
care of the Maltese was considered by many 
of the English settlers and place>ieekers 
impolitic and unjust, but he maintvned 
throughout that we had won the island 
largely b^ the aid of the Malteae, and that 
we neld it by their free-will, as fellow-sub- 
jects and fsUow-citisenB. By the Maltese he 
wBsadored. 'Whenheappesred inpublicthe 

Cassengers in the streets stood uncovered till 
e had passed ; the clamours of the market- 
plsce were hushed at his entrance and thtui 
exchanged for shouts of joy and welcmab 


Ball ) 

With Nsbon he muntained to the Isat ■ 
fiuniliar uid most affectionftte corre^KiD- 
dttnoe, the expreeaions of which on NeUbn'a 
part are frmnentl; almoet feminine in their 
-wtumtb. Nelson habituallj mote aa he 
felt at the moment, and for good or evil his 
language dealt largely in Buperlatives; but 
through the manj letters which duiing the 
last seven yean of his life he wrote to Sir 
Alexander Ball, there is not a trace of au^ 
feeling but the strongest affection. On Sir 
Alexander's -death the title deacended to his 
son, William Keith Ball, but is now extinct. 
An adminble portrait of Ball br H. W. 
Pickers^ll, RA., is in the Painted Hall at 
Greenwich, to which it was presented in 1831 
by Sir W. K Ball. 

[OlBdal Fapera in ths Raeoid Office ; Nicolas' 
Dttpatchea of Lord Kelson, pBonm—n* Index 
ateadnf Tol.rii.; Colerid^'s^end—' Ths Third 
LuadiDg Place 'is an apotheosia of Ball, in which 
the tmih is BO orerlaia by the pradocU of ima- 
ginatioD or misundantanding and by palpable 
nbntditiu, thiit ita tnograpbieal Tidae ie ex- 
tremely el ighc] J. E. Ii. 

BAIi, ANDREW (d. 1653), captain in 
the navy, is believed to have been a native 
of Bristol ; hut of his femilyand early life 
there is no ceitun account. The first official 
mention of his name la as captain of the Ad- 
venture In 1648, when Vice-admiral Batten 
carried part of the fleet oyer to Holland to 
Join the Prince of Wales. Ball was one of 
those who stayed with Sir George Ayscue, 
and who afterwards, 26 Sept. 1648, signed 
the manly refossl to desert what they con- 
siderad the cause of the nation {Life ofPenn, 
i. 26fi). During 1649 be was employed in 
the Channel, cruising olT the Lizard or Land's 
End for the safecnard of merchant ships 
against pirates and sea-rovers, and on SI De- 
cember was ordered Bpecially ' to attend 
Rupert's motions.' In November 1660, still 
in the Adventure, he was selected to accom- 
pany Captain Penn to the Mediterranean 
[see Vesv, Sie Wjluak], and continued 
abitent on that voyage for nearly sixteen 
montlis, arriving in the Downs on 1 April 
1662, During the following summer he was 
engaged in fitting out the Antelope, a new 
ship only just launched, and in ^ptember 
was sent to Copenhagen in command of a 
squadron of eighteen ships. The King of 
Denmark, on some misunderstanding about 
the Sound dues, had laid an embargo on 
about twenty English merchant ships that 
were in Danish harbours, and it wa« hoped 
that the appearance of a respectable force 
would at (Hice remove the diihculty. They 
sailed fVom Yarmouth on 9 Sept., and 
on the 20th anchored a few miles below 


Elsinore; there they remained, treating 
with the King of Denmark, but forfaidd«i 
to use force \ltutruetiimt to Captmti Batt, 
30 Aug.), aa the King of Dsmnark waa 
probably aware. They were still hopi^ 
that the ahipa might be leleaaed, when, on 

parted, the Antelope was hurled on shore, 
the other ehips, more or less damaged, were 
swept out to sea. It was not tm 2 Oct. 
that they could get back and take up the 
aurviyora from the wreck ; after iniich, 
having had enough of Denmark, they did 
not tarry for fiirther nif;otiations, but set 
sail for England, and arrived in Bridlington 
Bay on toe 14th, whence they went to 
Harwich and the Thames, to reflt (Joha 
Barker to the Navy Couunissionen, 16 Oct. 
165S; the SelU OaUndar, by mi^int, 
reads Bonker for Barker). After the severe 
check which Blake received off Dnugeneaa, 
on 30 Nov., Ball was appointed f 

been called in question. He accordingly was 
occupied during the next two months m re- 
fitting the Lion, and joined the fleet off 
Queenborough in the beginning of Fefaniarj, 
when Blake promoted him to the command 
of his own ship, the Triumph, a position 
eomewhat analogous to that now known as 
captdn of the fleet, which confers the tem- 
poraivrankof rearnuimiral. The fleet, having 
Buled to the westward, encountered the 
DutcfaoffPortland on 18Feh. 1663-3. The 
fight lasted with great fury throughont the 
dav, and during the whole time the enemy's 
chief efforts were directed againrt tite 
Triumph, which suffered heavily in hull, it) 
rigging, and in men ; her captain, Andrew 
Ball, being one of the killed^ In aeknow- 
ledgment of his eervices, the state assigned 
agratuity of l,000f. to his widow; no men- 
tion is made of any children, but it ia pei^ 
hapa allowable to conjecture that the Andrew 
Ball who commanded the Orange Tree in 
the Meditomnean, under Sir Thomas Allin, 
in 1668, and was then accidentally drowned, 
may hare been a son. 

[Calendars of State Pspen, Domestic IS1S- 
16da;Qi«nvi|[ePenn>Hemarisls of Sit William 
Fenn, toL Li Charoock's Biog. Nav. i. S14.] 
J. E. L 

BALL FRANCES (1794-1861), called 
Mother Frances Mary Theresa, was the 
daughter of a wealthy merchant of Dublin, 
where she was bom, 9 Jan. 1794. In her 
twenty-first year she joined the Institute of 
the Blessed Virgin Mary at Micklegate Bar 

Ball > 

DODveat, York. This sisterhood, which hod 
long existed at York, was originally eeta- 
Uiahed OD the continent in the aeTenCeeath 
century by Huy Word to sapply the tnetuiB 
of a Ktond religious And seciiUr education 
to yooiuf ladies. Fnnees Ball introduced 
this institute into Ireland b 1821, and since 
then it has spread to most of the British 
colonies, where the nirns are usually called 
Sisters of Loreto, Before her death, which 
occurred at Bath&raham Abbey, 19 Hay 
1661, she founded thirtv-sevea convents in 
various parts of the world. 

T. 0. 

BAII^ HANNAHC1734-17fl2),We8leyan 
methodise, was bora on 13 March 1733-4. 
When Wealev and other mathodiat preachers 
visited Hifl-h Wycombe, where she was resi- 
dent for the greater part of her life, she was 
attracted by their teaching. In 1766 she 
b^nn to keep a diarv, some eitract« of which 
have been published. Several of the letters 
that passed between her and Wesley have 
also been printed. By Wesley's adnca she 
broke off an engagement to be married to one 
who, in the language of the sect, was' an un- 
godly man.' iTii* Wesley termed, and not 
without reason, ' a very uncommon instance 
of reaolution,' She was a mystic, and Wes- 
ley warns her that ' a clear re velation of several 
peraons in the ever blessed Trinity was by no 
t™""" a anre trial to christian perfection.' 
In 1709 she beean a Sunday schooL The 
germ of the modem Sunday school may be 
traced in tJie methods of instruction esta- 
blished by Lnther, Knox, and St. Charles 
BoRomeo. There are traces of them in 
France in the seventeenth century. The 
Bev. Joseph Alleine was in the habit o 
drawing vouog pupils together for instruc- 
tion on the Sunday, Biuiop Wilson insti- 
tuted such schools in the Isle of Man in 
1703. The Seventh Day baptists had one 
between 1740 and 1747 at Euphrata, Lan- 
caster, Pennsylvania. In 1763 Mrs. Catha- 
rine Cappe and the Rev. Theophitus Lindsey 
bad sacn a gathering of the young at Cat- 
terick. Dr. Kennedy, about 1770, established 
one in Bright jMixsb, co. Down. In 1778 
the Rev. David Simpson opened one at 
Macclesfield. There was another at Little 
Lever, taught by ' Owd Jemmy o' th' Hot,' 
whose services were paid for by a wealthy 
paper-maker, Adam Crompton. These and 
others preceded the experiment made at 
Gloucester in 1783 by Robert Raikes, who 
is naiially described as the founder of Sunday 

t Ball 

Hannah Ball died on 16 Aug. 1792. The 
school was continued by her sister Anno, 
At this time the Wesleyans, whilst having 
their own separate meetings, were still al- 
tenders at the parish churches, and both 
Hannah Ball and her sister were in the habit 
of taking the school children with them. At 
the funeral of Mra. Ball, a relative, the Rev. 
W. B. Williams observed that 'if any 
Arminian entered heaven the angels would 
cease to siTig.' Anne Ball arose in her 
place and, gathering her little flock around 
her, marched out of the church, which she 
never re-entered. The little Sunday school 
was reorganised in 1801, and is still m exist- 


r of Hin Hannah Ball, with aitraela 

from her Diarj und Correeponilenoa, oriainaily 
compilsd by the Rev. Joseph Cole, and published 
at York in 17BB; it wiui revised and enlarged by 

John Parker, vith a preface by the Rev. Thomas 
Jackw>n. London, 1B39 ; Rulsa of the Wwteyan 
Sabbsth School at lligli Wyoombe; information 
lapplied by Mr. John Parker and others.] 

W. E. A. A, 
BALL, JOHN (d. 1381), priest, fomented 
theinsurrectionof Wat Tyler. Very little is 
known of his previous career, except that he 
had been preaching for twenty years and had 
been three timescomiaitted to tns archbishop 
of Canterbury's priaon for his indiscreet utter- 
ances. He was probably, therefore, over forty 
years of age when he became so conspicuous in 
nistory. Hiacareeraeema to havecommenced 
at York, where, he tells us, he was St. Maiy's 

eiest — probably attached to the abbey of St. 
ary's. Afl^rwards he removed to Col- 
chester. He was certainly living in Essex 
in the year 1360, when the dean of Booking 
was ordered to cite him to appear before tha 
archbishop of Canterbury, and to forbid 
^rsons attending his preaching (WiLSiirs, 
lii. 64). And ten years later we meet with 
an order for his arrest as an excommunicated 
person addressed to some of the clergy in 
the neighbourhood of Colchester {RiterU 
Soil, 60 Edv,. Ill, p. 2. m. 8 in dorto). All, 
however, had little effect ; for, according to 
Walsingham, he preached things which he 
knew to be agreeable to the vulgar. His 
doctrines were in great part those of Wy- 
cliffe, especially about tlie right of with- 
holding tithes from unworthy clergymen. 
But he added some of his own, among which 
(if it be not an exa^^ratjon of his enemies) 
was the extraordinary opinion that no one 
was fit for the kingdom of God who was 
not born in matrimony. His popularity, 
however, was no doubt mainly due to his 
advocacy of the claims of bondsmen to be 
put on terms ot equality with the gentry. 



nieie w&s At that time a growinc; diseatis- 
faction with the laws whidi aubjected the 
TJIleina to forced labour. ''We nre all 
come,' tliey aaid, ' from one father and one 
mother, Adam and £ye. Haw can the 
gentry show that they are greatfli lorda 
than weP Yet they make ns labour for 
their pleaaure.' It waa tbia feeling that 
produced the inaurrection of Wat Tyler, 
which broke out in June ISei. Ball wm at 
that time lodged in the archbishop's prison 
at MaidatODB, to which he had been com- 
mitted TOttbablv about the end of April, as 
on the 26th of that month the archbiahop 
issued a writ to his commisaary to denounce 
him as on excommunicate (Wilkinh, iii. 
163). Formerly, it aeema, he had been ex- 
communicated by Archbishop Islip, and the 
sentence had never been annulted ; yet, in 
defiance of all authority, he had gone about 
preaching in churches, churchyards, and 
market-places. It does not appear whether 
Islip was the archbishop who, according to 
Froissart, thought it was enough to chastise 
him with two or three months' imprisonment, 
and had the weakness to release him again. 
He excited the people not only by his 
preaching, but by a number of rhyming 
letters which passed about the country, 
some curious specimens of which hare been 
preserred by Knighton and Walsiugham. 
When committed to prison by Archbishop 
Sudbu^ he ia said to have declared that he 
would be delivered by 20,000 friends. The 
prophecy was fiilfilled ; for, on the breaking 
out of tue rebellion in Kent, one of the first 
acts of the insurgents was to deliver him 
from Maidstone gaol, whence they carried 
him in triumph to Canterbury. Here he 
expected to have met the archbishop who 
bad committed him to prison, but he waa 
then in London, where ne was afterwards 
murdered by the rebels. The host then 
turned towards London, and as at Canter- 
buiT BO also at Rochester, they met with an 
enthusiastic reception. At Blackheath, Ball 
preached to them from the fiunoua text — 
Whsii Adam diilf, and Eve span. 
Wo iras thanua a gmtilman ? — 

in which, as distinctly allwed by contem- 
poraiT writera, he incited the multitude to 
kill all the principal lords of the kingdom, 
the lawyers, and all whom they should in 
future find to be destructive to ue common 
weaL The project was clearly to set up a 
new order of things founded on social 
equality — a theory vhich in the whole his- 
torv of the middle ages appears for the flrat 
and la^t lime in connection with this move- '- 
meut. The existing law and all its upholders : 

74 Ball 

were looked upon as public enemies, and 
every attorney's house waa destroyed on the 
line of march. The Harshalsea prison was 
demolished and all the prisoners set free. 
John of Gaunt'a magnificent palace, the 
Savoy, was burned to the around. Ihe 
rebels took possession of London and com- 
pelled thekmg and hismother to take refuge 
m the Tower. Nor were they safe even 
there from molestation, as the rrader of his- 
tory knows. John Ball is mentioned among 
those who rushed in when the Tower ^tea 
were thrown open, when Archbishop Sud- 
bury was seiied and beheaded jupt af^r say- 
ing mass before the king. But the reign of 
violence was short-lived. The great bMy of 
the rebela deserted their leaders and went 
home on a promise of pardon, but a con- 
siderable number still remained when Tyler 
had his celebrated interview with the king 
at Smithfield. At that interview Ball was 
present, and probably saw his leader fall 
under the sword of Sir William Walworth. 
He aAerwaids fled to the midland counties 
and was taken at Coventry— ' hidden in «n 
old ruin,' says Froissart. He was brought 
before the kins at St. Albans, where he was 
sentenced to be hanged, drawn, and quar- 
tered as a traitor. The sentence aeema to 
have been promptly carried out, and the 
king himself witoeaeed its execution at St. 
Albans on 16 July. The four quarters, after 
the barbarous fashion of thoae days, were 
sent to four different towns to be publicly 

[Wolsingbaln's Historia Anglicana, ii. S2-S4 ; 

460-80. In Maurice B ■ fioghsh Popular 
Lenders,' vol. ii., a sligbC memoir of Ball is 
given, in which a more ^voarable view ia taken 
of his charsctar.] J. O. 

BALL, JOHN (I586-1640), puritan di- 
vine, was bom at Caaaington, Oxfordshire, in 
October 1585. He was educated at Brase- 
nose College, Oxford, where he was entered in 
leOS, and proceeded B.A. and M^. at St, 
Hary'aHalT. Havinc completed his academic 
course, he entered the family of Lady Chol- 
mondeley, in Cheshire, aa tutor. It was 
there that he bethought him of ' spiritual 
things,' and was 'converted.' He obtained 
ordination without subscription in 1610. Ha 
was then presentod to the living of Whib- 
ni0Te,nearNewcastle,inStafibrd8hire. There 
having been apparently no reaidence, he was 
the guest of Edward Mainwaring,£»q. Ball 
was a nonconformist wherever the relics of 
iiy left in the national diurch touched 
:on»cience. He waa.overwhelmed by the 
lla of the time, aud used to associate luin*. 


., Google 


•elf witli new brethren in long fost^VB And 
pnvor-dkjB. For keeping Asceniion (Uv, lie 
Mid bis little cirde were gummoned by John 
Bridgmui,tlie high-church bishop of Cneater, 
with httag,' were kept on that 'holy day.' 
Theneaforwud Ball wa/' deprived' and im- 
priMmed, releued and re-conaned — alike mt- 
bitnrilj, finding alwsjs a refuce, when at 
liberty, with I'M; Bromley, of SEeriff'Halee, 
in Shropshire, Calamj tells ua that John 
Ilarnson, of Aahtcm-under-Lyne, in La 
shire, wm exceedingly handed by the into- 
lonnt proceeding of the bishop, and put b 
grekt ezpoiM* m the eccleeiutical eouits . 
and whoi be eonaolteJ Mr. Ball what he 
■bould do to be dsUvered fram theaa troubles, 
Hr. Ball recommended bim to reward the 
biahopa well with money, ' for it is that,' said 
he, ' which they look for.' Hamson tried the 
enieriment, and afterwards enjoyed quietne 
((^um, Aceotmt, iL S96-7). 

Ball was aoenuDeDtacbolar. Hewsaene- 
eially learned in the whole litentnn of the 
cootrover^ with the chuich of Borne as re- 
prwented%Bel1armine. HediAd onSOOct. 
1640, aged fifty'4ve. Poller urs of bim : 
' He lived br fiutb ; was an excellent school- 
man and soiioolmBHter, a powerful preach^ 
and a profltabla 'I'riter, and his " Treatise of 
Futh cannot be Buffidently commended.' 
Woodwritee : ' He lived and died a noncon- 
formist, in a poor bouse, a poor habit, with a 
poor maintenance of about twenty pounds a 
year, and in an obecure village, teaching 
■chool all the week for his furUter support, 
yet leaving the charactor of a learned, pious, 
and eminently useful man.' Richard Baiter 
prononnced him as deeerving ' of m high 
Mtaem and hooonr as the best bishop in 

Ball's earliest bock was 'A Short Cate- 
chisme, containing all the principal Oronnds 
of Religion.' Befon) ia32 it had passed 
through Fourteen editions, and was translated 
into Turkish by William S«aman [q. v.] in 
1660. His other works were; 'Treatise of 
Faith' (1632 and 1637), which was very 
popular in New England ; ' Friendly Trial of 
theOroundsof Separation'(lB40); 'Answer 
to two Treatises or Mr. John Can,' the leader 
of the English Brownists at Amsterdam 
(1612), edited by Simeon Ashe; 'Trial of 
the Xew Church-way in New England and 
Old ' (1644), written against the New 'Eng- 
Innd ' independents ; ' ' Treatise of the Cove- 
nant of Girace' (1646), edited by Simeon 
Ash«- J ' Of the Power of Godliness doctri- 
nally and practically handled' (1667); a 
IHHlbDmoiis folio, edited by Simeon Ashe; 
and ' Uivine Meditation ' (16W). 

75 Ball 

[Brook's LivM of tlia Pnritnas, il. 440-4; 
UH. ChiuDology, ii. a95 (23), iii. s.n. lUOj 
Clark's Livca, 14a^2i FnUgr's WorthiM, ii. 
839; Wogd'sAtbi-w(BIisBl.ii.S70; Watt'sBibL 
Brit. ; Biog. Srit ; BaU't WoA*.] A. B. O. 

JOHN (1666 P-1 746), Presbyterian 
, iraa one of ten sons of Nsthanael 
Ball, H.A. [q. v.] ejected from Barley, Herts. 
He was educated for the ministry under the 
Rev. John Short at Lyme-Regis, Dorset, and 
finished bis studies at Utrecht, partly under 
the Rev. Henry Hickman, ejected fellow of 
Magdalen Collate, Oxford, who died minister 
of the English church at Utrecht in 1692. 
He was ordained 23 Jan. 1696, and became 
minister in 1706 of the preabyterian con- 
gH^tion at Honiton (eitmct 1788), where 
he united two opposing sections, and mi- 
nistered for forty years, being su«»eded by 
John Rutter (i^. 1769). He vras a laborious 
scholar, and 'carried the Hebrew psalter into 
the pulpit to expound from it.' His learning 
and high character caused a seminary, which 
he opened prior to the Toleration Act, to be 
not only connived at, but attended by tbe 
sons of neighbouring gentry, though of the 
established church. Ball ia remaikable for 
retuning the puritan divinity unimpaired to 
a late period. He hod no sympattiy with 
any of tne innovations upon Calvinism which, 
long before his death, became rife among the 
preebyterions of the West. He publiued : 
1. 'Ine Importance of Right Apprehensiona 
of Ood with respect to R^i^^on and Virtue,' 
Loud. 1786, 8vo. 3. 'Some Remarks on m. 
New Way of Preaching," 1737 (this was an- 
swered tn- Henry Grove, the leader <rf tbe 
more moderate school of preabyterion ''* 
Tolism). He died 6 May 1746, in his ni 
first year. 

[Calamy's Anxmnt; Pabuar's Naaotnif. Hem. 
i. lai; FuDBralSermonby John Walrand,174Si 
Bncorda of Eiater AsseiiiblT; Horch's Hist, of 
the Praib, and Gsn. Bept. Chorchas in Wsit of 
EDglanil, I83S,p.31fl; Davids' Ann. of Moacont 
in £awx, 1863, p. fi96.] A G. 


BALL, NATHANAEL (1628-1661), 
divine, assistant to Walton in his great 
' Polyglot,' was bom at Htminster, near 
Taunton Dean, Somersetshire, in 1623. He 
carried all before him in his parish school, 
and proceeded early to the univursi^ of 
Cambridge, being entered of King's College. 
Here he speedily won a name as a elasncol, 
oriental, and biblical scholar. He also spoke 
French bo idiomatically that he was some- 
timBsmirtakenfor anativeofFranee. While 
at the university he gained the friendship of 
Tillotson. HaviiwtttkenthedegrBeaof B.A. 

and M.A., he received orders, 






at BiLTlaj in Ilertfordebire, tliU vicarage 
h&ving been recently sequeatered Erom Her- 
bert Tnonidilie, according to Walker (Suffer~ 
ing», ii. 180). In Barlej he proved himself 
aa active and pious clergymui (Cauvt's 
Ace. 362 ; PiLMEs's Nimco^f. Mem. ii. 309 ; 
Falih>'b ^natU, prefixed to Spiritual Bond- 
agt). Ue married there the daughter of a 
neighbouring clergyman named Parr, by 
whom he had ten aona and three daughter*. 
The ' Register ' recorda five children of ' Mr. 
Nathaniel Ball, minister, and Marr, his 
wife ' (D&TIDS, ArniaU of Eoangelieal Non- 
confomaiy in Ettex, 1863, p. 597). Thorn- 
dike in 1658-9 recovered his living, and Bell 
wa« ejected. For some time aubsequeut he 
resided in his parish, and then removed to 
Royston, where ' the people . , , chose him 
as their pubUck minister. But the Act of 
Uniformity csme, and he resigned the office 
aa one of the two thousand. He did not 
immediately quit Royston, but 'continued 
ia the town for some time,' preacbing in 
the neighbourhood and beyond, aa oppor- 
tunities offered. He sftarwarda retired Xo 
Little Ghishill, of which parish his brother- 
in-law, Robert Parr, became the rector soon 
after the election of James Willett. While 
at Chishill he acted as an evangelist in the 
town and parish, and at Epping, Cambridge, 
Bayford, and other places. In 1668 he took 
part with Scandaret, Barnard, Havers, Cole- 
man, and Billio in two public dispute vritb 
George Whitehead, an irrepressible and fluent 

Juaker. In 1669 he was returned to Aich- 
iahop Sheldon as a ' teacher to a conventicle 
at Thaxted, in connection with Scambridfe 
[Scandaret] and Billoway [Billio].' On the 
' l>eclaration ' of 1672 he was described as 
of Nether Ohishilt, and obtained a license 
(26 May 1672) to be a ' general presbyterian 
teacher in any allowed place.' In June 1673 
his own house was licensed to be a presby- 
terian meeting-place, and he himself was 
licensed in August to be a 'presbyterian 
teacher in his own house' there, ob lived 
' in a email cottage of forU shillings a year 
rent,' and frequently sumred for noncon- 
formity. Amid his multiplied labours and 
poverty he died on 8 Sent. 1681, aged 68. He 
left his manuscripts to his ' brother beloved,' 
the Rev. Thomas Gouge, of St. Sepulchre's, 
London, who died only a few weeks after 
him. lieycame into the possession of John 
Faldo, another of the ejected, who published 
a now extremely rare volume by Ball entitled 
'Spiritual Bondage and Freedom; oraTreatise 
containing the Substance of several Sermons 
preached on that subject from John viiL 36, 
1H83.' Ball also wrote ' Christ the Hope ' 
Olcuji several Sermons — '^"' — ■ — ■ ^ 

1692.' The former is dedicated to 'the 
right honourable and truly virtuous the Lady 
Archer, of Coopersall, in Essex,' (me of Balls 
numerous friends. It is greatly to be deplored 
that his biblical and oriental manuscripts — 
the laborious occupation of a lifelong student 
— and his extensive correspondence are now 
lost. They are known to have been iu ex- 
istence in comparatively recent times. 

[Brook's History of Be1i){iaus Liberty, !i. S6 ; 
Entry Book and License B-ok in 8tst« Paper 
Office ; Barley Parish Ksgistan as qnoted in 
Davids'a Annals, pp. 190-8 ; Newooart, i. 8.1 

BAIil^ NICHOLAS (1791-IB66), Irish 
judge, son of John Ball, silk mercer of Dublin, 
was educated at Stonirhnrst and Trinity Ool- 
less, Bublin, where hie fellow students were 
Bichard Sheil and W. H. Cumn. He was 
called to the Irish bar in 1814, and after- 
wards passed two winters in Rome with Mr. 

) w™. 

n Colossians i. 

young men saw much of Cardinal Gouealvi, 
secretary of stat«. They were vehemently 
denounced and defended in the Irish preas, 
it was supposed that they used their 
' pport a scheme for catholic 
emancipation, by which the pope should 
appoint Irish catoolic bishops, eubject to the 
veto of the English government. Ball ob- 
tained Bilk in 1830, and was admitted a 
bencher of the King's Inn in 1836. His 
success at the bar was not brilliant, but he 
soon obtained a very lucrative practice in 
the rolls court and in the court of chancery, 
where his reputation was that of an acute, 
clear, and ready advocate. In 1836 he was 
elected member of parliament for Olonmel, 
and in 1B37 was appointed attorney-general 
and privy oounciUor for Ireland, He disliked 

erliamentary life, and spoke seldom and 
iefly, but in terse and lucid longusga. He 
was glad to take refuge in a judgeship of 
the common pleas (Ireland), to whicn he was 

Preferred in 1839, and whidi he held till his 
eath. He was the second Roman catholio 
barrister promoted to a judgeship after the 
passing of the Emancipation Act. He was 
a Bouitd and able lawyer, and some of his 
chargee are said to have been unsurnassed in 
his day. A silly story was current about him 
that ' ne had ordered a mill to cease plTlring 
until otherwise ordered by the court, and 
forgetting the withdrawal of the order before 
be left Cork, the owner had brought against 
him an action for damages.' Justice BaU 
was a sincere Roman catholic, but no ultra- 
montanist, a lealous Irish liberal, bnt strongly 
opposed to the disintogration of the empire. 
Ills literary acquirements were extenuve and 



□ 1817 Jftoe, d&ugtter 
of Thomu Sherlock, of Butleratown (^tle, 
CO. Wftterford, by whom he had aevenl 
children, his eldMt (on, John, being under- 
•eeraUrj of state for the coloniee under Lord 
PalmentonB fint adminiBtnition. Jiutice 
Ball died Kt his residence in Stephen's Qreen, 
•nd ITU buried in the fajuily vault under 
the j^TiJLTH'ftl of the RomAn catholic cathedfoL 

rE^wmao'g Jonnul, 1< and 20 Jan. IBSS ; 
Dohlin Daily EiprcM, IS and 19 Jan. IBSfi ; 
0«iit.IIag.8rdterieiiZTiii.lSB; Tablet, 31 Jan. 
IBM.] P. B.-A. 

(d. 1676), pbTBieiaa, was brother of William 
Ball[q.v.J,F.aS. On 13 Jan. 1658-9, being 
then twenty yeari of ago, he waa entered as a 
medical student at Leyden, but proceeded to 
Padua, where he tooh the deoree of doctor 
"th the higheat 
3 celebrate the 
occasion rerses in Latin, Italian, and Eng- 
lish were published at Padua, in which our 
physician, by a somewhat violent twist of 
Ilia latinised namea, Petrus Bale, is made to 
figure as ' alter Pbcebus.' Ball was admitted 
Ml honorary fellow of the Royal College of 
Fhyalciane in Dec. 1664. He was one of the 
original fellows of the Hoyal Socie^, one of 
the council in 1606, and in the following 
year was placed on the committee for causing 
a catalogue to be mode of the noble library 
mnd manuscripts of Arundel House, which 
had been presented to the society by Henry 
Howard, Esq., afterwards Duke of Norfolk. 
While at Mamhead in October 1666, Ball, 
in conjunction with his elder brother, William, 
made the obaerTatiou of Saturn mentioned 
under WiLLIAK Ball. l>ying inJuly 167G, 
he was buried on the SOth of that month in 
tlie round of the Temple Church. 

[Prinos'g Worthies of Dafaii, pp. 111-18; 
Honk's Koll of Boyal College of Fhyneiana 
(1878), i. 83fi ; Apallinan tiaitTuni, &c 4to, 
Fetafii, kdclx. ; Birch's Bist Boy. Soe. vol. i.- 
ii!. pwnin; AUiensnai, 21 Ang. and S Oct 
1880 ; Tunple B^slar.] Q. Q. 

BALL, ROBERT (1802^1867), naturaL'st, 
was bom at Cove (now Queenatown), county 
OoTk,onlAprill802. Hisfkther.BobStawel 
Ball, was descended from an old Devonshire 
family which settled in Youghal in 1661. 
He early showed a decided spirit of inquiry, 
MpecialW into natural histoT^. He was 

Srincipally educated at Ballitore, county 
Lildare, by a Mr. White, who appreciated 
and encouraged his aoological studies. At 
home at Youghal he became an active 
outdoor observer, and recorded much that 

77 Ball 

he saw with little aid. Taking an in- 
terest in public and neeful institutions, he 
was appointed a local magistrate in 1834, 
a few months after coming of b^. A 
little later the Dnke of Devonshire in- 
duced him to enter the government service 
in Dublin, althoueh he desired to study 
meditune, if he could do so without expense 
to his father. From 1827 to 1862 he was a 
lealous public servant in the undei^secre- 
tary's omoe in Dublin, chained to the desk 
in occupation distastefiU to him, disappointed 
of advancement or change of employment, 
at one time being put off with the reply thai 
his duties were so well done that a change 
must be refused. A stranger was appointed 
to the head clerkship of nis office when a 
vacancy occurred; and flnallv in 1862 a re- 
duction took place in the cnief secretary's 
office, and Ball was placed on the retired list, 
on the ground that ' he devoted much atten- 
tion to scientific pursuits, and that it was not 
expedient that public servants should be thus 
occupied;' although he had moat faithfully 
performed his duties. Hia retiring allowance, 
however, allowed him to live m moderate 
comfort The time he could spare from 
official work he always devoted to natural 
history pursuits, making zoological expedi- 
tions during his holidaya, frequently with 
Mr. W. Thomnson of Belfast, to whose many 
zoological pubhcations, and especially the 
' Natural History of Ireland,' he added num- 
berless facts of mterest. During almost the 
whole of his residence in Dublin he was one 
of the most prominent figures in its scientific 
life. He was for many years a member of the 
council of most of the Dublin scientific 
societies, and became president of the Qeo- 
logical Society of Ireland, and of the Dublin 
University Zoological Association. For many 

Jears secretary of the Zoolo^cal Society of 
reland, he devoted unweoned care and in- 
genious suggeativeness to its gardens. To 
him the woriiing classes of Dublin were in- 
debted for the penny charge for admission. 
He always exerted huuself as far as jnssible 
to promote the general diffusion of scientific 
knowledge, espedally by lectures and mu- 
seums; and in 1844, on being appointed 
director of the museum in Trinity Colle^, 
Dublin, he presented to it hia large collection 
. of natural history, which was richer in Irish 
specimens than any other, and included 
many original examples and new species. 
In recognition of his aervicee and merits. 
Trinity College in 1860 conferred on him the 
honorary degree of LL,D. In 1861 he was 
appointed secretair of the Queen's University 
in Ireland, and discharged the office with 
distinguished success. Other offices in which 


Ball 7 

Dr. Ball's Borvices were of great importance 
vere that of secretorj to the Joint Committee 
of Lectures, appointed in 1864 by the go- 
vernment and the Royal Dublin Society, to 
direct scientific lectures in Dablin and in 
provincial centres, and ssaistant examiner to 
the Civil Service Commission (1856). He 
bad been appointed -president of the natural 
history section of the British Association for 
the Bublin meeting of 1867, but died several 
months previous to the meeting, on SO Harch 
1867. of rupture of the aorta. His busy 

{inblic life had in later years left him no 
eisure, and his life was uiortened by over- 
work. In private life his social qualities and 
bis honourable nature were most highly 
esteemed, and, like lus friend. Professor 
Edwijd Forbes, he had agenius for enliven- 
ing a children's party. His pnncipal s<aen- 
tific papers were on fossil bears found in 
beland, on remuns of oxen found in Irish 
1 Loligo, and other minor loological 

BALL, THOMAS (1590-1669), divine, 
was bom at Abeibury in Shropshire, in 
lfi90. His parents were of 'good and 
honest repute, having nather 'superfluity 
nor want. His education was liberal; and 
having a natural prepossession to learning, 
he was noted for his ' constant and uncon- 
strained industry about his books.' While 
still a youth he was appointed usher in the 
then famous school of Mr. Puller, at Eppin^, 
in Essex, ' where he was two years.' TlieucB 
he proceeded to Cambridge, entering at 
Queens' College in 1616. He proceeded 
M.A. in 16-25. He was received by the Eev, 
Dr. John Preston as a pupil 'through the 

? leasing violence of a friendly letter which 
[r. Puller writt in his high commendation.' 
Preaching on the ' Trinity,' Preston found 
his pupil very much ' troubled ' over some of 
his statements and araumeuts. Ball put his 
questions and difficulties so modestly and 
ingenuously that the preacher was deeply 
interested in him. From that time thev were 
devoted to each other. Br. Preston, naving 
become master of Emmanuel College, took 
Ball along with lum from Queens', ' perceiv- 
inghisKrowiugparts.' Ever after the master 
of the great puritan college ' esteemed him 
not onlv as his beloved pupil but as his 
bosom friend and most intimately private 
familiar.' He obtained a fellowship, and had 
an ' almost incredible multitude of pupils.' 


cwned him much dist^ction as a preacher. 
He accepted with some hesitation a * call ' to 
the great church of Northampton about 1630, 
and conducted the 'weekly lecture' there for 
about twenty-aeven years. When the plague 
came to the town, he remained and ministered. 
He printed only one book apparently, namely, 
^ nouaimnipym — Pastonim Propugnacalum, 
or the Pulpit's Patronage against the Force 
of Unordsined Usurpation and Invasion. By 
Thomas Ball, sometime Fellow of Emmanuel 
College in Cambridge, now Minister of the 
Ghisp^ in Northampton, at the request and 
by uie advice of very many of hts Nu^h- 
'Ministers : London, 1656 ' [in British 

>f out-of-the-WBv learning, like Burton's 
Anatomy of Melancboly,' and it has quaint 
sayings and stories equal to Fuller at his best. 

So far as this treatise, ' Pastorum Pro- 
pugnaeulum,' is a defence of the church of 
Enf^land, it takes comparatively humble 
ground. It vindicates the reasonableness and 
script uralness of 'ordination* and of ade- 
quate learning ; he states with candour the 
objections of his opponents. 

Ball, in association with Dr. Goodwin, 
edited and published the numerous posthu- 
mous works of hia &iend Dr. John Preston. 

He was thrice married, and had a large 
family. Hedied, aged uxty-uine, in 1659, and 
was buried 21 June. His funeral sermon waa 
preached by his neighbour, John Howes. It 
was published under the title of ' Real 
Comforts,' and included notes of his life. 
This sermon is very rare. 

[Ho<r«s's Rod Comforts, dedicated to Hn. 
SuBunnii Griffith, vife of Hr. Thomas OrifflCh. of 
London, merchant, anil daughtsr of TnomM Ball, 
ISOO (butreiilly 30 Jan* 1S69): Brook's Lives 
of ths FuntSDi ; Wood's AtheuK Oxon. (Blin), 
iT.7fi6;ColeM3S., Cantab. Acheme and Miscal, 
in British Mnseam.] A. B. O. 

astronomer, was the eldest of seventeen child- 
ren bom to Sir Peter Ball, knight, recorder of 
Bieter and attoraey'^eneral to the queen in 
the reigns of Charles I and Charles II, by Ann, 
daughter of Sir William Cooke,of Gloucester- 
shire, his wife. In 1638, when WiUiam Ball 
waa probably abouteleven y earsof af^, Robert 
Chamberlain, a dependant of his father, dedi- 
cated his ' Epigrams and Epitaphs' to him in 
the character of a precocious poet. His ob- 
servations and drawings of Satum from 
fi Feb. 1656 to 17 June 1669 (communicated 
by Dr. Wallis) are firequently cited by Huy- 
geos {Op. Varia, iii. 625-6) as confiimatory 





appanda^ 4g|unBt the objectioni of Eii»- 
tachio Bivini. Bill joined the meetingi of 
the ' Oxooiui Society at Qreshani College in 
1669, eo-openitad in foondin^ the Ro;al 
Soaetj in the following year, aod was named, 
in the chut«r of 16 Jul^ 1662, its flnt tnia- 
eurer. On hia resignation of thia office, 
30 Nov. 1663, he promised, and subaequentl; 
paid to the funds of the societj, a donation 
of 1001. (Wbls, Sitt. Rm/oI Sac i. 171). 
Soon after 15 June 1665, when he waa preaent 
at a meeting of the Royal Societj (Bibch, 
Silt. Soaai Soe. I 439), be appeaia to have 
left London, and resumed hia aatronomical 
puiauita at his fother'a residence, Mamhead 
House, Devonshire, about ten milea aouth of 
Exeter. Hue, at six P.M. 13 Oct 1666, he 
made, in co^unction with his brother, Peter 
Ball, U.D., F.R.S., an observation which has 
acquired a certain R>uriDiu celehritj. "' 
described it in the lollowing eente~ ~ 
letter to Sir Robert Moray, which 
' ' ' . drawing; the woi 

, 9 of the 'Philosophical 

'Thia appeard to me the present flgnia of 
Saturn, somewhat otherwise than I expected, 
thinking it would have beea decreasing ; but 
I fi)und it AiU as ever, and a little hollow 
above and below. Whereupon,' the report 
continues, 'the person to whom notice waa 
amt hereof examining thia shape, hath by 
letters dtwni the worthy autnor of the 
" Systeme of this Planet " [Huygens] that he 
would now attentively cooaider the present 
figure of hia anaes or ring, to see whether 
the appearance be to him aa in thia figure, 
and consequently whether he there meets 
with nothing that ni^ make him think that 
it is not pne body of a diculai figure that 
embracea hia diake, but two.' 

Owing to soma unexplained circumstance, 
the plate con tuning the figure referred to waa 
omitted or removed from thegreat majority of 
copies of the'Philoa(^hioalTiuisaction8,'and 
the letterpress standing alone might naturally 
lie interpreted to signi^ that the DTOthers Boll 
had anticipated 1^ ten Tears Cassini's di»- 
covery of the principal division in Saturn's 
ring. Hia merit was in fact attributed to 
thrai by Admiral (then Captain) Smyth in 
1844 (^ OucU of Celatial Objeett, p. 61), 
and his lead waa followed by most writers on 
astronomical subjects down to October 1883, 
when Hr. W. 'S. Lynn pointed out, in the 
' Observatory,' the source of the misconcep- 
tion. In the few extant impresuoua of the 
woodcat from Ball's drawing not the slightest 
indication is given of separation into two 

concentric bodies, but the elliptic outline of 
the wide-open ring is repreaented aa broken 
b^ a depression at each extremity of the 
minoraiis. SirRobert Moray'aau^eation to 
Huygena seems (very obscurely) to convey 
his opinion that these ' hoUownesses ' were 
due to the intersection of a pair of erotud 
rings. Their true explanation is unquestion- 
ably that Ball, though he employed a 38-foot 
teleacope with a double ey^Iaaa, and ' never 
saw the planet more distinct,' was deceived 
by an optical illusion. The impossible deli- 
neations of the same object by other ob- 
servers of that period (see pUte facing p. 6S4 
of Huygens's Op. Varia, lii.) render Ball'a 
error lesa rarpriaing. Indeed, it waa antici- 
pated at Naples m 1633 by F. Fontans 
(Nooa Obteri>atiotia,-p. 130; see Obtenatoru, 
No. 79, p. 341). 

Pepys tells us rBright'a ed. v. 376) that 
Ball accompanied Vim and Lord Brouncker 
to Lincoln's Iiip to visit the' new Bishop of 
Chester (Wilkine) IS Oct. 1668, and he waa 
one of a committee for auditing the accounts 
of the Royal Society in November following. 
He succeeded to tne family estates on his 
father's death in 16SD, and erected a monu- 
ment to him in the little church of Hamhead. 
He died in 1690, and waa buried in the 
Itound of the Middle Temple 22 Oct. cd 
that vear {Temple Seouter; cf. Letters of 
AdminUtratioH P. C C., by decree, 14 Jan. 
1692). He married Mary Posthuma Huaaey, 
of Lmcolnshire, who survived him, and bad 

[Prince's Worthira of Devon (1701). I1I-3; 
Folwbele'a Hist, of DBvooshire (17S7). li. ISA-T; 
Watt's HibL Brit. i. 87 ; Prof, J. C. Adnma 
(Month. Not Roynl Astr. 8oc Jan. 1 883, pp. 93-7) 
attsmptg to prove diiit Bnll's obHTTation waa 
mianpresented, both in tha pUt« (csnealled. *• 
hs auggaala. on that aoconnt) and i a the lettcr- 
pnas ot Phil. Trans. Ss«, on ths othar side, 
Vivinn in Month. Not. March ISKS, and Lyn 
in Obser*nt<ry, I Juna and I Oct II 
yden givee, Obaerval 
from Moray's 1ett«r to Huygena 

aervntory, 1 Juna and I Oct 1883. Prof. 
uysen of Leydea gives, Obaervalory, 3 July 
1883. ue pnSHsge from Moray's 1ett«r toHuygena 
reared to in Phil. Tnuu. i. ItS. Huygens's 
reply ha* not yet bsen brought to light] 

A. H. C. 

BAUiANDEN. [See BsiXBiiPEir.] 

BALLANTIKB, JAMES {1808-1877), 
artist and man of letters, bom at Edinbuign 
in 1808, was entirely a self-made man. 
His first occnpatiou was that of a house- 
painter. He learned drawing under Sit 
William Allen at the Tnutees' Gallery in 
Edinburgh, and was one of the firat to re- 
vive the art of glass-painting. In 1846 he 




published > treatise on ' Stained 01a«s, show- 
ing its applicability to everj style of Archi- 
tecture,' and was appointed bj the rojal 
contmiBsioners on the fine arts to execute the 
atained^lass windows for the House of Lords. 
He was the authac of several popuUr works : 
l.'ThaGaberluwie'sWaUet;iB43. 3. 'The 
Miller of Deanhaugh,' 1646. 3. An 'Esssv 
onOrnamenUlArt, 1847. 4. ' Poems,' 1856. 

5. 'One Hundred Songs, with Music,' 1866. 

6. 'The Life of David Roberts, R.A.' 1868. 
There is also a volume of Terses published 
by Ballantine in Jamaica, whither in later 
life he seems to have retired for the benefit 
of his health. ■ The Oaberlunzie'a Wallet ' 
and some of his songs are still popuUr in 
Scotland. He died in Edinburgh in Decem- 
ber 1877. He was the head of the firm of 
Messrs. Ballantine, glass stainers, Edinburgh. 

[AtbansOm, 32 Dee. 1877 ; Aeadetnj, 29 Dae. 
18T7 ; Cooper't Uan of the Time, 1S7S.1 

BALLAHTTNE, JAMES (1772-1888), 
the printer of Sir Walter Scott's works, was 
the son of a general merchant in Kelso, 
where he waa born in 1772. His friendship 
witj) Scott began in 1788 at the grammar 
school of EeUo. After mastoring his lessons, 
Scott used to whisper to Ballantyne, ' Come, 
slink over beside me, Jamie, and 111 t«ll you 
a story ;' and in the interval of school hours 
it was also their custom to walk together by 
the banks of the Tweed, engaged in the same 
occupation. Before entering the office of a 
solicitor in Kelso, Ballantyne passed the 
-winter of 1786-6 at Edinburgh University. 
His apprenticeship concluded, ne again went 
t« Edinburgh to attend the class of Scots 
law, and on this occasion renewed his ac- 
quaintance with Scott at the Teviotdale 
cinb, of which both were members. In 1796 

__. ] OS a solicitor 

Kelso, but as his business was 
•tely succesBJiil he undertook in the follow- 
ing year the printing and editing of an anti- 
democratic weekly newspaper, the 'Kelso 
Hul.' A casual conversation with Scott, in 
1709, lad to his printing, under the title of 
' Apologies for Tales of Terror,' a few copies 
of some ballads which Scott had written for 
Lewis's Miscellany, ' Tales of Wonder.' So 
pleased was Scott with the beauty of the 
type, that he declared that Ballantyne should 
be the printer of the collection of old Border 
ballads, with which he bad been occupied 
tor several years. They were published under 
the title of ' M inetreley of the Scottish Border,' 
the first two volumes appearing in Jan. 18(@; 
and the connection thus inaugurated between 
author and printer lemained uninterrupted 

Induced by the strong representations of 
Scott, Ballantyne, about the close i^ 1802, 
removed to Edinburgb, ' finding accommoda- 
tion for two presses and a proof one in the 
precincts of Holyrood House.' Scott, besidsB 
advancing a loan of 600/., exerted himself 
to procure for him both legal and literary 
printing ; and such was the reputation soon 
acquired by his press for beauty and correct- 
ness of execution that in 1806 the capital 
at his command was too small to fulfil the 
contracts that were offered him, and he ap- 
plied to Scott for a second loan, who there- 
upon became a third sharer in the business. 
In 1608 the firm of John Ballantyne & Co., 
boaksellers, was also started, Scott having 
one half share, and James and John Ballan- 
tyne one fourth each. John Ballantyne tq.v.] 
undertook the management of the book^ 
selling and publishing business, the printing 
business continuing under the superintend- 
ence of the elder brother ; but Uio actual 
head of both concerns was Scott, who, al- 
though in establishing them he wssactuated 
by a Mendly interest in the Ballantyoea, 
wished both to find a convenient method ot 
engaging in a commercial undertaking with- 
out nek to his status in society, and also as 
an author to avoid the irksome intervention 
of a jpublisher between him and the reading 
public The publishing business was gradu- 
ally discontinued, but the printing business 
was in itself a brilliaut success. The hish 
perfection to which Ballantyne had brought 
the art of printing, and his connection with 
Scott, secured such enormous employment 
for his prGM that a large pecuniary profit 
was almost an inevitable necessity. But 
though not defirisnt in natural shrewd- 
neas, he vras careless in his money tranaao- 
tions, and it was the arUstic and literary 
aspect of his business that chiefly engaged 
his intereab Much of his time was occupied 
in the correction and revision of the proofs 
of Scott's works, the writing of critical and 
theatrical notices, and tlie editing of tbe 
'Weekly Journal,' of which, along with his 
brother,hebecameproprietorinl617, Scott'e 
hurried method of composition rendered care- 
ful inspection of his proo& absolutely neces- 
sary, but the amendments of Ballantyne had 
reference, in addition to the minor point* of 
grammar, to the higher matters of taste and 
style. Though himself a loose and bom- 
bastic writer, he had a keen eye for detect- 
ing Boladsms, inaccuracies, oi minute impec- 
fections in phrases and expressions, and Ida 
hints in regard to the general treatment of a 
subject were often of great value. If Scott 





Midom kcceptod hiaunendments in thefbrm 
■uggeatod, he nearij always admitted the 
force of hi* oljecUoiiAj and in deferoioe to 
them frequently made un^Ttant alterations. 
Indeed, it is to the eritioiam of BaUantTne 
that we owe some of Scott's most vivid opi- 
tfaeta and most graphic dsMtriptive touches. 
(For ezamplea, see iJXXSiX^tLifei^Seott, 
T.) Loi 

chap. xxzT.) 

le and a pro^naitj 

to mdulAenee at table were the principal 
foulte of BaUantyne. On account of the 
'j of his m«»iti«i' Scott used 
' AJdiborontiphoecophomio,' 
his more mercnrial brother being dubbed 
'lUKdnmfonnidoe.' Lil816,BaUantnemai^ 
riea Miss H<warth,siBteTof Oeorn Hogarth, 
the author of the ' Hiatorr of Mumc." He 
lived in a roomj but old-fashioned house 
in Sb John Street, Oanonga' 
bis printiiig eetablishmeut. 
eve of a new novel bj the Great Unknown, 
he WW accmuaned to give a 'gorgeoiu' 
ftast to his more intimate friends, when, 
^ter Scott and the more staid personage* 
bad withdrawn, and the ' claret and olives 
had made way for broiled bones and a mtghtj 
bowl of pouch,' the proof sheets were at 
lensth produced, and 'James, with manj' a 
pr^toTj hem, read aloud what he con- 
sidered as the most striking dialogue thej 

The nepmnlnlitj <tf Ballantvne tot the 
ncuniaty difficnlties vH Bii Walter Scott 
nas heoi sbongly inssted on by Lockhart, 
but this WM not the opinion of Soott him- 
■eU^ who mote : ' I have been fm from suf- 
fering from James BaQantrne. I owe it to 
bim to say that his difficulties •• well as bis 
advantages SM owing to me.' Doubtless the 
printing-press, vrith more carefiil snperin- 
teudertee, woijd have yielded a laiger fn&%, 
bat the embairassments of Seott origmated 
in bis connection with tbe publislung firm, 
said were due chiefly to sohemes propounded 
tsj liiiTiMilf tnd undertaken frequently in 
opposition to the sdviea of Ballanl^e. In 
1826 the firm of James Ballantyne ft Co, 
became involved in tbe bankruptcv of Con- 
■taUe ft Co., publishers. After his bank- 
rupt^ Ballantyne was employed at a mode- 
rate sslarr by tbe creditore' trustees in the 
editing (n the ' Weekly Journal ' and the 
litenoy mua^ement of the printing-house, 
io that hi* literary relations with Scott's 
works nmsined unaltered. He died 17 Jan. 
ISSS, about fbur months after the death of 

Hnmbug handled by tha antbor of the lifa of 
Sir WaltOT Soott, 1839 ; Reply to Hr. LoekhaH's 
PHmphlat, CDtitlcd 'Th« BaUanlTnB Enmbiig 
huidled,' ISSB; Archibald Cfmatabls sod bis 
Literary Corrrapondentj, 187S.] T. F. H. 

(d. 1864), orientalist, after beiiw connected 
with tha Scottish Naval and Military Aca- 
demy, was sent out to India in 1846, on tbe 
reoommeudation of Professor H. H. Wilson, 
to superintend the Teorganisation of the go- 
vernment Sanskrit college at Benares, llie 
intimate relations he here established with 
native teachers and students, and the high 
opinion he formed of the philosophical By»- 
tems of Indis, led him to undertake a com- 
prdiensive series of works with the design 
of rendering the valuable elements in Hindu 
thought more accessible and familiar to Euro- 
pean stndente than they had hitherto been, 
litis wsa tbe aim of his translations of tha 
Sanskrit aphorisms of tbe Stnkhya and many 
of those of the Nyiya school, with tracts 
bearing upon these and also upon the Ve- 
dinta Bystem. The oouTerse process — the 
communication of European ideas to the 
Brahmins— is exhibited in his ' Synopsis of 
Science, in Sanskrit and English, reconciled 
with the truth to be found in the Nyftya 
Philosophy,' and moet of bis works kk filled 
with the design of estaUishing more intel- 
ligent relations between Indian and Eunv 
peanthou^t Dr.Ballantynehadanoriginal 
Dent of mind, and his method of dealing with 
philosophical systems was often suggestive. 

The fist of his works is as follows : 1. 'A 

fti ^tiirrtj^ r iif ^hft TTin^ n rtatii LuigUagCf'Sdin* 

burgh, 1888j with a eecond edition. 3. 'Elfr. 
ments of Hindi and BraJ Bhikha Oranunai,' 
Ixmdon and Edinbur^dk, ieS9. 3. 'A Gram- 
mar of tbe HabrattaXanguage,' Edinburgh, 
Uthomphed, 1839. 4. 'Principles of Fer^ 

don and Edinburgh, 1339. 6. ' Hindustani 
Selections in the Naskhi and Bevana^ari 
character,' Edinburgh, 1840; 2nd edition, 
1846. 6. 'Hindustani Letters, lithographed 
in the Nuskh-Tuleek and Shikustu-Amei 
character, with translations,' London and 
EdinbuTf^, 1840. 7. ' The Practical Oriental 
lotenireter, or Hints on the art of Translating 
readily from English into Hindustani and 
Pereiao,' London and Edinburgh, 1843. 
6. ' Ostachism of Persian Grammar,' Lon- 
don and Edinbui^, 1843. 9. ' Pocket Guide 
to HindooBtani Conversation,' London and 
Edinbuwh. (The preceding books were 
published before Br. Ballantyne went to 
India,) 10. ' Oatechism of Suiskrit Gham- 
msi,' Sod edition, London and Edinbor^ 

I, Google 




1846. ll.'TheL>rfiuKftumudi,ftS«i»krit 
Gmmituir, by Varadsnja,' Ist adition, 1849 ; 
Sod, 1867, poathumoue. 12. 'First Le««ons 
in SuiHkrit Oranunar, together with an In* 
troduction to the Uitoi^^sa,' lat edition, 
laeOi 2nd, 1862. 13. <A DiscouiM on 
Translation, with reference to the Educa- 
tional Despatch of the Hon. Court of Di- 
roctora, 19 July 1864,' Miraapore, 1856. 
14. 'A Synopsis of Science in Sanskrit and 
English, reconciled with the Truths to be 
found in the Ny&ya Philosophy,' Uirzapore, 
1866. 16. 'The Hah&hh&shya (PatanjaU'a 
Great Commentary on Panini^ famouFgram- 
nuur), vitb Commentaries,' Mirzapore, 1856. 
16. ' Qinatiuiity contrasted with Hindu 
HiiloMphy, in Sanskrit and English ' (a work 
to whicn was awarded the moiety of a priie 
of 3IML offered by a member of the B«igal 
Civil Service, and decided by judges ap- 
pointed by the Archbishop of Canterbury 
and the Biahopa of London and Oxford), 

use of the Sanskrit collie. Some of these 
appeared under the title of ' Reprints for the 
Pandits,' and included treatises on chemistry, 
physical science, logic, and art, and an ex- 
planatory veraion, in Sanskrit and English, 
of Bacon's 'Novum OrDanon'(1862), which 
reached a second edition in 1860. 'The 
Bible for the Pandits ' was the title of a 
translation of the first three chaptan of 
Genesis into Sanskrit, with a oommentary 

In 1861 Dr. Ballantyne resigned his pori- 
tJon at the Benares college, where for six- 
teen ^ears be had been an inde&tigable and 
judicious principal and a liberal professor of 
moral philosophy, and on his return to Eng- 
land was appointed Ubrarian to the India 
Office. His health, howeveT, had long been 
failing, and he died on 16 Feb. 1664. Tho 
Benares colWe owed much to his wise and 
broad-mindea direction, and native students 
have profited neatly by his mbIous labours 
on tlieir behall. 

[AtJleDsam, 13 March 18M ; Bnllantyne'i 
Works, tapadally advsrtlsemant to tha STnopsis 
of Science.] S. L.-F. 

BALLANTYNB, JOHN (1774^1821), 
pablishra, younger brother of James Ballan~ 
l>om at Eelao in 1774. After spraiding a 
short time in the WnVing honse of Messrs. 
Currie, London, he return^ in 1796, to Kelso, 
and became partner in his father's business as 
general merchant On his marriage in 1797 
the partnership was dissolved, one princi^ 

part of the bnsinees being leugned to him. 
Uradually he got into money dimculties, and, 
having disposed of his goods to pay his debts, 
went to Edinburgh in January 1806, to bo- 
1 clerk in bis brother's printing egtablish- 
; at a salary of 2001. a year. When 
t in 1808, on tlie ostensible ground of a 
misunderstanding vrith Messrs. Constable ft 
Hunter, established the firm of John Ballan- 
tyne & Co., John Ballantyne was appointed 
manager at a salary of 300^ a j^eai and one- 
fourth of the profits. The private memo- 
randum-book of Ballantjroe records that al- 
ready in 1809 the firm was getting into diffi- 
culties; andduringthenext threeyearstheir 
general speculations continued bo uniformly 
msuccessful, that in May lei.S Scott opcmed 
legotiations with Constable for pecuniary 
issistance in return for certain stock and 
copyright, including a share in some of Scott's 
own poems, and on a pledge of winding up 
the concerns of the firm as soon as possible. 
Although ' Waverley ' was published ny Con- 
stable in 1814, Scott, owing either, as stated 
by Lockhart, to the misre^eaentations of 
John Ballantyne regarding Constable, or to 
the urgent necessity for more ready money 
than Constable was willing to advance, made 
arrangements in 1816 for the publication of 
' Guy Mannering ' by Longman, and in tha 
following year of the ' Tales of my Landlord ' 
by Murray. Lockhart states that Ballantyne, 
in negotiating with Constable in 1817 re- 
garding a second series of ' Tales of my Land- 
lord,' so wrought on his jealousy by hinting 
at the poanbiCty of diviuing the series with 
Hurray, that he ' agreed on the instant to do 
all that John shnu from asking, and at ono 
sweep cleared the Augean stable in Hanover 
Street of unsaleable rubbish tA the amount 
of 6,270/. ; ' but from a passsge in the ' Life 
of Archibald Constable^ (iii. 96) it would 
appear that ttus was not efiected till a later 
period. John Ballantyne, whom Scott con- 
tinued to employ in tJl the negotiations re- 
garding the publication of his works, had in 
1813, on the advice of Constable, started as 
an auctioneer chiefly of books and works of 
ait, an occupation well suited to his pecu- 
liar idiosyncrasies. As he had also made a 
stipulation with Constable that he wai to 
have a third ahare in the profits of the Wa- 
verley novels, he suffered no psouniaiy loss 
by the dissolution of the old publishinff firm. 
In addition to this, Scott, in 1620, gratuitously 
offered his services as editor of a ' Novdist * 
Library,' to be published for his sole benefit. 
His easily won gains were devoted to the 
gratification of somewhat upanaive tastea. 
At his villa on the Firth of Forth, which he 
had named 'Harmony Hall,' and had'in- 





Tested with an ur of dainty, Toluptuous 
finery,' he g«Te frequent elabonto FUiBion 
diiinen, amons the gueits at which wu snie 
to be fpund 'whatever actor or singer of 
eminence visited E^nburgK' He frequented 
foxhunts and racfr-meetinge, and even at his 
taction ' appeared imifonmj, hanuuer in hand, 
in the half-dress of some sparting club.' Hia 
imprudent pursuit of pleasure toid graduaUj 
on his constitution, and after leTeral yearn 
of ahattered health he died at his brother'B 
boose in Edinburg-h 16 June 1821. Ballan- 
tyne is the author of a novel — 'The Widow's 

edition. In hia will he bequeathed 

Walter Scott a Iwacy of 2,uO(M. ; but after 
his death it was fbimd that his afiairs were 
hopelessly bankrupt. In the antics and ec- 

centricitiee of Ballantyne Soott discovered 
an inexhaustible fund of amusement ; but he 
also cherished towards him a deep and sincere 
attachment. Standing beside his newly closed 
grave in Oanongate cnurchvard, be whiapered 
to Lockhart, ' I feel as if there would be less 
le for me from this day forth.' 

IiMsUlBtt's Lifs of Sir Walt«r Beott rmectJDg 
the Hanra. BallantjDC, 1H36 ; Tb« Baltentjna 
Hombog handtfld by the anihor of the Lift of 
Sr Walter Scott, 1839 ; Beply t« Ur. Lockhart's 
pawphl**. entitled ' Tbe Ballnotyiie Humbug 
handled,' )SS9; Archibald ConslabU and hi* 
Literary CorrMpondeat*, 1873] T. F. H. 

BALUUrmra, JOHN (1778-1S30), 
divine, was bom in the parish of B^inghorn 
8 Hay 1778 ; entered the university of Edin- 
burgh in 1796, and joined tbe Burgher branch 
of the Secession church, though his parents 
belonged to the eetablishment. He was or- 
dained minister of a congregation at Stone- 
haven, Kincardmeshire, in 1606. In 1834 
he published 'A Comparison of Eatabliehed 
and Dissenting Churches, byaDisaenter.' In 
1630 thia pamphlet, which had failed to 
excite noUce, wu republished with additions 
daring the ' voluntary charcb ' controversy 
of the period. BaUantyne'a paitisanship in 
the controversy is said to have injnrea the 
reception of his ' Elxamination of the Human 
Hind,' the first part of which appeared in 
1B38 ; two fiirtherparta were int^ded, but 
never appeared. The fiulnre, however, may 
be accounted for without the influence of 

E spirit. It is the work of a thoughtful 
at vary ori^^insl student of Reid and Du- 
nld Stawut, with some criticism of Thomas 
Bn>wn. It is recorded that Ballantyne m^ 
na^fed to pay for publication out of his own 
Mvingi, handing over a sum bestowed on 

by a generous patron to some 
missionary purpose. Ballantyne suffered 
from indigestion bronght on by excessive 
application, and died 5 Nov. 1830. 

[McKbttow's Chaich of the SecMsian, pp. 
BIS-I61 BecoUectioDsbyT.Longmair.Abudeen, 
1873; McCoah's ScoUish Fhiloeophy, pp. ISS- 

1871), journalist, was a native of Paisley, 
where he was bom in 1606. Becoming editor 
of the ' Bolton Fna Press,' he at an earlv 
period of his life took an active port in ad- 
vocating social and political reforms. While 
editor of the ' Manchester Ouardian ' he 
became intimately associated with Messrs. 
Cobden and Bright in their agitation against 
the com laws, and in 1841 ne published tbe 
'Com Law Repealer's Handbook,' Along 
with Mr. Bright be was one of tbe four 

with the 'Times,' he became editor 
of the ' Liverpool Joum^' and later of the. 
'Mercury.' Subsequently he removed to 
London to edit the ' Leader,' and be was for 
a time associated with Dr. Mackay in the 
editorial department of the ' Illustrated Lon- 
don News.' He also started the ' Statesman,' 
which he edited till its close, when he became 
editor of the 'Old St. James's Chronicle.' 
Notwithstanding his journalistic duties, he 
fbund time to contribute a number of papers 
on social and political topics to various re- 
views and magarines , in addition to which 
he^blished; 1. 'Passages selected from the 
Writings of Thomas Carlyle, with a Bio- 
graphical Memoir,' 1865 and 1870. 2. 'Pro- 
Shecy for 1366, selected from Corlyle'e Latter- 
ay Pamphlets,' 1866. 3. ' Ideas, Opinions, 
andract8,'1666. 4. ' Essays in Mosaic,' 1870. 
Hoarding his proficiency in this species of 
compilation, Carlyle himself testifies as fol- 
lows: 'I have long recognised in Mr. Ballan- 
tyne a real talent for excerpting significant 
passages from booiis, magaiines, newspapers 
(that contain aitj/ such), and for presenting 
them in lucid arrangement, and in their most 
interesting and readable form.' Ballantyne 
died at London 80 Aug. 1871. 

[Sutton's I«ncashir« Authors, p. 7 ; Olasgow 
Duly Mul,9S^.]S71; Foialej Weekly Herald, 
ll&pt.l87I.] T. F. H. 

1661), catholic divine. [See Ballekser.] 

(1791-1860), miscellaneous writer, was the 
son at Edward Ballard, an alderman of 



Ballard a 

8&lUburf, and Eliiabeth, daughter of G. F, 
Benson of that city. Owing to the delicacy 
«f his health, hia education was much neg- 
lected. He obtained a situation in the Stamp 
OiRc« in 1809, and, having reaigned thiM ap- 
pointment, entered the Excise OfUce, -which 
he also left of his own accord in 1817. He 
applisdhimaelfvigorouelj to study. InlSl? 
he became a contributor to WooUer'a ' Roa- 
ROner.' The following year he married Mair 
Ann Shadgett, and wrote several criti- 
cisms and verses for the ' Weekly Review,' 
then edited by his brother-in-law, William 
Sbadgett. He contributed to the ' Literary 
Chronicle ' and the ' Imperial Masaiiue' undw 
the signature B. O. B., and to tte ' literary 
Magnet ' and the ' World of Fashion * under 
thatofr. He published in 1826 a volume en- 
titled 'A New Series of Original Poems,' and a 

research. Bobert Benson [q.v.l, lus cousin, 
and Hatcher received no small help Irom 
him in writing their ' History of Baksbu^ ' 
(16i3), which formed part of Hoare's ' Wilt- 
ehire.' He helped John Gough Nichols in 
the works undertaken for the Camden So- 
ciety. In 1848 be brought out some parts 
of a continuation of Strype's ' Ecdesisstical 
Annals ' in a publication called the ' Sur- 
plice,' but this paper and BalUrd's scheme 
soon came to an end. He wrote oceaaionaUy 
in the * Gentleman's Magazine,' and in ' Notes 
and Queries.' He lost his wife in 18S0. He 
died at Islington on 14 Feb. 1660, leaving a 
eon, Edward Ballard, H.D., anthoT of several 
medical works, and a daughter. 

[(Hot Mag. Sid ear. vol. viii, IMO.] V, H. 

BALLARD, GEORGE (1706-1766), » 
learned antiquary, waa bom of mean pft- 
lentage at Camden, Qloucestershire. His 
mother was a midwife. As his health was 
weak, a li^t employment waa chosen for 
him, and he was apprenticed to a staymsker 
or woman's habit-maker. He ahowed early 
atasteforleaming, particularly for the study 
of Anglo-Saxon, ana when his day^s work was 
over he would read far into theniirht. Lord 
Chedworth and some gentlemen of the hunt, 
who usually spent a month in the neighbour- 
hood of Campden, bearing of Ballard's ability 
and industry, generously ofiered him an an- 
nuity of low. a year for life, in order to allow 
bim to pursue bis studies. Ballard replied 
that he would be fullv satisfied with K)/. a 
year; and with this allowance he proceeded 
in 1760, at the age of forty-four, to Oxford, 
where he was made one of the eight clerks 
at Magdalen College, receiving his rooms 
and commons free. In earlier life he had 


already viuted Oxford several time*, and 
bad made the acquaintance of IVimaa 
Heame, the antiqnaiy. Heame deecribea 
in his dian a visit Ballard paid him on 
3 March 1726-7, and writhe cf him as 'an 
ingenious curious young man,' who ' hatli 
picked up an abundance of old coins, some 
of which he shewed me.' ' He is a mighty 
admirer of John Fox,' Heame adds, 'and 

I mightily against the Roman CauioUcs. 
Mr. Ballard bath a sist«r equally cu- 

I in coins and books with himself. Ha 
told me she is twentj-three years of age.' 
Heame makes many similar entries between 
1787 and 1733. Ballard was afterwards 
chosen one of the universitv bedells. In 
1762 be published 'Memoirs of several Ladies 
of Great Britain who have been celebrated 
for their writinga or akUl in the learned 
languages, arts, and sciences,' 4to, a book 
which contains much curious and intereatiiuf 
matter. A second edition am>eared in 1776. 
In'Lett«nfrom the Bodleian,'^! 813, ii. 140-7, 
there is ^inted a long letter to Dr. iMtelton, 
dean of Exeter, in which Ballard defends his 
■ Memoirs' irom some hostile criticism that 
bad appeared in the ' Monthly Review.' 
When Ames waa preparing his ''Eatorj of 
Printing,' Ballard sided him with notes and 
sii^estions (Nichols, Xdterary lUuttrationi, 
iv. 306-36). An account of Campden church 
br Ballard is printed in the ' Arcbnologia.* 
He held frequent correspondence on litec^7 
subjects with the learned Hr. Elatob. He 
copied out in manuscript jSl&ed's version 
of Orosius, prefixing an essay on the advan- 
tages of the study of Anglt^Saxon. Ballard 
left Oxford for Campden some month* before 
his death, while suffering from the ston^ 
from which he died S4 June 176S. At hi* 
death he bequeathed his volume on Oroaiua 
to his &iend Dr. Lyttelton, bishop of Carlisle, 
who presented it to the bbrary of the Sode^ 
wC An^naries. Other manuscripts he left 
to the K)dleiBn. They consist of forty-fi^m 
volumes of letters, oi which five volamea 
contain tetters addressed to himself, and the 
remainder letters to Dr. Oharlett and others, 
A few of the letters were published in ' Let- 
ters written by Eminent Peraona,' 2 vola. 
London, 1813. 

fBloxain'a Msgdalan Collage Begistars, ii. 9ff- 
103; Nichoii'sLitaiwyAiiettlote^ii. 4aO'T0, Iv. 
1 23 ; Niehols's Literary lUnstrationa, iv. 300-38 ; 
LatUn from tha Bodleian, 1813, ii. SO-M, 140- 
47.1 A. H. B. 

BALLARJ), JOHN (d. 1666), Roman 
catholic priest, owes his tkme solely to hia 
connection with the Babingtcm conspiracy, 
of which a general account it given nndw 



ASTBOKi BAsnrsTov. He -was appueutl; 
•ducated at Rbeinis, and first sent u^d 
• miaNtm to En^wod in 1681 (ArchiTM 
of EngUih Gcdlega at Botoe, in Folbt'b 
Jleoonb, iii. 44). He puwd nader tbHoiu 
■liiiinH, fint Tiinieir,thnt llioiiipaon, but later 
on always under tliat of Foaeue or FortMCue. 
It haa lieen doubUd whether hi* real name 
waanotniompBon. Hw olgeet of hia ocmuiig 
wae WraconcQe'donbting oriecaldtruit ca- 
tbolics to the ehnich of Kmie, and donbUees 
to Boand tbeir politioal diapoaitioni. He was 
well famiahecT with money, was conunonly 
called captain, and Mems to have been fond 
«f fine dotbea and fine company (Ttkbeij.'b 
Gntfattiim). Among the persona whou ao- 
Auaintance he made waa Anthony Tyrrell, 
the jeauit, whose confession, could it be 
•eeepled a* trustworthy, would give lu most 
of thefaeta of Ballard's career. ButTyirell's 
confaa w oowM retracted, reaffirmed, and then 
again retracted, and is at least as much open 
to aBBpicicm as the testimony of any aUtet 
infovmer. Tvrrell made Balurd'a acquunt- 
anea at the Gatehouse, Weatminster, where 
therwere both tempoisrilT confined in 1581. 
In Ui84 these two travelled to Ronen, and 
afterwards to Rbeinis, where they held a 
eonferenoe with Oarduul Allen, and from 
Bhaims thev wooeeded to Home, where th^ 
arrived on / o«Pt- 16S4 (Pilgnm^ Jtajfuter 
mt Itpma, and TisaxLL). It was then that 
l^rrcUj in his eoofasaion, represents them 
as having sn interview with Alfonso Agai- 
seri, rector of the Kngiiah collie, in which 
they inqniied as to the lawfulness of at- 
tempting the tsrtnriHinwtifiw of Elittbeth, and 
received aMorancee in the affirmative, luod 
Bobeeqaently the Ueaui^ of Gregoiy AZil 
npoDtnaireaterpriae. TtueacocHmt, although 
accepted asanimdonbted&ctb^somehisto- 
riana, rests on no better authonty than the 
confeauon of l^irdL Thay left Borne in 
October and jonmeyed homevrard through 
France. Inthelatemonthattf 1586 Ballard, 
diagnised as a military officer and passing 
nnoer the name of Captain Forteacue, trs- 
Ttdlad throu^ almost every county of En^ 
land and vmted every catholic or semi- 
catholic &mily. In May 1686 Ballard went 
to Ptzit, where he informed Ohariea Paget, 
the adherent of Mary Queen of Scots, and 
the Spanish minisler Hendoia, that the ca- 
tholic gsatty in England were willing, with 
the hMp of Spain, to rise in inHurrection 
•gauutfiliisb^ and herconnsellors. Hau- 
viseitre, the French ambaaaador in London, 
lefiiaed toconntenancethe scheme (Ttkkbll's 
(Wl), Chateeuneuf.another French envoy 
to England, believed Ballard to have been st 
one time a spy of Walsingham {Mfntoire dc 

s Ballard 

CXateouneif^ ap. Lasaxott, vi. 276 seq.). 
Bat Paget and Mendoia trusted him, and 
on his return to England, at the end of May 
1586, he instigated Anthony Babington to 
organise without delay his fimiouaeonspincy. 
He came to England, bearing a letter of in- 
boduotion from Charles Paget to Mary Queen 
of Scots (^tted 29 May 1666, ap. Munpiir, 
p. 631). He reported to her the condition of 
the country, and she sent him again to France 
to hasten toe active co-operation of the King 
of Spain and of the pope (Mary to Paget, 
17 July, Labaxoti'). Meantime Bslurd 
imagined he had found a useful ally in hia 
negotiations abroad and st home in Gilbert 
GiSbrd, a catholic, and to him many details 
of the plot were communicated; but GiSbrd 
bad since 1586 been in Walsingham's secret 
service, end reported to the English govem- 
ment the prc^resB of the conspiracy. Owing 
mainly to the revelations of Gifford, whom 
Ballard nupected too late, Ballard was sud- 
denly arrested in London on 4 Aug:, on a 
warrant drawn up early in July. He was 
committed to the Tower and severely racked, 
but without the government being able to 
extort from him more than a general con- 

shared BaUard's fortune. The trial ME Bal- 
lard, with Babington and five other con- 
spirators, took place on 13 and 14 Sept, 
and they were all convicted. At the trial 
Babington charged BallBrd with having 
brought him into hie perilous situation, and 
Ballard acknowledged the justice of the re- 
buke. Ballard was executed on 20 Sept. 
Hie fall penalty of the law, which involTOd 
the disembowelling of the criminal before 
life was extinct, was carried out with all its 
cruelty. Ballard, who was the first of the 
conspirators to be ezecut«d, is reported to 
have borne his sufierings with remarkable 

pass. Mary Qoaan of Beats, xix. 67. OB (Con- 
fmoD of l^nell) ; ef. also Morris's TWiblea of 
our Catbolio Fore^thera, second Mries ; Taalet'a 
Kelations da la Franoe »l da TEspagne ave« 
I'Ecoaaa; lAbanofTa lettree da Marie Stuart; 
MuidiD'a State Pspara; HovaU'i State Trials; 
Foley's Records of ths EDgliah Province of tne 
9ociaC7 of Jesna ; Fronde's Hiat. of Eoglaiid, xii. 
12S-3S, 166, 170-4 i see alK> under Akthoht 
BAnQraHW.] C. F. K. 

(1829-1880), general, distiuguiahed Ibr his 
services atthe defence ofSilistria and in Omar 
Paaha's campaign in Mingrelia, was an officer 
of the Bombay engineers, wh ich corps he joined 
inl650. AAerliiivingbeenemployedinlndia 

., Google 


86 Ballard 

for four yeaia in the ordiiury duties of a lub- 
altwn of eDgiaeen, Lieuteouit Ballard wu 
ordered to Europe on medical certificate in 
the spring- of 1864. Attracted bj intelli- 

Ce of the eventa then going on in the 
ubian prOTincee, be turned aaide to Con- 
stantinople, and, proceeding to Omar Paaha's 
camp at Shumla, was invested by that general 
with the rank of lieutenant-coloaet in the 
Turkish armj, and deputed to Silistria as a 
member of the council of war in that fortress, 
-which was then besieged by the Russians. 
FreviouH to BaUard's arriTal, on 13 Jane, 
two other British officers, Captain Butter of 
the Cejlon rifies and Lieutenant Naamyth of 
Mie Bombay artillny, had been udiug the 
nrrison in the defence of the place ; but 
Butler had received a wound wMch proved 
fatal shoTtlj afterwards, and Nasmyth was 
called awaj to Omar Paaha'a camp a few 
days after Ballard's arnval. During the re- 
mainder of the siege, which was raised by 
the Rusiiana on S3 June, Ballard was the 
oolj' British officer in the fortress, and it was 
mainly owing to hia exertions, and the in- 
fluence which be exercised over the ^^uTison, 
that the defence was successfully mamtained. 
Einglake, in his brief sketch of the siege, 
refers to Ballard's seryicee in these t«rmi: 
'Lieutenant Ballard of the Indian army, 
coming thither of his own free wiU, had 
thrown himself into the besieged town, and 
whenever the enemy stirred there was alwaya 
at least one English lad in the Arab Tabia, 
directing the counsels of the garrison, repress- 
ing the thought of surren&r, and keeping 
the men in good heart' 

At the auDsequent attack and capture of 
the Russian position at Oinrgevo, Ballard 
commanded the skirmisheta, and kept back 
the enemy until the Turks could entrench 
themselves. He received the thanks of her 
tnajesty'a government for his services at Si- 
listria, and from the Turkish government a 
gold medal and a sword of honour. 

After serving with the Turkish troops at 
£ujpatoria and in the expedition to Eertch, 
BaUard commanded abrigadeinOmar Pasha's 
TranscaucBsian campaign, undertaken for 
the relief of Kan. The chief event in this 
campaign was the battle of the L)gour river, 
at which Ballard and hia brigade were for 
several houra hotly engaged with the Ra»- 
uans, the former conspicuous, as he bad 
been at Silistria and at CI iurgeTO, for his cool- 
ness tmder fire. It was relat«d of him by 
an eyewitness of this battle that when he 
saw a man firing wildly or unsteadily he 
would, in the gentlest way, say to him : ' My 
friend, don't be in a hurry. You will fire 
better with r rest: take aim over my 

shoulder.' He waa ahw remarkable for hia 
watchful care over the oomibrt and wdlbmng 

Returning to India in 186fi, atilt a subal- 
tern of engineers, but in virtue of his rank 
and services in the Turkish army decorated 
with the order of companion of the BatJi, 
and also with that of the Medjidie, Ballard 
was appointed to proceed with Captain {now 
Sir Henry) Green on a mission to Herat ; 
but the mission having been abandoned, he 
served as assistantHiuartermaatAr-generalin 
the Feisiaa campaign, andafterwarda in the 
same capacity in the Indian mutiny with the 
Rajputana field force, taking part in the 
pursuit and rout of Tautia Topee's forces. 
This wsa his last military service. He was 
subsequently mint-^naster at Bombay; the 
extraordinary demand for Indian cotton in 
consequence of the civil war in America 
made the office an onerous one, but he dis- 
charged it with marked ability and success. 
He retired from the army and from the pnblio 
service in 1879, having then attained the 
rank of lieutenant-general. His promotion 
after his return to India in 1850 had been 
singularly rapid, advancing in a single year 
(1668) ftom therankof lieatenant to that of 
heutenant-colonel. He received the honorary 
degree of LL.D. from the university of Edin- 
bui^hinl868. He died suddenly in Greece, 
when visiting the Fass of ThermopyhB, on 
1 April 1880. 

FHart's Army Lirt; Aecorda of War Office 
and India Offloe; EingUke'i History of the War 
in the Crimea, vol. i. ; Journal of the Hinid 
Ei^inseii; Eonsehold Woris, 37 I>ee. 1860.] 
A J. A. 

1629), vice-admiral, waa the son of Samuel 
Ballard, a subordinate officer in the navy, 
who had retired witliout promotion after 
the peace of 1763 and had engaged in buu- 
ness at Portsmouth. Younv Ballard en- 
tered the navy in December 1776, under the 
patronage of the Hon. Levesou-Oower, the 
captain of the Valiant, which ship formed 
part of the grand fleet under the command of 
Admiral Eeppel during the summer of 1778. 
In October 1779 the youth wss transferred 
to the Shrewsbury, Captain Mark RobinsMi, 
and in her was present when Sir George 
Rodney annihilated the Spanish fleet off 
Cape St. Vincent, 16 Jan. 1780. In the fol- 
lowing July the Shrewsbury rejoined Rod- 
ney's flag in tihe- West Intues, waa present 
off Martiniaue on 39 April 1781, and led 
the van in the action off the Chesapeake on 
6 Sept. 1781. On this fiital day the brunt 
of the fight fell on the Shrewsbuiy, which 





had fbniteeii killed and Sttj-tno -wounded, 
including Captain Rofainaon, wlio loat a leg. 
The Bhip afterwards letumed to the West 
Indies with Sr Samnel Hood, and wat with 
him in the opentionB at St. Kitta in Jaanarj 
17S2, after which the had to he lent to 
Jamaica for repura. On 10 Feb. 1783, 
whilst ttiil at Jamaica, Ballard was made a 
lieutenant br Admiral Bowler, and was 
actiTel;^ employed in different uups during 
the tea jeais of peace. When war again 
brake out be -was a lieutenant of the Queen, 
which eaniad Kear-admiial Gardiner's flag 
throng the last days of May and 1 June 
17M. Iliis ffMat nctorj won for Ballard 
Ilia commander's rank (G July), and on 
1 Aug. 1796 he waa forther advanced to the 
rank of postHwrtain. Early in 1796 he waa 

rinted to the Peart frigate^ and during 
next two years was contmuonely and 
hapmly emplored in oonToying the trade for 
the Baltic or lor Newfoun^and and Quebec 
Jn March 1798 he accompanied Oommodore 
Gomwallia to the coast of Africa and to 
Barbadoee, &om which station he returned 
in June of the following year. In October 
he carried out Qenersl Fox to Minorca, and 
remained attached to the Mediterranean fleet 
Alt the next two yeata. The Pearl waa paid 
off on 14 March 1802, after a eommiaeion of 
upwards of six years, during which time she 
had taken, destroyed, or recaptured about 
ei^^ vessels, piiTateers and merchantmen. 
Captain Ballard waa now kept with no more 
active command than a district of sea fen- 
cibles for more than seven years ; it waa not 
till October 1809 that he was appointed (o 
the Sceptre, of 74 guns, and sailed shortly 
afterwards fbi the West Indies. Here 
he flew a commodore's broad pennant, and on 
18 Dee. 1609 commanded the squadron which 
enured the two heavily armed French 
feigatea Loire and Seine, and destroyed the 
^otecting batteries at Anse-la-Barque of 
Guadeloupe. At the reduction of Guade- 
loupe in January and February 1610 he es- 
corted one division of the army, and com- 
manded tho naval brigade, which, however, 
waa not ansaged. Commodore Ballard re- 
tmiMd to feiglinid with the Sceptre in thn 
fitllowing Se^ember, and was for the next 
two jeara attadied to the fleet in the Cbaiv- 
nel and Bay of Biscay, but without being 
engaged in any active c^erationa. Hia ser- 
Tice at sea dosed with the paying off of the 
Sceptre in January 1818, aUhou^ in course 
of seniority he attained the ruik of rear- 
admiral, 4 June 1614, and of vice-admiral, 
S7 May 1826. He died at Bath, where he 
had for several years resided, on 11 Oct. 
1829i He was tvrice married, and had by 

(1774F-1832), rea^«dmiral, a nephew of 
Admiral James Vashon, served as a mid- 
shipman with Vancouver in his voyage to 
the north-west coast of America. Shortly 
after his return to England he was made a 
lieutenant, « June 1795 ; and in 1798, whilst 
commanding the Hobart sloop, on the East 
India station, was posted into the Carysfort 
frigate. He subsequently commanded the 
Jason frigate, the De Ruyter, of 68 guns, 
and the l^echermer, of 60 guns, but vriUiout 
any opportunity of special distinctiun. In 
1607, wbUst commanding the Blonde, a 
89-gun fiigate, he cruised with great success 
against the enemy's privateers, capturing 
seven of them within a few months ; and 
in 1809-10, still in the Blonde, served under 
the command of his namesake. Commodore 
Ballard of the Sceptre, at the capture of 
the French frigates in Anso-la-Barque, and 
the reduction of Guadeloupe [see Baliasd, 
SAinrm: JAltBa],for *hich he was honourably 
mentioned by both the naval and military 
coDunander»-m-chief. He obtained his flag 
rank in May 1826, and died at Bath 12 OcL 

[Qest. Mag. ml H. 64fl.] 


WILLIAM (I6I6-I66I;), prefect-apostolic 
of the catholic misaion in iScotland, was a 
native of Douglas, Lanarkshire, of which 
pariah his father was the miuister. His 
paternal uncle was a lord of session, with 
the title of Lord Newhall. He studied in 
the university of Edinburgh, and afterwards 
travelled on the continent. At Paris he 
waa converted to the catholic religion. He 
entered the Scotch college atEome in 1641, 
and, having received the order of priesthood, 
left it in 1646, and then stayed in the Scotch 
coU^ at Paris, preparing himself for the 
mission, till 1649, when he returned to his 
native country. At this period the secular 
clergy of Scotland were m a state of utter 
disorganisation, and dissensions had arisen 
between them and the members of the re- 
ligions orderSiparticularly the Jesuits. Bal- 
lenden, perceiving the disastrous results of 
this want of union, despatched the Rev. Wil- 
liam Leslie to Rome to solicit the appoint- 
ment of a bishop for Scotland. This request 
was not granted hy the holy see, but in 1663, 

37 a decree of propaganda, the Scotch secular 
ergy were freed from thejurisdictioiK^ the 

■ byGoogle 



Englitli prelatw and Jesuit Buperionhip, tnd 
were incorporated into b mwMonary bod; 
ondsr the superintendence of Ballonden, who 
WB8 nominated the first prefoct-apoatolio of 
the mission. Beeidee efiecting many other 
conTBTWons, he received the Harquis of 
Huntlj into the chnrch. In 1650 BalUndan 
visited France, and on his return, l*l^■^■"g at 
Bye in Sussex, he was arrested bjOrom- 
veil's ordeia and convejed to London, where 
he ■ ' - 

Paris in great poverty. In 1660 he re- 
lumed to Scotland, and he spent the brief 
remaind^ of his life in the house of the 
Harchioness of Huntlj at Elgin, where he 
died S Sept. 1661. Out of the wrillngi of 
8uffi:en he compoaed a treatise ' On Prepa- 
ration for DeatV which was much esteemed 
in it* dar, and of which a second edition waa 
pnbliahed at Donaj in 1716. 

[Ooidon's Acconnt of ths Boman Catholic 
UurioD in Scotland, introd. T-zi, B19S21 ; 
Blaekhal'i BMiffa Narration of Iha SarricM dom 
to three Noble Ladjaa, praf. zzrii; Catholic 
Dirsctor; (18M), 80.] T. 0. 

(1780-1855), r^us profasior of nuUtaT; 
BorgeiT at Ediubtinli, was son of the 
Ker. Robert Ballingau, miniiter of Forrien, 
Banfishira, where he was bom 2 Hay 1780. 
He studied at St. Andrew's, and in 1803 
proceeded to the university of Edinburgh, 
where he waa assistant to Dr. Barclay, lecturer 
on anatomj. He was appointed Bssistant- 
siuveon of the 3nd battalion 1st Rojals in 
1806, with which lie served some yeara in 
India; in November 1816 he became surgeon 
of the33rdfoot,andretiredonhalf-par inlSia 
In 1823 he was chosen as lecturer on mili- 
tary surgery at the university of Edinburgh, 
which then, and for some years sAerwards, 
was the only place in the three kingdoms 
where Hpecial inatruction was nven in s de- 
partment of surgical science, the importance 
of wliieh had too plainly been demonBtnt«d 
during the long war juat ended. In 1826 
Ballingall succeeded to the chair of military 

auiflery, the duties of which be discha^^ 
with untiring teal fbr thirty years. " 
knighted oa the occasion oi the aci 

Kii^c William IV. Sir George, who was a 
fellow of the Royal Societies of London and 
Edinburgh, and corresponding member of 
the French laatitute, was author of various 

PFeesionalworlcSithe moat important being: 
Observations on the Diseases of European 
Troops in India.' 2. ' Observations on the 
Bite andConstrnction of Hospitals.' S.'OuN 
lines of Uilitary Surgery.' Tha last, which 

is still remrded as an instructive work, went 
through five editions, the fifth appeaiiiiK at 
the time of the Boseian war, shortly befors 
the author's death, which ooourred at Hair- 
gowrie on 4 Dec. 1866, 

[Amy IJstat Gnit. Mag. IBM; BdiDbai^ 
Hed. Joor. Jan. ISM ; Balfinnll'i Works.] 



(;i707-1782), was a lawyer, and held a nt 
in the BZchequer which exempted him Bom 
the necessity of practice. He is said to have 
obteined it through the influence of the 
Tatnuhsnds, in whose &niily he waa some 
time a tntor. He was a frigid of Akenaide, 
the poet, who was at one time intimate with 
Charles Ttnmshend. Johnson says that be . 
learned what law be knew chiefly &om 'a 
Mr. Bsllow, a vary able man.' He died in 
London on 26 July 1782 (Chat. MojfX ag«d 
75. Malone,wha calls him Thomoi Ballow, 
attributes to him a treatise upon equity, 

Siiblished in 1742. A copy In tiie ^tiMi 
[oseum, dated 1760, and aMigned in the 
catabgne to Henry Ballow, belongvd to 
Francis Hargrava A note in Harnave's 
handwriting states that it was Bscribed to 
Hr. Bellewe, and first puUished in 1737, 
Margrave adds that Mr. Bellewe wsa a man 
of leamina' and devoted to clsseical litera- 
ture, and that his manuscript law collections 
were in the possession of Lord Camden Cprd 
chanoellor), who was his executor and lit^ 
rary legatee. Fonblanque, however, in hla i 
edition of the treatise on equity (1794), 
thinks that the book could not have been 
written by a man of leas than ten yean' 
etandinff, and that Ballow, who oould have 
been only thirty years of age at die time of 
iU publication, would have openly claimed j 
it if it had been his. Fonblanque calls him ' 
Henry Ballow. A Henry Ballow, poesibly 
father of this Ballow, was deputy chamber- 
lain in the exchequer in 1703. 

Hawkins gives the following anecdote : 
' There was a man of the name of Ballow 
who used to pass his evenings at Tom's 
Coffee House in Devereux Court, then the 
resort of some of the most eminent men for 
learning. Ballow was a man of deep and 
extensive learning, but of vulgar mannen, 
and, being of a splenetic temper, envied 
Akenside tor the ebqnence he displayed in 
his conversation. Moreover, he hated him 
for bis republican principles. One evening 
at the conee house a dispute between these 
two persons rose so hi? h, that for some ex- 
pression uttered by Ballow, Akenside thought 
himaelf obliged to demand an apology, wluch 




Sot being Me to obt*iii, ha semt' his sdver- 
SUT a ch&Ilange in writing. Ballow, a little 
daformed man, well known u a uimteier in 
the puk, about WefltmiiMter, uid in the 
Stteets between Charing Crou and the houMe 
of parliament, thon^ remarkable for a sword 
of Ml nnuaual length, which he conatantl; 
ynm when he went abroad, had no inclina- 
tion for igbting, and declined an answer. 
The demand for satiafaction waa followed bj 
aereral attemptt on the part of Ahenaide tc 
■ee Ballow at nia lodgings, but he kept close 
till, b; the interpoaition of 6ienda, the differ- 
ence could be adjusted. By hia conduct in 
this bueineM Akenaide acquired but little 
leputatioD for courage, for the accommodft- 
titm was not brought about by anj conoee- 
aiona of hia adversely, but by a resolution 
from which neither of them would depart, 
for one would not fight in the morning, nor 
the other in the afternoon.' 

rFoiiblaiM]na'> Treatise of Eqnity, raohoa to 
Sod ToL ; Boawell's Life of Johnson ; Havkics's 
Ijfaof JohnaMi; CUandai at Treasiu? Papers, 
170a-7.] P. a A. 

BAIJIIEH, GEORGE (A 1846), painter, 
wu the aoD of a hous»-paintar, and destined 
to follow his fother*B trade, but, under the 
influence of Ewbank, made his first endeavours 
in painting. His earliest works being ax- 
hibited at Newcastle attracted attention, and 
he followed up his success with a la^ pic- 
ture, • A View of the Port of Tyne.' £i 1831 
he exhibited at Newcastle some water-colour 
paintings, of which one, ' The Juicy Tree bit,' 
was thought the best in the rooEns. la con- 
junction with J. W, OaiTuichael he painted 
■ CollingWDod at the Battle of Trafalgar.' 
Thia work is now in the Trinity House of 
Newcastle. In 1833 or 1838 he made a tour 
on the continent, travelling by way of Hol- 
land to the Rhine and Switterland, and re- 
turning by way of Paris to England. Many 
pictures resulted from this excursion ; a large 
'View of Binges' and one of 'Haarlem Mare ' 
being amongst the best. But Balmer ' was 
never so much in hia element aa when paint- 
ing a stranded ship, an old lighthouse, or the 
rij^ing of wavea an a shingly coast.' In 
1836, in the employ of Messrs. Finden, Bal- 
mer began a publication called ' The Ports 
and HarhoDTs of England.' It began well, 
bnt ended ill. He retired from London in 
1843, end gave up painting. He died near 
Ravensworth, in Durham, 10 April I84B. 
"KctuTw of shipping, of street architecture, 
and of rural sceneiy came alike fiom his hand. 

Hia prints show great Tona^tT. Hisi«pit- 
tation in hia day was oonsideraUe. 

{Ottlsy'* Sop^smMit to BtTan, IMS; Coopn's 
Koff. Diet. ; Bedgiava's Diet, of Artists of Eng. 
School.] KB. 

BALJIEB, ROBERT (1787-1844), mi- 
nister of the United Becessiou church, was 
bom at Ormiston Mains, in the pariah of 
Eckford, Roxburghshire, 22 Nov. 1787, and, 
evincing considerable abilities and a disposi- 
tion towards the christian ministry entered 
the university of Edinburgh in 1802, and ia 
1806 the Theoliwical Hall at Selkirk, under 
Dr. Idwson, pro&saor of divinity in the body 
of aeceders called the Associate Synod. In 
1813 he reoeived license aa a preacher from 
the Edinbni^h presbytery of the Secaaaion 
church, and in 1814 was ordained minister 
in Berwick-on-Tweed, where he remained till 
his death. In 1834 he was appointed by the 
Associate Synod professor of pastoral theology 
in the Secession church, and this office he ex- 
changed later for the profeesorahip of syste- 
matic theolt^. In 1840 he received the 
d^;ree of D.D. from the uniTeraity of Glas- 
gow. Batmer wielded influence in hia de- 
nomination. When discussions arose among 
his brethren on some Oatvinistic doctrines, 
he supported the less stringent views. At 
a meeting held in Edinburgh in 1843, to 
commemorate the bicentenary of the West- 
minster Assembly, his speech in favour of 
christian union attracted the attention of 
Dr. Ohatmere and others, and led U> impor- 
tant measures being taken by John Hender- 
son of Park for promoting tlut cause. Bal- 
mer died 1 July 1844. After his death two 
volumes of ' Lectures and Discoursea ' were 
publiahed in 184£. 

[Balmer's Academical LectUfM and Piil|at 
Discontses, irith a mamoir of bis Ufa by Bar. 
Dr. Handarson.of Oalaahiels, ISlfi; AndarMn's 
Scottish KatioD.l W. 0. B. 

BAIiMSBINO, Babons. [See Elphw* 
BioKB, Jakss, firat Babok, 16fiSP-1013; 
ELFBiHSTOira, Jomr, second Baboit, d. 
1649 ; ELFHuraTON's, Abthits, sixth Bakoh, 

BAIiMFOBD, JAMES (b. 1666), divine, 

Biblished in 1693-4 a ' Short and Plains 
ialogne concerning the unlawfulness of 
placing at cards,* London, 12mo. The tract, 
which conusts of eight leaves, is dedicated 
to the mayor, aldermen, and burgesses of 
Newcastle- on-Tyne, his Mtrona [L^e iff Am- 
brou Bama (Surtees Societv), 296, 297, 
299) ; the dedication is dated 1 Jan. 159^-4. 
It is stated in Hailitt's ' Handbook ' that the 
' Dialogue ' apoeared also in broadside form. 
In 1623 Balmtbrd reprinted this ' Dialogue,' 

3y Google 



■nd added Bome anunadTereioiu on Thomu 
Gktaker'B tzeatiH ' Of the Nature and Um 
of Lots.' In the ' Addi«u to the ChriBtian 
Header, being one of thoae mea who (to- 
cording to St. Fanl'n prophecy) love pea- 
suree more than God,' which is dated 14 Sept. 
1630, the author ipeaks of himself ■• 'a 
man of 64 yearea compleate.' Gataher lost 
no time In replying, and in the same Teai 
published ' A Just iWenca of [certaine Pea- 
■ages in a former Treatise 

ceptions and DEpositioiu as __. 

thentmto bj Hr. J, B.,' 4to, a TolnmmouB 
book d some two hundred and fift; pagsa, 
in which the writer states his opptaient'a 
objections in full, and aniwerR them point 
hv point. In 1607 Balmford published 
' Caipanter'g Chippes, or Simple Tokens of 
unfemed good will to the Chriatian Mends 

Cumberland, contains three discouraea: — 

(1) ' The Authorise of the Lord's Bay ; ' 

(2) ' State of the Church of Rome ; ' (8) ' Ex- 
ecution of Priesta.' Balmford is also the 
author of ' A Shorte Catechiame aununaril; 
oomprixing the principal points of the Chris- 
tJan faith,' London, 1607, 8yo, and of 'A 
Short Dialt^e concerning the Plagues In- 
fection,' 1603, 8vo, dedicated by Balmford to 
his pariabioaerB at St. Olave's, Southwark. 

, [Watt'a Bibl. Brit. ; British Hnsmmi Cata- 
logae; Hailitt'i Handbook; Hsilitt'l CoIleetioD 
•M HotM, leeond lerica.] A H. B. 

BAUUFORD, SAMUEL (d. 1669 F), 
puritan dirine, is the author of two sermons 
published in 1659, after his death, 'Ha- 
Dnkkuk'a Prayer applyed to the Churches 
present occasions, on Hah. iii. 2; and 
Christ's Counsel to the Church of Phila- 
delphia, on ReT. iii. ll,pTeached before the 
FroTincial Assembly oi London. By that 
late rcTerend and faithful minister of Jeeua 
Christ, Mr. Samuel Balmford^pastor of Al- 
bons, Wood Street,' 8vo. Yraia Thomas 
Farsons's address to the reader, it appears 
that the two sermons were intended ss a 
first instalment of a collected edition of 
Botmford's writings ; but nothing moie woe 
published. Parsons speaks of the author's 
piety and ability in terms of very high 
praise. We are told that he ' was a person 
of eminent orthodoxy of word and life, by 
both which as a bnming and shining light 
he was an exact and powerful teacher ; the 
observant eye of impartial conversere with 
him finding the transcript of his sermons 
in his life, his actions being living walking 
wrmona. ... Foi his Ubouis in the miot- 

9 would not do the work 
of the Lord negligently nor ofier unto Ood 
what cost him nothing or a corrupt thini^ 

be ashamed.' E!dmnnd Calamy ooRO- 
Doiates the editor's testimony. 

[Habakknk's Pnjer appljed to the Chorehaa 
preeant occasions, 16fi9.] A H. B. 

BALMUTO, LoBD (I742-18S4), Scottish 
judge. [See Bobwell, CLiini iKniTB.] 

LAS M {d. 1330 P), chancellor of Soolland 
and bishop of Dunblane, was brought up as a 
clerk in the monastery of Arbroath. By 1290 
he had been appointed parson of Colder, for in 
the September of this year his name appears 
in that capacity among a list of Scotchmen 
to whom Edwsrd I restored their estates on 
their swearing fidelity to him (Rot. Seat. 
i. 2C). Qe is ssid to have been mode chau< 
oeUor of Scotland in 1301, and about that 
year confirmed a donation of the archbishop 
of St. Andrews to the church of Dervisyn. 
But even before this Balmyle seems to have 
been acting a very prominent part in an inte- 
restmgSootch ecclesiastical quarrel. In 1297 
William Lamberton had been elected arch- 
bishop of St. Andrews bj the canons regular 
of that foundation. It so happened, however, 
that the Culdees had long claimed the right 
of electing to this see, and as they now op- 
posed the appointment of La mber ton, both 
parties appealed to Boniface VlU at Bome^ 
and he gave a final decision in &vout of Lam- 
berton and the canons. So the once famous 
name of Culdee vanishes ftom history. For- 
dun, however, tells us that while the hishoprio 
was vacant, its jurisdiction remained entirely 
in the hands of the chapter, and that this body 
apnointed Nicholss de Balmyle, one of its 
omcerB, to execute all its functions, a duty 
which, the same chronicler adds, was dis- 
charged by him with the utmost vigour 
throughout the diocese. Balmyle is said 
to have been removed from the chancellor- 
ship in 1307, and it is certain that about 
this time he was appointed bishop of Dun- 
blane. For in 1309 we find his name, in com- 
pany vrith those of many other prelates, pre- 
fixed to a document declaring Robert Bruce 
to be the rightful king of Scotland (Act. ParU 
Sou. i. 100). Here he is described simply as 
bishop of Dunblane. His successor in tbo 
great office of state was Bernard, like Ni- 
cholas, a member of Arbroath Abbey, and 
for seventeen years the f^thfiil councillor of 
Robert Bruce, till he, too, retired from po- 
litical life to a bishopric In the eevoith year 





ef Babert Bruoe't reign the names of both the 
Ut« and pTMent chancelloc arefound atbudied 
to on« ot the deeds of the cb&nnluy of Scone ; 
and this seema to be the last document in 
irhichNichoWBauneoccun before his death. 
He ia laid to hsTs died in 1319 oi 1320 i but 
he must h*Te been already dead for some time 
by 25 June of the Utter fear, tor "Rymot has 
iweaerred a letter of this date, irhtten by 
Edward n to the pope, bemog John XXn to 
appoint Richaid de Fontefiaet, a Dominican, 
to the see of Dnnblaue, and alluding to man^ 
pFBTious letters on the same snlnect. In this 
suit, bowoTer, the king of England vas nn- 
sucoewAil, for Nicholara mcceesoT a^ean to 
hara been a oertain Maurice. 

i 889; lilwiEecL Scon. 9fli Andenon' 
ptodaoej, App. xit, and anthoritiea dted ahoT*.] 

BALNAVES, BENSY (d. 1679), Scot- 
tiah iwfi)raier,ia usnally described asot 'Hal- 
faiD,' after a small estate belonnng to him in 
infetliirB, He waa bom in Eiilicaldy during 
the reign of James V of Scotland (1518- 
1642} ; but the exact date is unknown. He 
piocMded in reiy early youtli t« the unt- 
Teraity of SL Andrews, and afterwards, it is 
■aid, to Cologne. While abroad he accepted 
tha prindplee of the Befonnation, and be- 
came acquainted with the Qermon and Swiss 
refbrmeiB. On his return to Scotland be 
Btndied law, and was for some time ajpp- 
cnntoi at St. Andrews. On 31 July 1638 
James V appoint«d him a lord of session. 
On 10 Aug, 1639 he obtained by royal charter 
the estate of HalhUl, near CoUessie, Fife. 
The charter ran in &Taur of himself and 
'Chriatane ScheTea, hia wife.' Appointed 
aecretaiy of stat« bv the Earl of Arran the re- 
Bent, he promoted the act of parliament intro- 
dnoed by Lord Maxwell, which permitted the 
readiiwof holy acriptuie in the ' vulgar loung.' 
Inl6uhewasdepute-keeper of the privy seal 
In 1643 he was elected by parliament one of 
the Scottiah ambassadors sent to Henry Vm 
to discuss the proposed roaiTiture of the in&nt 
Queen Mary (of Scots) and Edward, prince 
<^Walee. lite traatiesof pMce andof mar- 
riage were amiiKed on 1 July 1643 (Sadlbb'b 
State Paper*, L w). But all was overturned 

Balnaves was removed from all his oScea, 
partly because lA his protestantism, and 
partly from having flavoured the English al- 
Eanee. In November of 1543, with tJie 
Earl of Bottles and Lord Gray, he was ap- 



the Forth, until the following May. Hi 
released on the arrival of Henry VrLTs fleet 
in the Firth of Forth. In 1646, thourii be 
had in no way mixed himself up with the 
plot that ended in the assaesinaCion of Car- 
ainsl Beaton, he proceeded to St. Andrews, 
joiniug Norman Leslie and the others. For 
this he was declared a trsi tor, and hia life and 
landa forf^tod. Whilst St. Andrews waabe- 
uea«d,liewasBentaa tbeftgent of its defenders 
to England for aid, and in February 1647, a 
month aA«r the death of Henry Vni, he 
obtained from the guardians of Edward VI 
large sums of money and prOTiaiona (FboDdl 
iv. 273). He himself had a pension bestowed 
on hiiQ of 126/. from Lady day of that year. 
He undertook that Leslie and hia compatriots 
should do their utmost to deliver the young 
queen Mary and the castle of St. Andrews to 
England. But the fortress of St. Andrews 
had to be surrendered to the regent. The 
garrison, including- Leslie and Balnaves, was 
sentenced to tranqiortation to the galleys at 
During his confinement at Bouen Balnaves 

Sirapared what John Enoi has called ' a com- 
ortable treatise of justification.' It was 
revised and prefaced by the great reformer, 
and published with this title-page: 'The 
Coniesaion of Faith; conteining now the 
troubled man should seeke refuge at hia God, 
thereto led by faith, &c. Compiled by M. 
Henry Balnaues, of Halhill, ana one of die 
Lords of Session and Counsell of Scotland, 
being a prisoner within the old pallace of 
Bioane, in the yeare of our Iiord 1548, Direct 
to his faithful! brethren, beingiulike trouble 
or more, and to ^ true professours and 
fanorers of thejmicere worde of God. Edin. 
1584' (8vo). The manuscript, tbough' ready 
for the press,' was not discovered untU aiter 
£nox'B death ; hence the delay in publication. 
In 1556 the 'forfeiture' whioa Balnaves 
had incurred was removed. He thereupon 
returned to Scotland, and in 1669, ' the year,' 

aays Rtacottie, ' of the uprore about religioE 
he took a mominent part in behalf of the n 
formers. In August the protestant ^arty a< 

cretly delegated nim to solicit the aid (U Sir 
Balph Sadkr, Elizabeth's envoy atBerwidi- 
on-Tweed. He obtained from him the promise 
of 2,00(M: sterling. On 11 Feb. 1663 he was 
reinstat«d as a lord of session, and in Decern- 
ber of the same year he was nominated one 
of the commissioDere for revising the ' Book 
of Discipline.' 

On the trial of Bothwell for Damley's 
murder in 1667, he was apptnntsd one of 
the tour assessors to the Eatl of Argyk, tha 

,y Google 




iMd juaUra-geaenL In 1608 be tad Geo^« 
BnoCinau acoompuued the ngent Uiimj 
irben he went to Yorii to Uko iwkrt in the in- 
^uiiy of English and Scottiah comnuHionera 
into the alleged goiltof Queen Huj of Bcota. 
In recompenee of lua tataj MrricM the m- 
pent bettowed njxmhimtheUndaof Lethun 
inElfa. He letued from the bench pnrunu 
to October 1674, and died, uoordiiw to Dr. 
Hackeniie, in 1679. Oidderwood and Sadler, 
faUowing MelTille and Enoz, euIo^M Bal- 
navea oa one of the m&inataTi of the Scottiih 
refbrmation. Knox deecribw him as 'a very 
learned and pioua man,' and Helrille aa ' a 
godly, learned, wise, and long experienced 
oouiuellor.' Dr. Irring enrollM hint among 
the minor minatrela of Scotbnd, on tbe 
•treogth of a ehort ballad Msned 'Balnave*,' 
irhich appeared in Allan Ilamuy'i 'Ever- 
imen,' entitled 'AdviM to a headstrong 
Faitii.' It commenceo — 

gallanlii all, 1 07 and ealL 

[HcCrie'i Life of John Knox, and of HalriUa ; 
Kploiuats Bagia, rii. 1 7S ; Bjiner't Podwa, XT. 
tS8;CBld«rwoad'tHi>biT]r; MalTilla'i Hanoir^ 
p. 27; AndaiMin'a Seottirii Ration; Irriitg'a 
IdTM of Seotliah Poata; Bannatyna UR (Ean- 
t«riaa Soda^).] A. B. Q. 

BAUTEA, HENKT in (^ 1400I>)> w 
English monk of the Oorthuaian order, waa 
author of a work entitled ■ SpBonlum Sgirita- 
alium,' which waa preeerred at Norwich in 
Tanner'a days. Of the exact date at which 
he flcurishBd thereaeematobeno certain in- 
ibrmation ; but at he quotee from both Rich' 
ard Hampole, who died in 1349, and Walter 
Hflton, who died in 1396, he cannot well 
be assigned to an earlier period than the 
jiteentn century. Tanner infers that Henry 
de Balnea wai an Engliahman from the lact 
that he quotee Hylton in that tongue, 

[Tannar'a Bibliothaoa Britaoniao-Hibamica.] 

BALSHAM. gpGH db (A 1 388), tohop 
of EIt and founder of Feterhouse, Cambridge, 
waa bom in the earlier part of the thirteenth 
century, moet probably m the Oambridgeehire 
village from which he may be preiumed to 
have taken his name. Matthew Faris, in the 
only paaaage where be mentions the bishop 
by name, calls him Hugo de Beleaals, which 
is doubtleaa the reason why Fuller introduces 
him aa' Hugo de Bslsbara(for soheia truly 
written) ' (see CAnmica Mmora, t. 689, and 
WorthMt, 1. 166). ■ It was bsbionable,' aays 
Fuller, ' for clenmnen in that age to assume 
tbeir sumamea mim tbe place of their na- 
tivity;' and'there is no oUier village of that 
name throngfaout the dominions of England.' 
The bishop's supposed birthplace lies about 

tea miles from Oambridge and nine from 
Newmarket, in a pleasant neighbourhood, 
which justifies to thia day Henrr of Hunting 
don's aeacription of it, cited by Fuller, a* 
' amceniaaima Montana de BalahuOi' Tlie 
village U one of those apeufled in 1401, in 
connection with a longstanding oonteorw a y 

I between the biahopa of Ely *ad the arch- 
deacons erf E3y who called uenuelvea aroh- 

I deacons of Ounbridge, aa onder the direct 
iurisdiction of the bishops (Bmnaut's ^, 
269). At one time the place was an episco- 
pal manoiHteat, and Bislu>p Simon Montague 
from time to time abode Iiiere fMuuixeiB, 
224, note 8). Tbe church, vriiicb fans been 
recently restored, contains some ancient 
monuments, amon^ them a small brass 
figure on a slab, said to be that of Hu^ de 


At the time of the death of William de 
Kilkenny, which occurred in September 1266 
(BnrBBa), or possibly as late as January 
1&67 (AJv. PuxES), and in any oaaa 
"""''' "" * — after his election to the 

Matthew Paris) sub-prior 
of Ely. Aa such, it was his duty b 
the prior, and in tus absence to preside ovet 
the convent ; he was accordingly lodged in 
convenient apartments, and a aujficient in- 
come was assigned to hie office (Bbsthax^. 
The Ely monka cannot but have been mind- 
ful of the nn&imeBS with which, in tbe 
earlier part of the century, Hervey, the first 
bishop of the see^ had carried out the royal 
mandat« for a division of the lands of the 
monastery of Ely between the convent itaslf 
and the newly created see ; and this may 
have helped to determine their independent 
conduct on tbe death of William de Eil- 
kennj. I^ last two bishops had been pei^ 
sonageaof politicalconaequence. It appears 
to have been the intention of Henry III to 
insure the appointment at Ely of a auceeiaor 
of the same stamp ; for upon William's death 
the king immediately, by special supplicatory 
letters and official maaaenMra, MxieA upon 
the monks the election of hjis chancellor, 
Henry de Wengham, to the vacant see. But 
the monks, or the aeveu of them whom it 
waa naual for the whole conventual body to 
name aa electors, acting on the principle (save 
Matthew Faria) tbat it ia unwise to prenr 
the unknown to tbe known, without delay 
chose their snVprior, ' a man fitted for th« 
office, and of blameless cbsractei.* Ilie king, 
angered at this repulse, refiiaed to accept the 
elMtion, and allowed John de Walenn, to 
whom he had committed the custody of the 
temporalities of tbe see, shamefully to abuse 

3y Google 




bis trust. Without the fear uther of St. 
Ethelreda or of God before hig e™, h« cut 
down the timber, emptied the paAs of their 
gune and the ponds of tbeir fish, pBuperised 
the tenants, vad did all the harm in his 
power to the monks and to the diocese at 
large. And while the bishop-elect and the 
convent were hoping' to be heard in their 
own exculpation on a da^ appoint«d bj the 
king br the purpose, Henry made use of the 
occasion to break out into abuse against the 
chtuce they had made, inveighing against the 
biihop-elect above all on the nound that 
the isle of Elv had from of old been a place 
of refuge for defeated and desperate persons, 
and that it would be unoafe to commit the 
enstodv of a place which was much the tame 
as a citadel to a simple cloistered monli, 
feeble, unwarlike, and without e^)erieDCe in 
statecraft. Accordinglj, on the feast of St. 
Oordian and St. Epimschus, 10 May 1257,the 
election of Hugh, though perfectly in order, 
was qnaahed by the united action of the king 
and Boniface of Savoy, the archUshop. But 
before this (for such seems to have lieen the 
order of events) the bishop-elect had betaken 
himself to Rome, there to appeal to the pope 
(Alexander IV) ; while the archbishop had 
written to his personal friends at the papal 
Ciu^ "^'^ them to thwart Hugh^ en- 
deavoon. The archbishop appears (&om a 
statement in Bentham'b Elu, 179, note 7) 
to have taken up the untenable position that, 
should the election be annulled, the appoint- 
ment would devolve upon himself; in which 
case he intended to name Adam de Marisco. 
Hngh spent considerable soma in vindication 
of his claims ; and Henry de Wengham, 
who had been no party to the royal appli- 
cation in his &vour, entreated the kins- to 
stay his manceuTrea and 'armed sup^ca- 
tions ' against the pious monks who had 
chosen a better man than had been recom- 
mended to them. When he heard that the 
&mona Franciscan, Adam de Harisco ^Harah) , 
bad been proposed 1^ the Arcbbuhop of 
Cantertiury (Boni&ee), the modest chancellor 
protested that either of the two others was 
worthier of the see than himself. On the 
other hand, Adam de Marisco (according to 
the same authority, Matthew Paris, whose 
prqudice against the Franciscans is trans' 
parent), aluiough an old and learned man 
and a niar who had renounced all worldly 
. greatness and large revenues in asauming the 
religious habit, was reported to have^v^i 
a willing consent to the substitution ofnim- 
eelf for Hugh de Balsham. 

Hugh de Balsham succeeded in obtaining 
not omy confirmation^ut also consecration 
from Pope Alexander IV, 14 Oct. 1267 iPro- 

fetwm JloU <tf Cattterivry), and returned 
home. As for Henry de Wengham, bis mo- 
desty was rewarded by his election to the 
bishopiic of Winchester two years after- 
wards ^see Matt. Pabib, t. 781). Adam 
de Mansco died within a few months of 
the tenninatiau of the dispute. Had hia 
life been nrolonged, his election to the con- 
tested bishopiic might have exerdaed a mo- 
mentous innuence not only upon the history 
of that see, but also upon that of the univer> 
dty with which it was already closely con- 
nected. He had been the flrat Frandscan 
who read lectures at Oxford, and was, ' if not 
the founder, an eminent instrument in tlw 
foundation, of that school, ftom which pro- 
ceeded the most celebrated of the Franciscan 
schoolmen ' (Bkeweb, Monumenta Frandt' 
conn, preface, Ixxx). A generation had hardly 
passed since (in 1226) the Franciaoans had ar- 
rived in EngWd, and already their nimibers 
had risen to more than 1,200, and Cambridge 
as well as Oxford was among the towns where 
they multiplied. Readers or lecturers be- 
longing to the order were here appointed in 
re^iul&r succession (for a list of those at Gan^ 
bridge, geventy-four in number, sea JSona- 
menta FraneUcana, 666-7). The success of 
the Franciscans at the English universities 
was doubtless in some measure due to tbe fact 
that after a violent struggle between the 
t»tiiens and the university of Paris, ending 
in 1S31, the regulars had there achieved a 
complete triumph over the seculars, and that 
in this trlum^ the Franciscans had largely 
participated O^KirnsB, Hittoirt ii« T Umver- 
nti de Parit, i. 389 legq.). Not only did the 
Frandscans establish uiemselves at Gsjn- 
bridge as earlyas 12S4,but in 1349the Oarme- 
lites moved in from Chesterton to Newnham; 
in 1267 the friars of the Order of Bethlehem 
settled in Trumpington Street ; and in 126S 
the friars of the Sack or of the Penitence of 
Jesus Christ settled in the parish of St. 
Mary (now St. Mary the Great), whenc« 
they were afterwards moved to the parish 
then called St. Peter's without Trumping- 
ton Gtate. So many orders, writes Matthevr 
Paris, under the year of Hugh de Bslabam'a 
election, had already made their appearance 
in England, that the eonAision en orders 
seemed disorderly ( Chronica M^'ora, v. 631). 
At Cambridge there were added at a rather 
later date (1273) the fnars of St. Mary, and 
two years afterwards the Dominicans. Be- 
sidae these establishments older foundations 
existed, of which here need otJt be men- 
tioned that of the Augustinian danons who 
had been for a century and a half settled in 
their priory at Barnwell, and that of the 
brethren td St. John's Ho^tal, vho wen 

I, Google 




likewim under tha rale of St. Aufputine, 
and vhose Itouse had been founded m 11S6 
br Henry Frost, a Cunbrid^ burgess (see 
OWKBB, Annalt of Cambridge, i. 2&-66; 
and cf. HvxuirssB, 138-9>. Under theee 
drcunutanceB, there can be little doubt that 
the HUcceamon to the Ely biahopric of Buch t. 
perBonage as the eminent Fmnciscan, the 
I)oeU)r Jlliutrii, would h«Te been a very im- 
portant if not a Tery welcome event for the 
nnivenity of Oambridge, m well, perhaps, 
•s for the diocese at large } and the election 
of Hugh de Balsham accordincly poaiesaes, 
even n^atively, s certain significance. (The 
abare account of the dispute and its issue is 
mainly collected from the Chnmira Majora 
of MiTT. PiKia, T. 689, 611, 619-20, 6S5-86, 

Of mMteri concerning Hugh deBalsham's 
episcopal administration nouiing very note- 
worthy is handed down to as. He certainly 
took no leading part in the great ^litical 
■troggle contemporary with tile earlier years 
of his episcopate ; but there is do reason for 
supposing that he sided against the leader of 
the MTons, the friend of the great Franciscan 
teachers. On the contraTT, we have the 
statement of Archbishop ParVer (Aead. Hut 
Oaitab. appended to de Anttq. Bntmm. 
JEed.) that Huffh de Balsham was one of 
those bishops woo denounced the penalty of 
exeommumcation against violators of Magna 
Charta and of the forest statutes. It is 
improbable that he sought to effect any im- 
portant improvements in the architactuie of 
tkis beautiAd cathedral, in emulation of the 
achievements in this direction of his last pre- 
decessor bat one, Bishop Hugh Northwald. 
On the other hand, he seems to have been a 
lealous (piardian of the rights of his see, and 
a liberal benefactor both to it and to the 
convent out of which it had grown, and to 
which he had himself so much reason to be 
attached. Soon siW his return from Rome, 
in the year 1258, he recovered the right of 
hoetelag« in the Temple, formerly poeseesed 
by the bishops of Ely, from the master of 
the Knights Templars who had contested it. 
The power of the Templars was already on 
the wane, and Hash Bisot, jusUeiary of 
England, condemjied the bishop's opponent 
to heavy dam^Bs and costs (Bbvthaii, 160). 
llie estate in Holbom, on which the tnahopa 
of Ely afterwards fixed their London rev- 
dence, was not acquired till the time of 
Hugh de Balsham's successor. Bishop John 
de Kirheby. Bishop Hush's acquisitions 
were nearer home. He purdiased the manor 
of Tyd, which he annexed to the see; and in 
lieu of two churches (Wisbeach and Foxton) 
which had belonged to the see, and which he 

had aprvopriated to tho eonvent, and of A 
third (Tnplow) which he had assigned to 
his scholars in Cambiidgs, of whom mention 
will be made immediately, he purchased for 
his bishopric the patronage of three other 
churches (Bmrraut, 160). He augmented 
the rerenuee of the almoner of the convent 
by appropriating' the rectory of Foxton to 
that officer (t£. 128). And we may be tempted 
to rect^nise the influence of eomfbrtabla 
Benedictine training as well as a consideratA 
spirit in his obtaining (if it was he that ob- 
tained) the papal dispensation granted during 
his episcopate to the monks ofElv, which, in 
consideration of their cathedral church beinff 
situate on an eminence and exposed to cold 
and sharp winds, allowed them to wear caps 
suited to their orderdnriug service in churcn. 
On the other hand, he had a vinlant eye 
upon the indispensable accompanunsats of 
epLWMpal authority, issuing in 1266 an order 
to his archdeacon to summon all parish priett« 
to repair to the cathedral eveiy Whitsuntide 
and to pay their pentecostals, and to exhort . 
their pu^ioners to do the like, nnder pain 
of eccleuastical censures (tb. 150). In 1275 
we find him maintaining the rights of his see 
against the cluma of (the dowager) Queen 
Eleanor, who was a benefactress of the uni- - 
versity, to present to the mastership of St. 
John's Hospital at Gambridge (CooPBB, Ai¥- \ 

But it is in the sarrieea rendered b^ this . 
prelate to the university of Cambridge itself 
where he laid the foundations of a system of ,■ 
academical life which has, in substance, en- 
dured for six centuries, that his title to famo 
consists. Appaienlly a man without com- 
manding gemus, and belonging to an order 
which was already thought to have d^;ene- 
rated from its greatness and usefulness, the 
Benedictine bishop became the father of the 
collegiate system of Gambridge, and at the 
same time the founder of a eoll^ which 
has honourably taken part in the activity and 
achievements of the university. A few 
words are necessary to show how Bishop 
Hugh de Balaham oame to accomplish the 
act that has mads his name memorable, and 
what precedents or examples were fbUowed 
in the foundation of PeteAouse. 

Varions circumstances had contributed to 
hasten the growth of the two English uni- 
versities in the earlier half of the uuiteenth 
century, and to draw closer the relations 
between them and the university of Paris 
upon which they were modelled. At Paria 
not fewer than sixteen collisea are mentioned 
OS founded in the thirteenth century (indeed 
two are placed as early as the twelftJi), 
among which the most funons is that of 




the SorbonnB, establuhed ftbont 1250. At 
the Soibonne, u elHwhere, porertT wu ui 
indispeiuabla oondition of memberBhip (Mul- 
xjhosb's History ^ CawhriAge, 127 and 
nota 3). At OiloTd^ where the intellectiul 
^orta of Pftris hftd, under the guidance of the 
Frsnciscuia, been ec^nalled ana were soon to 
be DUtatiippad, it nught Beem Btnnge that 
the aarliMt collegiate foundation — that of 
Walter de Merton (1S64)— should have ei- 

fresslyescluded all memben of regular orden 
UuLUirsBS, 164). But the dangers involved 
in the Bocendency of the monks and friars 
muet have been already patent to man; 
sagacious minds : and it maj be worth notii^g 
that Bishop Walter de Merton had been 
chancellor of the kingdom in the years al- 
most immediately preceding the date of the 
foundation of his college (1261-1262), when 
the king's trDubles were at their height 
(HuixnsHB, 164, note 1), and that he waa 
accordingly by poaition an advenaiy of the 
Frandscan interest. And in any case the 
monks and friars were already sufficiently 
provided for, so that there was no need for 
including them in a new foundation. In 
1268, whenHughdeBalshanipiMumably had 
not yet formed the design oT establishing a 
college of his own, he appropriated to Herton 
Coll^ a moiety c^ the rectoi; of Osmlingay 
in Ely diocese and Cambridge county ( kit- 
XBB, AteiaoU of FyOagora^i School, 1790, 
87-90). These axamplee, then— for the 
'hostels' which already existed in the uni- 
veiuty can haidly be taken into account — 
Bishop Hugh had before blm when, maoi- 
ftatly after mature reflection, he proceeded, 
by giving a new form to an earlier bene- 
faction <» his own, to open a new chapter in 
the hiatorr- of one of our univerBitias. 

The bi^ops of Ely, it should be premised, 
had consistently claimed to exerciie a juiis- 
dietion over the nniveruty of Cambridge ; all 
the ehancellort of the univenity, from the 
middle of the thirteenth ceutury(l24e), when 
aba earliest mention of the £gaity occure, 
to the end of the fourteenth, received episco- 
jnl ccmfirmatioa; nor was it till 1433 that 
the university was by p^ol authority wholly 
exempted from thejunsmction of the bishops 
(Bbhthuc, 169,note7). Indeed, it has been 
aqued that the prorogatives of the chancel- 
lor were originally eeolesiastieal, and that the 

solution werederived by him in the first 
instance bom Uie Biahop of Ely (Huixnt' 
era, 141). Ilis relation is illustrated by the 
circumstance that in 1276 Bishop Hugh de 
Balsham issued letters requiring all i "'~ 

in the university to be brought Before 

chancellor, and limiting his own authority 

to appeab from the ohancellor's decisions 
(UcLuiresR, 225). The bishop's readiness 
to make a aoneeasion to the univeiaity de- 
serves to be contrasted with his tenacity in 
resiBting the master of the Temple and the 
queen dowager. Again, in 1276, the bishop 
settled the question of jurisdiction between 
the chancellor of the university and the arch- 
deacon of Ely, who, having the nomination 
of the master of the glomerels (i.e., it would 
seem, the instructor of students in the rudi- 
ments of Latin grammar), sought to make 
this privilege the basis of further interferenca 
with the chancellor'B rights. Bishop Huff's 
decision on this head was ^veo with great 
clearness, and at the same tune he approved 
a statute, published by the university autho- 
rities, subjecting to expulsion or imprison- 
ment all scholars who within thirteen days 
after entering into residence ahould not have 

S toured or taken proper steps to procure ' a 
ed master' (Bbnthaji, 150; HiiLLiireBK, 
226 ) and cf. as to the master ot the glomerels 
sund. 140, 340. The entire very interesting 
decTeeisprintedinCooPBB,i.56-68). Rather 
earlier, in 1273, under date 'Shelford, on 
Wedneed^ next after the Sunday when 
"Letaie Jerusalem'* is sung,' he brought 
about a eompoution between the university 
and the comtmtive rector of St Bene't, who 
had denied to the university the customary 
courtesy of ringing the bell of his church to con- 
vene clerks to extraordinary lectures (Ooopbb, 
i. 64). Nothing of course could be moro 
natural than that the bishops of Elv should 
look with a kindly e^ upon the neighbouring 
seat of learning, as in the thirteenta century 
it might already be appropriately called. The 
tradition that the pnory of canons regular 
at Cambridge, known as St. John's House or 
Hospital, 'upon' which St. John's GoUege 
was founded several centuries afterward^ 
was instituted by NigeUus, second Bishop of 
Ely, reste on no solid grounds (see Bakeb, 
13,14); the origin of this house was, in fact, 
due, as stated above, to the munificence of a 
Cambridge burgess. Eustachius, fifth Bishop 
of Ely, it is true, 'etends in the front of 
the founders and benefacteis ' of St. John's 
hospital (jh. 17), and it was he who appro- 

?riated to it St. Peter's Church without 
WunpingtonOate. HughNarthwold,eighth 
bishop, is said by at least one authority to 
have placed some secular scholars as students 
there, who devoted themselves to academical 
study rather than to the aervices of the 
churcL (The authori^ is Puxhb, SceUlot 
Cant, 16^, cited by Kilvbb, and by Bgnt- 
B&M, 147, note 4.) Bishon Northwold also 
obtained for the hospital tne privilege of ex- 
emption &om taxation with reject to their 




twoluMtebneuSt-Fetor'achurch. WillUm 
de Kilkennj, ninth buhap, had little time 
for the coneenu of his dtocese, thou^ h« 
left two hundred muks to the priory at Bun- 
well for the maintenance of two chaplain*, 
atudentt of diTinity in the univertitj. 

Among the chaiteis of PeteThoiue ue 
letten pat«nt of the 9th of Edward I (1280), 
attested at But^ 24 Bee., which, after a 
preamble, conceived in the medisval spirit, 
about King Solomon, grant to Biahijp Hugh 

die royal ap^oral j^licenae) of hie intenti< 
to introduce mto hu hospital of St. John __ 
Cambridge, in lieu of the secular brethren 
there, ' studious scbolan who shall in eTsrjr- 
thing live tegethar as students in the uni- 
Tersity of Ouobridge according to the rule 
of the scholars at Oxford who are called of 
Herton ' {Doetanentt relating to the Urdver- 
tity and OaUega nf Cambridffe, ii. 1). This 
document at all events fixes the date of the 
royal license, on which there can be little 
d(nibt that action was immediatelj taken. 
it is clear that Hugh de Balsham'a scholars 
were placed in St. John's Hospital in substi- 
tution for the secular brethren already re- 
siding there. Very possibly the denmation 
of tlie Ely scholars as 'schoUis (J the bishops 
of Ely' may imply an acknowledgment of 
the anticipation by Bislu)^ Northwold of 
Bishop Hugh de B^sham's intention to pro- 
Tide for secular students. For not more than 
finir yean afterwards, in 1284, it was found 
that a separation of the two elements would 
better meet the purpose which the bishop had 
at heart. Bvan instrument doted Dodding- 
ton, SI Harob 1284, which waa confirmed^ 
a charter of King Edward I, dated 28 May 
1284, Bishop Hugh de Balsham separated his 
scholars from the brethren of the hospital 
Dissensions had fkim various causes and on 
•ereral occasions arisen between the brethren 
and the scholars, and finding a further con- 
tinuance of their common life ' diiEcult if not 
intolerable,' they had on both sides profiered 
a bumble supplication that thelocalities occn- 
pied as well as the possessions held by them 
in common mi^t be divided between them. 
The bishop accordingly asugned to his scho- 
lars the two hostels 0u»piaa) adjoimng the 
churchyard of St. Peter without Trumping- 
ton Gate, togetJier with that church itself 
and cotain revenues thereto belonging, in- 
elnnve of the tithes of the two mills beb>ng- 
ing to that church. Hie brethren were com- 
pensated by certain rents and some housee 
near to their boepital which had formerly 
been assigned to the scholars. By another 
instrument of the same date, and confirmed 
by tlie same royal charte^ he assigned the 
ehnrch of Triplow, formerly allotted to his 

scholars and the brethren In common, t« Us 
scholars alone. (Both instnunente are recited 
at length in the charter confirming them; see 
Hoeumente, ii. 1-4). 

This account agreea with the statement in 
the second of the statutes afterwards given to 
Pet«rhouse by Simon Montague (seventeenth. 
Bishop of Ely, 1S87-1S46) 6 April 1344, so- 
cording to which his predecessor, Hugh de 
Balsham, ' desirous hr the weal of his soul 
while he dwelt in this vale of tears, and to 
provide wholeaomelv so &r as in him lay 
lOF poor persons wishing to make themselvea 
proficient in the knowledge of letters by se- 
curing to them a propermauiteiuuice, founded 
a house or collc^ for the public good in our 
university of Gunbridge,with theoonaantof 
King Edward and oT his beloved sons the 
prior and chapter of our cathedral, all due 
requirements of law being observed; which 
house he desired to be (^ed the House of 
St. Peter or the Hall (Aula) of the scholars 
of the bishops of Elv at Gambridse; and he 
endowed it, and made certain ordmancea for 
it (m aliguibtt* ordinatiit) so &r as he was 
tlien able, but not as he intended and wished 
to do, as we hear, had not death fhistrated 
his intention. In this house he willed that 
there should be one master and as many 
scholars as could be suitably maintained fh>m 
the possessions of the house itself in a lawAil 
manner.' Bishop Simon adds that the capa- 
bilities of the house had since proved buely 
sufficient for the support of fifteen per 

vis. a master and fourteen scholan (fellows), 
a number which has only in our own days 
been reduced to tliat of a master and eleven 
fellows (DoemuttU, ii. 7-8). 

It would be useless to inquire towhatpr»> 
cise extent the statutes of Simon Hontsgue 
represent the wishes of the founder. There 
can, however, be no reasonable doubt hut that 
in general they closely correspond to them, 
more espedaUy as the second of Bishcm 8*- 
mon's statutes declares his intention of fol- 
lowing the desire of Bishop Hngh to base Uia 
statutes of Peteriiouse upon thoee of HeHoa 
{Doeammtt, ii. 6). The Peterbonse statutes 
are actually modelled on the fourth of the 
codes of statutes given by Merton to his col- 
lege, which bears date 1274. Accordingly, 
the formula ' ad instar Aulte de Herton ' con- 
stantly recurs in Simon Montague's statutes, 
e.g. in statutes 16, 2S, 28, 30, 39, 40, 67, 68. 
Inasmuch as according to statute 43 a fellow 
who has entered into a monsstic order is after 
ayear of grace to vacate hii fellowship, Hugh 
de Balsham may fairly be assumed to have, 
in the same spirit as that in which his su<v 
cesser legislated for his edilegt, designed that 
it should provide asaistanoe for >tudrata,witl^ 




em, on tlie one hmnd, obliging them to W 
come moDka, OT, on tho othBTj mtendioK an^ 
t.hinf hostile uuiut monuticiAiiL ^^e eiw 
dowment of the c^bgo wu not giyeii, « the 
auM Btatnta afflnns, 'nisi pro actnaliter stu- 
dentibus et proficaie volentibus.' It m-ast b« 
•llowad that tho tme principle of colle^ate 
•ndomnents eonid not be more eoncuelj 
*Uted(BeeHi;LLivaBS,233). The directions 
taken by the studies of the college were ne- 
eessarilj determined by the educational tiswh 
of the agej but statute 27 shows it not to 
iave been mtended that the study of divinity 
ihouM uther absorb all the energies of the 
college, or be entered upon until after a pra- 
Uniinary study of the ' uberal arts.' It may 
be added that statute 37, which allows one 
or two scholars of the colWe at a time to 
carry on their stndiea at Oxrord, is most in- 
Mctirately reivesent«dby Warton's assertion 
(JJutory ^ Eolith Poetrjf, section 9J, that 
'Biahop Sjigb do Balsham orders in his 
Blatutes, Riven abont the year 1280, that 
some of his scholars should annually repair 
to Oxford for improvement in the sciences — 
that iB,ta study under the Ftanciscan readers.' 
Bishop Hush de Balsham did not long sur- 
live the foundation of Peterbouse. He died 
at Doddington 16 June 1386, and was ii 
ittrred on the S4th of the same month in h 
cathedral church, before the high altar, by 
Thomas de Ingoldeethorp, bishop of Roches- 
ler (BsKTHUi, 161). Hie heart was sepa- 
i«teiy buried in the cathedral near the altar 
of St. Martin (see memorandiun appended to 
Peterbonae statute of 1480 in Jioeumatti, ii 
45). His benefactions to his foundation had 
been minmona, and are dalf recorded in the 
tame memonndnm, ' to wit, four " beude- 
Una* with bitda and beaata, five copes, of 
which one is embroideTed in red, a chasuble, 
ntnnicand a dalmatic, three alba, two cruets, 
tbechurdi of St. Peter without Trumpiiigton 
mtea, the two hostels adjoining, mill-tithes ' 
(Le. of Newnham mills), ' several books of 
theology and other sciences, and three bun- 
dred marka towards the buUding of the col- 
legn.' According to another source of infor- 
mation (see Bbhteak, 161) the books and 
the three hundred marks were left by the 
biahop in hie last will ; and with the money 
Ids scbolars pnrchaaed a piece of ground on 
tbeaonthsideof St. Peters church (n " 
HaiT the Leas), where they erected a very 
fineWl. There seems reason to believe that 
the land on part of which the present hall is 
bnilt waa bou(^ by the coll^ tram the 
Brediren deSaccO and tbeKetfirenof Jesna 
Christ. For the rest, the college biographv 
<tf tha (bandar is extremely meagre, ana 
dwella espedally on bis good worlu in ap' 


propriating rectories to religtoua and edu- 
cational purposes, but not without at the 
same time compensating the see at his own 
personal e:^>ense. 

The Bervices and benefactions of Hu^h de 
Balsham were not left unacknowledged either 
by his college or by the university. The 
latter, bv an instrument dated Cambridge, 
Hay 1291, and sealed with the university 
seal, bound itself annually to celebrate a 
solemn commemoration of ms obit (Behtbaii, 
161). His successors have, through all the 
changes which the statutes of the coU^e 
have undergone, remained its visitora. It is 
noticeable in this connection that when in 

629 an amended Btatnte was obtained at 
the instance of the coll^ from Charles I 
prohibiting the t«nure of {ellowshipa by more 
than two natives of the same county at the 
same time, an exception was made in favour 
of Middlesex, and of Cambridgeshire with the 
isle of Ely, whence ' the greater part of the 
collwe income is derived.' Of these two coun- 
ties lonr natives might simultaneously hold 
fellowslups (Peterhouse statute of Oharles I 
in Soeumaitt, ii. 106), it having been urged 
that ' Hugo de Balshain, the founder, andall 
the prime henefacton of the collie were of 
those counties (the southern) whit^ the 
statute' of Warkworth, assigning half the 
fellowships of the college to the north of 
England, 'most wrongs (iUif. 99). Quite 
recently, when, on the occasion of the re- 

benefactora, the place of honour was ae of 
right Bs^gned to a finely imagined semblance 
of its revered founder. It may be added that 
the arms of Peterhouse (gides, three palea or) 
are those of its founder, with the addition of 
the border, usu^l in the caae of relittioua 
foundations (Bentham, Appendix, p. 42). 

niatlhai ParisitDsia Chronica Majors, ed Ln- 
ard, vol. v.. Bolls serin, tondon, 1380 ; Baut- 
ham'i Histor; and Anltqnitiea of Che Caavsntnal 
and Cathedial Chnreh of Ely, Cambridge, 1 77 > ; 
Hnllinger'* UuiTBrsi^ of Cambridge from the 
earlieat times to the Boyal Injnnetions of 1031, 
Cambridge, 1S7S ; Doenments relating to lb* 
Univendty and Collagaa of Cambridge, vol. ii. 
London, 18S3 ; SutnCae for Petarhonse, approved 
by H.M.inCoundl(pTsamb]e), Cambridge, 18B3; 
Cooper'a Annals of Cambridge, vol. ii., Cambridge, 
1812; Baker's Hialoi^ott^e College of St. John 
the Evaiigeli(t, Major, Cambridn, 
I8S9; HonnDiuitaFnuiei*auia,ed. Brewer, "RSit 
Bcnee, London, 18S8. Thi irritar has to ae> 
knowledge the kindapH irf the lata Mr. E. B. 
Horton, falloir ol Peterhooaa, who isviied the 
whole of thia artide, and mads DnmerODa vain- 
able anggestioiiB embodied in it] A. W. W. 


Ba!ther 9 

BALTUEB Of. 758), Mint, jnabjtor of 
LindisfHoe, lived m an anchonte, Mcordiof 
to Uabillonj tt Tjmiiigbam, ia Scotland, at- 
thou^ poeaiblj he may he oonibtmcliug him 
with nddied, who alao lived HTyninyham. 
Balthar ia celebTat«d b^ Aldtin for hia aano- 
tity, his power of waUmg on the sea like St. 
Peter, ana hia vicWn over evil apirita. Ao- 
Goiding t« SimeoD of Durham he died in 756, 
knd Mabillon itatee that in the Benedictine 
ealendara hia name occura on 27 Nor. He 
waa buried at Lindiafame, but in the eleTanth 
ssitun hia remuna were remored to Durham 
Catheonl, whence thej were atolen, along 
with tiioae of the venerable Bede and othera. 

[iknio'i Carmlna da Fontif. at SS. EocL 
|{hi>taa.T*. 181B-8S; SmeOD of Durham's CbroD. 
t.o. 76t, Biit. DuL ii. 2; Mabilton'a Acta Sonet. 
Old. Ben. pan anda, p. 605 ; Bogn of HoTaden^ 
Annala.] T. F. H. 

BALTIMORE, Eaaiaoy. [SeeCiLTTOi, 
Qbobsb, tirat Eabl, 1580 P-1 643 ; Galvbbi, 
Fkbdbbicx, aeventh Eaxl, 1731-1771.] 

BALTINGLAfl, third ViBOOinre (i. 
15B5). [See EtrsTAOB, Jambb.] 

BALTRODDI, WALTER m {d. 1270), 
biahop of Caithneaa, ancceeded Biahop 
Williain in 1261. He waa doctor of the 
oanon law, and hia diooeae included Caith- 
naM and Sutherland, the chapt«r conaiating 
of tan canona. Thurao waa the aeat of the 
biahopric of Caithneaa in Biahop Walter's 
time, althoo^ it had been tnmporarily re- 
moved to Dornoch between 1222 and 124C. 
An hiatoric ruin in the neighbourhood of 
Thurao atiU preaervea ita name of the 
' Inahop'a palace ; ' the rained church of 
St. Peter'a, witjdn the town, ia on the ute 
Bf the ancient cathednl, piart of which ia 
inooTpoTat«d in the existing building of 
five centuriea old or more. 

Bishop Walter's anmame ia rag^estiva of 
an Italian origin. He ia characterised as ' a 
man diacrMt in oonnael and eommendahle 
for the aanotit J of hia life ' in the aeventeenth- 
eentuTj Latin HSS. of Father Hav, the 
hiatorian and relative of the Roalin Ainilj, 
preaerved in the Advocatea' Ijihrarj, Edio- 
bur^ AcMrding to the collections of Sir 
Jamea Dalrjmple, an eariiar antiquarian, he 
ia one of three Oaithnesa Inabope described 
aa 'of good memorr' in a writ dated the lOtb 
of t&a caleitda of October, 1276. The docu- 
ment ia a decreet-erUtral between Walter's 
BucoMaor, Archibald, bishop of Caithneta, 
Mid William, eed of Su^eriand, as to a 
diaputo that had bean open during tbeprelk- 
ues of Archibald and hia pradaoaaaori, "Walter 
de Baltroddi, WiUim, mmI Gilbert Hurrar, 

8 Baltzar 

eonoaming the ri^^ta of the aee to eert^ 
lands, &r^ toUa, and aalmon fishinga. 

[Alex. Ifiibat, in hti fiunoni «oA on 'H^ 
laMiy,' pobliAed in 1T2S, dedand that he saw 
and gxamined the writ referred to abora. In Bit 
Bobart Gordon's ■ OeDealogical ffiatoiy of the 
Hoosa of Sotheriand,' vrittaa in the raign of 
JamaaliitaeootantaanaaaBariaad; and part of 
its text, which waa In I«tin,ia quoted in Biah^ 
Kaith'i'OatalogacafStottishBuhopa.' Apaaa- 
iug Dotioe in Qnib'i ' Bedaaiastioal History of 
Scotland,' which probably came from one of 
the Bonroaa alraadr laf arrad to, mantioBS Biahin 
Walter.] T. a 

violinist, was bom at LUback and settled in 
Eno^and in 16A6. We do not bear that he 
had acquired much fame in Germany, but ha 
waa the first great violiniat that had been 
heard in Eni^uid at the time. On hia arrival 
in England ne stayed with Sir Anthony Cope 
ofHanwdl. Hewaanot loogin makmg lus 
reputation in England, for we find hia play- 
ing much praiaed in ffvelyn'a 'Diarv,' under 
date 4 March 1056-7, where be ia called < the 
ineompanhle Zmbtoer.' Evelyn heard him at 
the house of Roger L*Estrange, and he aava : 
' Tho' a yoimg man, yet ao perfect and sliil- 
full, that there waa nothing, however croaa 
and perplext . . . which be did not play off 
at ught with ravishing sweetneaae and im- 
provoments. to the astonishment of our beat 
masters.' Anthony k Wood heard him play 
on 24 Julv 1658, and he says (life of him- 
self), speaking of his alacri^ of execution, 
that ' neither ne nor anv in Bogland aaw the 

like before Wilson thereupon, the greateat 

judge of muaic that aver was, did . . . atoop 
downe to Beltsar's fMt to see whether he 
had a huff on ; that is to aay, to aee whether 
he waa a davill or not, because he acted b^ 
yond the part* ot man.' The same author 
(tatea that Baltzar formed habits of intem- 
perance, which ultimately brought him to 
the grave. In one of the manoaoript aoitds 
for strings, several of whieh are preserved in 
the library of the Husic School, Oxford, the 
author'e name ia given aa * Hr. Baltsar,com- 
monlv called y* Swede, 26 Feb. 1668.' At 
the Restoration ha waa placed at the head of 
Charles ITa new band of (twenty-four^ vio- 
lins. He died in 1663 and was buried m the 
cloisters of Weatminater Abbey on 27 July 
in that year. Hia name upears tiiera aa 
' Hr. Thomas Balsait, mm « the violina in 
the kiug'a service.' 

From Wood's statemant ' that he eaw him 
run up his fingMs to the end of the finger- 
board of the violin,' it has been infened 
that the introdootion of the ' abift' was doe 
to him, bat it ia pobaUe that the pcaiotieela 





cfoonndenUjeM'lietorigiu. BaltMi'iwoAi 
aoiuiat ■Imott «iilai»ljr, aoUiuia known, at 
■mtM far rtriiiaB} fonr of theM are in the 
Mune School Uhmr, Oxford. PUvford'i 
'SiTiakm Violin 'U md to contain all th&t 
vas pnntad of his oompontion. Bumej 
lefon i^Set^t BttegeUmmdui) to a maniucnpt 
eolUctiom of mIo* in hia poe 

[OtOTs^Dictionujof Marie; Bomsj'B Hil- 
ton of Mane, and ait. ia Rcwf* EDCTclopsdis ; 
KS. in Hnrie Sehwd, Oxford; Cheilar'i Sagit- 
tal of VcotminitaT Abbay.l J. A. F. U. 

BALTTir, JOHN sa. [See Bauut.] 

BAIiVAHtD, flrrt Bamm (1W7 P-ia«). 
[See HdUUT, Sis Asirbw.] 

BALWXAKIK, Lokd {4. 1633), Beottith 
jttdgo. [^Bea Soott, Sib Wulux.] 

SALT, WnjJAM, MJ). (1814-1861), 
nlnucian, wa* bom at King's Ljnn, Nor- 
fou, in 1814, and educated in the grammar 
■ehool there. In 1831 he entered aa a pupil 
Univeisitj Oolleg^^ London, and in 18>32 
St. BartholomeVa HoepitaL Id 1834, after 
|mTr"(f the College of Snrgeaiie and the 
^otlwaariea' Hall, Baly went to Parii, 
ma a winter's etnd; there, to Heidelberg, 
■ad tlwnea to Berlin, where he graduated 
H.D. in 1SS6. On hie return to England 
be (tarted in practiee in Vigo Stfeet,Xon- 
don, nmonng anbeeguentlT to Deronahire 
Street, and flnallr to acook Street. InlS40, 
be nported on the etata of the Hillbank Peni- 
tentiarj, and in 1841 be waa appointed phy- 
iieiantothataBtahliahnient. He often acted 
kygioie oi piiaona. The i£ief retnlta of hii 
■tndiea at the prison are comprised in his 
numerous reports, but more eepedaUj in en 
elaborate pa^ on the ' Diseases of Prisons ' 
in ToL xxniL of the ' Hedico-Chirumcal 
Transactions,' and in his ' Chilstonian Leo- 
tnree on Dysentery,' 1847. In addition to the 
Minute knowledge which these lectures show 
flfdyMOteiy proper, they prove that Baly was 
the flrat to obewre the &et that dysenteric 
■loiigba in the large intestine may be ase^ 
oatM with the true nken of entecio forar 
ia the small intestine. To the same studies 
■bo may be referred much of the knowledge 
diepUyM in his 'Beport on Oholera,' written 
■t the desire of the College of Physicians. 
In 1841 Dr. Baly became iMtnrer on forensic 
medicina at St. Bartbolamew'a Hospital. In 
1846 be wa* admitted a fellow of the Oollwe 
of nkysician*, and in 1847 ■ fellow of the 
JEtoyalSocietr. In 1864 be became aasistant- 
fbysieian to St Bartholomew's Honital, and 
n 18fiS, ia ea^jiiacttoii with Dr. (now Sir) 

George Burrows, lectnrer on medicine thne. 
In 1%9. when a plreiicJen waa required who 
might snare with Sir James Clark the olBae 
of regular attendant on the quern and royal 
family, Dr. Baly was selected as the fittest 
person. Afterwards he discharged the duties 
of censor of the College of Physicians, and 
he was nominated to a seat on the medical 
connal as one of the representatirea of the 
crown in the place tit Sir Jamee Clark. Dr. 
Baly had cc»ne to be rewarded as one of the 
bri^teet omimenta of the medical pmfeation 
when his caieer was brought to a sudden 
and tra^cal end, for on 28 Jan. 1861 he was 
emshea to death in a railwM' accident on 
tbe South- Western line near Wimbledon. 

Beside* the above-mentioned works ha 
published: 1. A trauHlation from the Ger- 
man of Miiller's ' Elements of Physio' ' 
S vols. 1837. 2. 'Recent Adranees L 

of Physiology,' 
dranees in the 
Physiology of Motion, the Senses, Oenera- 
tion, and Development. Being a. supplement 
) the 2nd vol of Professor Hiillia^s " 

of Physiology,"' London, 1848, 8to 
(conjointly with William Senhouae Kiikes), 
8. * Beport* on Epidemic Cholera,' S paita, 
London, 18&4, 8vo (conjointly with Dr. (now 
Sir) W. W. Gull). 

[Lancet, i. 123, UT ; Annnal Roister, IBSl, 
chioDicIa IS; Cat. at Printed Books in KiU 
M».] T. 0. 

dinal [See BuiraBinea] 

warden of the Fleet prison, is notorious for 
atrocious cruelties to the priaonar* under his 
charge. By profession Bambridge was an 
attorney. In August 1728 John Huggin* 
■old tlie office of^ warden of the Fleet to 
Bambrid^ and Dougal Cnthbert for G,00(U. 
A committee was appointed W the House of 
Commons on the motion of James Ogle- 
thorpe on 26 Feb. 1728-9 to inquire into tbe 
state of the gaols of the kingdom, which had 
been for a long time a disgrace to the oonntrv. 
Chi the 38th the chairman reported to t 

I contempt, and it waa 
thereupon (wdered that be ■nould be taken 
into custody. On SO March the report of 
the committee was read, and it wa* reeolved 
\fj the house, ' That Thomas Bambridgo, 

acting waiden of the prison of the Fleet, 

\x wilWly J ■■■ ' ■■ > --- - - 


bath wilJWly permitted aeveral debtOM of 
the crown in ^reat sums of money, aa well 
as debtors to divers of his m^esty's subject*, 
to escape; hath been guilty of the most 
notorious breaehsa of bis trust, great extor- 
tions, and the hi^uat evimaa and misde- 
meanours in ths SKacntioH «f hia said offioat 

., Google 


Bam ford 

uid hath ftrlutmrily and unlkwfuUj loaded 
'Vrith irons, pnt into dungeons, and destroyed 
prifoneiv for debt, under hie ebtige, treating 
them in the mott bubuoua and crael nuu»> 
ner, in iuA Tiolstion Mid contempt at the 
laws of this kingdom.' At the game time it 
WM Teaolvad to petition the king to direct 
the pioaecutton of BambridcB, and oidered 
that he should be fbrtbvitn committed to 
Newntti. An act was also paaBsd (2 G^eo. H, 
cap. S2) to enable the kmg to grant the 
office of warden to some other person and to 
incapacitate Bamfaridee from snjojing that 
office or any other n^tever. On 23 May 
1729 Bamloidge was tried at the Old Bailey 
for the murder of Robert Caatell (one of the 
Fleet prisoners), but was auinitted. He 
continued in prison until 26 Oct., when he 
was admitted to baiL In the following year 
he was tried on appeal for the murder of 
Babert Caatell, but was again acquitted. 
He was afterwards prosecutM in several ac- 
tions at the suit of John Hug^ns, the former 
warden, and was imprisoned in the Fleet 
himself for some little time. Some twenty 
yean after this it is said that he committed 
anicide. Hogarth made the examination of 
Bambridge before the committee of the House 
of Commons the eubjeet of one of his early 
pictures. The faces are said to be all por- 
traits, and no doubt the painter had unusual 
faulities for making tlus picture, aa Sir Jamet 
Thomhill was a member of the committee. 

[BaDHid'a Parliunentarj Htitoiy, Tiii. 706- 
7S4; Hiatoriod Bagimtr, 17Se, xiv. 167-lTe; 
FolitJ<sl State of Qraat Britain, 1716. zzxTii. 
208, SS9-TT, *B9. itZ-S, 484-fl, xxxriii. 80-1 ; 
HoweU's State Triali (181S), zriL aST-SlO, 
8SS-.483 ; Chambers's Book of Days (18S4), i. 
48»-7 ; Emght'i London (1848), iv. 4S-8 ; Bto- 
graphleal Ansodotea of WiUtam EogaRh(178f ), 
pp. I8-1S.1 a. F. B.B. 

BAMFOBD, SAMUEL (1788-1872), 
weaver and poet, bom at Middleton, Lanea- 
ahira, on 38 Feb. 1788, was the son of an 

TTatire muslin weaver, afterwards governor 
the Salford workhouse, fie was sent to 
the Hiddleton and the Handieater giBrntnar 
achooL Ha learned weaving, and was sal>> 
seqoently oecnined as a warduHusman in 
Uanehestar. While thus ompb^ed he made 
an aocndMita] aoqnuntanee with Homer's 
' niad' and with the poems of Hilton, and his 
life was theoeafbrward ma^ed wHb * pw- 
sionate taste for poetry, which brought forth 
fruit in tbe ahwe of several crude pr^nctions 
of bis own. Mmford aj^ears to have led a 
eomevriiat nnsettled life tn hie youth. He 
followed the oocopation of a sailor for a short 
time, in the employ of a collier trading be- 

tween Shields and London ; thoiiammed hi* 
place in the vrardiouse; and at length settled 
down as a iroaver. It was about this tints 
that hi* fiiat poetry appeared in print, and 
he now became known m his district as on« 

cultiee of hia c 

. Oaakell, 

. ..- 9. vTBiuieii, in ner 

novel of 'Mary Barton' ([p. 89, ed. 1883), 

8 notes a poem of his, beginning ' Ciod help 
le poor,' to illustrate the popuarity of his 
verses with the Lancashire labouring classes 
in their time* of trial. Resistance to trade 
oppression was the order of the day, and 
Bunfbrd went about wiib the endeavour to 
discover the true means of relieC He had 
many of the peculiar talents necenary for 
the popular leader, while averse to violence 
in any shape. He was brought into great 
public notoriety on the occasion of that meet- 
ing t^ local clubs the dispersal of whicii 
beoame known as £he Peterloo maasacre. It 
was proved that Bamibrd's contingent to the 
meetmg was peaceful and orderly, and that 
his speech was of the same tendency. Yet hs 
■ufi^ed an imprisonment of twelve months 
on account of this afiair. He subsequent^, 
by his personal influence alone, hindered the 
operations of loom-breakers in Sou^i Lan- 
cashire. About 1826 he hecame correspon- 
dent of s London morning newspaper, and 
having ceased to be a weav» ^ emph^ 
meat, Im incurred some dislike or distrust 
on thepart ofhisoldfellow-wodman. Yst 
he always pleaded their canse as opportnni^ 
served, even when, as a special etmstabls 
during the Chartist agitation, he incurred 
the downright enmity of his own class. 

In 1861 01 therealjouta Bamford obtuned 
a comfortable situation aa a meesenger in 
Somerset House. With almost a sinecure, 
however, and raised above the ^prospect of 
want, he became dissatisfied with Londtm 
life and people, and pined for his native 
county; and after a lew years of govern- 
ment employ he returned to his old trade ct 
weavinir. He died at Harpnrbey, Lsnc^ 
ehiie, 13 April 1873, at a very advanced ace, 
hia last yean having been provided fbr t^ 
the ^eneroeitf of a ww fiisnds. Bamtbrd'a 
pnblieationa include: 1. 'An Account of 
tbe Arreat and Imprisonment of Samuel 
Bamford, Hiddleton, on Suspicion of High 
Traoaon,^ 1817. 3. "The Weaver Boy, or 
HiBoellanaons Poetry,' I81B. 8. 'Homely 
Bhymes,' 184S. 4. ' Passage* In the Lifb of 
a Radical,' 1810-4. S. 'Tawko'SeawthLan- 
kesbnrit^SamhulBaamfbrti'lSGO. 6. 'lib 
of Amo* Ogden,* 1868. 7. ' The IHalect of 
South Lanoashire, or Tim Bobbin's Tnmmus 
and HBaTy,with his Rhymes, widt GkMiaiT.' 
1851 a 'Early Bay*,' 1849, 1869. 

I, Google 



r OnHdian, A^ 187S; U»i- 

Biw jaMiiMTrApril 1ST3 ; AntoUagnvbieal 

NotM &«m hia Wotka ; I. V. Smiili's BcgMm 

of MiwlwiUr&MMmMSdiool (Chthim Son.).] 


(1636-1681). the eldest Nn (tf Sir John 
EMnpfleld 0^t«d banmet in 1641), of 
Foltunoie, l>evoa, wm bom at that pUoe 
in 1636. Ha waa Mnt to Oorpoa OhrisU 
College, Oxford, and diBtinfpiiBhed liim«flf, 
•ccorting to Wnce in his ' WorthJea of 
Brrou,' b; hia ' aplendid -way of liTing,' and 
bj his muniflcent present of plnte. On 
settling in his native countf he took %a 
■etiTe part in promoting the reatoration of 
Gharlaa IL When the gentlemen of Devon 
met at £zet«B in 1669 and declared for a 

Tanced into England with hia annj, Sir 
Copleatone pnaented to him a petition tor 
iiglit OD behalf of the county, and for this 
■ction tna oonflned to the Tower for a short 
time. In the parliamont lanunoned for 
27 Jan. ItfK), he was member for liverton ; 
and from 1671 to 1679, and from 1686 to 
16B7, he sat for his native count;. He 
waa one of tha twentj-eeven Devonshire 
jniticea who determined, in 1681, to put the 
wws in execution ngninst all dissenters, and 
next jeu he joined with those who espressed 
their desire to hanss the dissenting ministara 
inborouf^ Under James 11 he was ejected 
from the conunission of the peace, but he waa 
•0 disaatisfiad with the succeeding govern- 
ment that he refosed the payment of any 
new-made rates and taxes, and they were 
levied on hia goods. He died at Wsrlegh, not 
&r from Plymouth, in 1691, and waa ouried 
at Foltimore. His &st wife was Huguet, 
daughter of F. BuUceley, of Buigate, Ham^ 
alura ; his second wife was Jane, daughter 
of Sir Oourtenay Pole. His grandson suo 
c oe d e d him in the baronetcy. The family 
name is now spelt ' Bampf^Ide,' and his 
descendant, Sir Oeorae Warwick Bamp^lde, 
was in 1631 crested Baion Poltimore. 

[Prioce'i 'Worthiaa, pp. 131-A; BnAe'i Peer- 
agej BsmiltOD's Qnutar Saasioiu, EUrabtth to 
Aiuuw pp. 1S6, IBL] W. P. C. 

BAMFFmiiD^ FRAIfCIS (d. 1663), 
divine, waa the third son of John Bampfield, 
of Poltimore, Devon, and brother of Sir 
John, first baronet. He was from hjs birth 
dsMgned for the ministry by his parents {A 
Name, <m 4fter One, p. 7). In 1631, at 
nbout the age of sixteen, he entered Wnd- 
ham College, Oxford, where he remained 

Sevan or ewht years, tatdng his H.A. degree 
in 16S8. Be waa ordained in 1641, and pre- 
ferred to a livinjr in Dorsetshire, worth about 
lOM a year. Tm sum he spent npon his 
pariahionera, supplying his own wants out of 
a small private income. He was also collated 
to a prebend in Elxeter Cathedral, in which 
he was reinstated at the Restoration. A 
conviction that the chnrch stood in urgent 
need of reform induced him to tske steps 
distasteful to his parishioners, and, after 
mnoh solicitation, he accepted the tees valu- 
able living of Sherborne. Here he remained 
until, in 1663, the Act of Uniformity drova 
him from his preferments. In the September 
of that year he was arrested at home, and 
compelled to find sureties for his good be- 
haviour. Soon afterwards he was sgain 
arrested, and detained for nearly nine years 
in Dorchester gaoL At hia dischsi^ in 1076^ 
he travelled through several counties preach- 
ing, and finally settled in London. After 
ministering in private for some time, he ga- 
thered a congreffation of Sabbatarian Baptists 
at Pinnera' HaU, Broad Street. Whilst con- 
ducting service there, in February 16SS-3, 
he waa arrested and carried before the lord 
mavor. After several appearances at the 
Ola Bailey sessions, Bampfield was convicted 
and returned to Newgate, where he died on 
16 Feb. 1683-4. Lo^ crowds of sym- 

Ktlusers attended his funeral at tha Ana^ 
ptista' burial-ground in Alderegate Street. 
His works are : 1. ' The Judgment of Mr. 
Franus Bampfield for the Ooservation of 
the Jewish or Seventh-day Sabbath,' 1672. 
2. 'All in One: All Useful Sciences and 
Profitable Arts in the One Book of Jehovah 
Elohim,' 1677. 8, • A Name, an After One,' 
1681. 4. 'The House of Wisdom,' 1681. 

6. 'The Lord's Free Prisoner,' 16S8. 6. 'A 
Just Appeal from the Lower Courts on Earth 
to the Highest Court in Heaven,' 1683. 

7. 'A Continuation of the former Just Ap- 
peal, 1663. 8. 'The Holy Scripture the 
Scripture of Truth,' 1684. 

[The Canfbrmist't Fourth Flea for Noneon- 
fiinoity, 1BB3, p. 44 ; Croeby's Hirtory of the 
Engliih Baptiao, lTS8-40.i. 368, ii. 35G. iii. 7; 
Calamy*! Noncoafonnitte' MKaarial, ed. Palmar, 
1S02. il 140 ; Hntcfaina'g Hist, and Antiq. of 
Dorset, 1774, ii. SSfij Wood's Athtnua Oxoo. 
(BUu), IT. 12S.] A. B. B. 

BAMPFIELD, JOSEPH {;f. 1639-1686), 

a ToyaliBtcolonel, waa, according to Clarendon, 
an Irishman, his real w>"ft being Bamfbrd : 
but the assertion is not corroborated by any 
other authority. Bampfield himself states that 
he began to serve Charles I at seventeen years 
of age, entering the army as 'ancient* nndet 



Lord Aihlef in hia first exp«ditioa tgaiuat 
tbeSeoteinieSfl. Attbe «ndof tlu wtrh* 
wu pramoted captain. He b«cuw odonel 
«f a tagimstit ahortl J after tlw outbnnk of tlia 
etvil wr, taA Mrred with ipeeial dirtincticm 
under th« Dulce of Somenet in the wait of 
England. From an entry in Wood'i ' Futi' 
<ii. S3) it would a;^ar that in 1642 he waa 
created Mjk. of te^id b; Tirtoe of the kin^B 
mandamua. In a short tine his ranarkalue 
nfta for intrigne attractad tha attautitm of 
Uie king, who, when ha ahut himaelf np in 
OEford m 1644, sent him in diwuisa to Lon- 
don ' to penetrate the deugna of the two par- 
ties in parliameBt.' He was also the agent 
«mplo;ad hj Charlea in hia 'secret negotia- 
tions at Oxford and Newport, and in contriv- 
ing the escape of the Doke of York ftom St. 
James's FbIsm in April 1648. To aid him in 
the Utter plot, BamirfiddBecared the serricei 
«f Anne Hnnay, afterwards Ladr Halkett, 
whom he had greatly impressed liy hia < se- 
riODS, handaome, and pious discourse,' after a 
veij slight acquaintance. In hei autobio- 
graphy she giTee an interesting account of the 
manner in which she prorided a female drees 
for the duke'e dia|pise, and of the circum- 
atancas attending hu escape. Bampfleld's dis- 
bursements in connection with uie exploit 
amounted to 19,6691., and the receipts to 
S0,000;; (Oalm. Oarmdon State I'Optr*, i. 
eot^ 2962). After aeeompanjing tl^ duke 
to Holland, Bampfield, at the special rsquMt 
of GharlM, returned again to England. Ke- 
mainin^ in concealment ' bejontfthe 'Tower,' 
he again opened up oonununicaticHia with 
Anne HurraT. One day he took occasion to 
inform her that news had reached him of his 
wife's death, and shortly afterwards he made 
her an offer of marriage, stating that he had 
a promise of being one of hia majesty's house- 
hold, and that in any case theii joint fortunes 
would amount to 9001. per annum. She 
agreed to marry him as ' soon as oonTcnient ; ' 
but the stoiy^ of hie wife's death was a con- 
coction in order to enable him for his own 
interests to win the complete devotion of the 
lady by appearing in the character of a lover. 
After the death of Charles he remained in 
England, and he was preparing to follow his 
mistress to Scotland when he was arrested 
and seoured in the Qatehouae at Westminster, 
but succeeded in escapiuir through a window 
and went to Ht^lancT By this time it had 
come out that his wife was still alive ; and as 
Sir Henry Newton, brother-in-law of Anne 
Hurray, happened tio cross over to Holland 
in the same ship with him, the two, as soon 
as they landed, fought a duel, with theresult 
that Newton was severely wounded in the 
head, Bampfield failed to win the confidence 

9 Bampfield 

of Charles n. and returned to En^and, but in 
Angnat 1663 woa hnMi(^t before the coaaeil 
andcommandedtoleaTetheoonntiy. When 
Lord Bakairea, in 1663, bc^an to pot iot« 
operation a scheme for a rising in the High- 
lands, Bampfield made His way to Scotlud 
and again soughtout Anne Murray, who had 
always given him credit for believing that bis 
wife was dead. So much did he commend 
himself to the Highland chiefs that during a 
temporary illness of Lord Balcures he waa 
entrusted with the supreme direction of the 
aflair; but he was justly suspected b7 
Charles H to be acting a douUe part, and in 
July 1664 he was finally dismissed from the 
service of the royaliatt. In December of thii 
year he had an interrisw in London with 
Anne M unay, who Ueely informed him that 
ebe was already married to Sir James Hal- 
kett, upon which he took his leave, and ' she 
never saw him mote.' In fact, he went to 
Paris, where, and afterwards at Frankfort, he^ 
as is abimdantly proved by his bttera in the 
Thurloe State Papers, acted as Cromwell's 
spy and agent in many 'weighty affiurs.* 
After the death of Cromwell, who compelled 
him always to remain abroaa, he returned to 
England ; but at the Beitoration be was im- 
nisoned in the Tower for more than a J^er. 
Finding that all hope of advancement in Eiig> 
land was gone, he went to the Hague and en- 
tered the service of Holland, obtaining the 
command of an English regiment. Thou^ 
now somewhat advanced in years, he still re- 
tained his 'gallantry' towaros the other sex. 
and made use of it to aid him in his political 
intrigues. According to a letter in tne State 
Papers, he had, in 1666, ' screwed himself 
into the Prince of Orange's favour ; ' but this 
he would appear to have afterwarda los^ for 
in 1674 he had conceived a fancy for a ' W- 
mit life ' In the country. His health giving 
way under the ordeal, he returned, in 1679, to 
Leuwarden ; but henceforth, according to his 
own account, he determined ' neither to di>> 
compose himself nor to give any umbrage to 
others by meddlinff with worldly affairs. He 
did, however, trouble himself to write eeveral 
lettere to persons of influence in England, and 
in 1686 printed at the Hague an ' Apologie,' 
narrating the main eventa of his career, and 
representing his wholepolitical conduct in a 
very innocent light. The tract, which is now 
very rare, but m whidi there is a copy in the 
British Museum, iseleveriy composed,andbath 
it and his letters sufficiently support the state- 
ment of Clarendon that he was a man of ' wit 
and parts,' although they scarcely hear out 
the opinion of Lady HsJkett that the ' chiefest 
ornament he had was a devout lifb and oo»- 





[Jifdt^ of OoloMl BuapBild, ISSft Anto- 
UtHMhy of I«d7 Anna EdkMt, pnUUMd bj 
tb*Oui<teaaadc^, 18T>i CStnadaa'iBkttiijaf 
ll» Bafaallioo; Dnrio* Stkta ^nn, eonuining 
mai^ofluf l«tun in full; State Fapm of Uw 
DmiMtie Swiat, sod tlw diMudoi fit«t« Fftpua 
Is tha Bodkiu Libi»7.] T. F. H. 

BAMPFIKm THOUAS (^ 1668), 
speaJcsr of the Hodm of CommosB, wm 
■on of John Bwnpfield, of Foltimore in 
Deron, uid brother of Sir John, the first 
He vu recorder of Ezetor, kdA 


___m«ell'H parliament of 1668 he wm nnin 
Atnmed for Exeter, and on 18 Haj, 'Mr. 
Chnte the epeaker being ao infirm that he 
eonld net attMid the aening of the kouaa, 
tad ^ lialeboM I'Ong, who waa choaen to 
' execute the office tat him, being actually 
dead, the bouae wu obliged to |;o to another 
■laeUon, when Mr. T. Mmpfla 
nxHialy choaen to succeed him, and Mr. Chnte 
dying toon after, the other ccotinned 
to tlM end of the parliament ' (Airi. 
eoL 1612), Hie tenon of office waa brought 
to a eloae by the diMolntion of 22 April 1650. 
In the convention parliament of 1060, Bamp- 
fleld, having been retomad both for £xet«r 
and Tiverton, choee to sit for hia old consti- 
tuency. He todi an active pait in the pro- 
■eedingi of thia pariiament. He opposed 
the impeachment of Stake for puUitning a 
pamphtet entitled 'The Long Parliament 
isvived.' On 12 Bept. be moved ' that the 
Idng aliould be deeired to many, and that it 
■honld be to a protestank' After an interest- 
ing debate the motion dropped. Bampfield 
did not ait in the parliament of the following 
yeer. He was uncle (^ Sir Cepleetone Bamp- 

[Maiuuog's Id ves af tha Speakers irf th* HonM 
of Commons, p. 33S ; Parmuneotsry History, 
UL IT.; Whitaloeke'* Hemoriali. iv. 311, 312, 
Oxford sd.] W. H. 


WABRE {d. 1791)riandscape painter, 1 

the onlv woa of John Bamj^lde, H.P. 10 

J)eT<mahire. He iwided at Hectercombe u 

Somersetshire, and exhibited hia works at 
the Society of Arista, the I^ea Society of 
Artists, and the Boyal Academy between 
the years 1768 and 1788. Two views of 
Stour Head in Wiltahire have been engraved 
aftor him by Vivares, and 'The Storm' by 
Bemaiech. He etched a few landscapes, 
and made some hnmonma designs for the 
illostration of Christopher Ajistey's ' Election 
Ball,' which were etched by William Hasael, 
and published at Bath in 1776 in an ' Bp.- 

stola Poetica Familiaris ' addressed by Anstay 
to Bampfylde. He vnw for some time colonel 
of die Somersetshire militia, and ^ed at He^ 
tercombe oa 39 Aug. 1791. 

[Bryan's IKetionaiy of Painters and Bn- 
giaTan (ad. Graves), IBSfi.] B. B. O. 

bahpftlde; john godbinoton 

(1764-1796), poet, waa second aon of Sir 
Richard Warwick Bampiyide, of Poltimore, 
Devonshire. He was bom on 27 Aug. 1764, 
educated at Cambridge, and publiuied in 
1778 'Sixteen Sonnets.' WUliam Jack- 
son, a wall-knovm musician of Exeter, told 
South^ that Bamp^Ide lived as a youth is 
a fommouaa at Chudleigh, whence he used 
to walk over to show Jackson his poetical 
oompoaitions. He went to London and fell 
into dissipation. He proposed to HissPalmer, 
niece of Sir Joshua Reynolds, afterwards 
Marchioness Thomond, to whom the sonneta 
are dedicated. His mother, Ladv BampfyldfL 
sat to Sir Joshua in April 1777; and one of 
her SMU, probably John, in January 1779. Sir 
Joshua, however, disapproved the mald^ and 
doeed his door to Bampfylde, who there- 
upon broke Sir Joshua's windows and wis 
sent to Newgate. Jackson coming to town 
soon after found that his mother had got him 
out of prison, but that he was living in the 
BtmostaqDalcM' in a disreputable house. Jack- 
son induced his family to help him, but ha 
soon had to be confined in a private mad- 
houae, whence he emerged many years later, 
only to die of cenanmption about 1706. 

Bampfylde's poems consist of the sonneta 
above mentioned, with two short poems added 
bySonthey andonebyPark. Southejr called 
them 'some of the moet original in our 
language.' They giv% at any rate, fresh 
natural descriptions. 

[Sonther'B Speeimana of later Qidiah PoeU 
(1807), iii. 484 ; Brydn^ Caonm Lit. (181S), 
vii. SOS ) I-ettar fnmi Southay in Brydsas' Anto> 
biogispby (1884), u. 3S7; Works m Park's 
Bridah Foeta (1808), voL zli.; British Poets 
(Chiswiok, 1833), Ixxiii. 183-9G; RouUedga'a 
&itiah Poets (18«3) (with Thoauon, BcatUe, 
and Wast); Balectioaa in Dyce'a Specinuna of 
Engliah SoDtiats (1833), 140-60; 1). M. Mun'a 
Traainry of English Sonneta (ISSO), pp. 391-4.1 

BAMPTON, JOHN (Jl. 1340), s theo- 
Ic^jisn of the fourteenth centu^, was bora 
at Bampton, in DeTOnshiie. He seems to 
have entered the order of the Carmelitea, 
and to have become a member of this brother- 
hood at Cambridge, where the Carmelites 
had had their own schools since about the 
^ear 1393 (Lsu]n>,aiU.i. 442). Bale,quot^ 
mg from LeUnd, stataa that he pud tpeeial 



attenUon to the works of Antotle, ud wu 
at Uat adiniUed to his dootn'i deoree m 
dirimt; ('aupromo theolctfi titnlo oimattij 
fait '). H« U Mid to have ud an aente in- 
tallset, but to hftVfl been much indinsd to 
' Bophistictl triclu.' The ttunea of two 
treatiiieB by this autbor have been piwuiBd, 
Teapectivelf entitled 'Octo qtueationea de 
ventate propositionum ' and ' Leotnrn adio- 
Uatica in TheologiL' Tbe yetx 1340 i« a»- 
BigDed as the date when he Souriilied j bat 
he must hare been alive some jeais later than 
this, if Taimei'B entry of the death of John 
de BamptoD, rector of Stavenlc^ in the 
archdeaconrj of Richmond in 1361, refer to 
the subject of this article (TmiSB quoting 
'erfffiil, comisB, Richmond'), There ia a 
tradition to be found in some topographical 
works that makes liim the first lecturer on 
Aristotle's philoaophy in Cambridge UnlTer- 
utT. But there does not seem to be any 
sufficient authority fbr this statement, whicn 
is probably onlr based upon a misinterprets^ 
tion of Leland's words with Teferenoa to 
Bampton's Aristotdian studies. 

[Bole, ii. 4S, and IHu, 449, both profsss to 

3aat« &om Lelsnd, whoas eal&logue, homiTaT, 
oea not Mem to eoDtain any Mferenee to John 
BamptoD ; Tanner's BibL Brit. ; St. Etieane'e 
Bibhoth. Carmel] T. A. A. 

BAHFTON, JOHN (d. 1761), founder of 
the Bampton lectures at Oxford, receiTed his 
education at Trinity OoUetn in that nniver- 
sity, where he graduated BjL in 1709, and 
M.A. in 1712. Havinf takenordeTs,he was, 
in 17IS, collated to the prebend of Minor 
pars altaris in the cathedral church of Salis- 
bury, which preferment he held till his 
decease in 1751. In pursuance of his will, 
eight divinity lectnru suiuions are preached 
on as many Sunday mornings in term between 
the eommenoement of the last month in Lent 
term, and the third week in Act term, i 
one of the following subjects : To odd 
and entablish the christian faith, and to 
tute all heretics and schismatics; upon the 
dirine authority of the holy scriptures ; upon 
the authority of the writings of the primitive 
fathen, as to the faith and practice of the 
primitive church ; upon the divinity of our 
Lord and Saviour Jesus Ohrist; upon the 
divinity of the Holy Ohoat ; upon the articles 
of the christian faith as comprehended in 
the Apostles' and Nicene creeds. The lec- 
turer, who must be at least a H.A. of Oxford 
or CWbridse, is chosen annual^ by the 
heads of colleges on the fourth TuesdAy in 
Easter term. No one can be chosen a second 

when the first lecturer was chosen. 

% Banastre 

[L* H«T«'s FastJ Bed. An^ieasM, sd. Haidy, 
ii. ««7. S7a i nw OxfbidTeD-jMr Book (1S83), 
IH-ieOt CsLof OxfariQiwlaats*(186l),S0-l 
T. C. 

and 1 176, and in this capacity WIS uipointed, 
in company with the constable of Oxford, to 
fix the tallages and assixea on the king's d»- 
meanesintbatconnty. He seems likewise to 
b»ye been empowered to settle the p 
the crown and the common plea 

he pleas of 
)f thesamo 
shire. In 1176, though Al&rd Banastre was 
still sheriff, he does not appear to have acted 
inthecapadt^ofjusUoeerrant. Poasiblytha 
king was agam dissatisfied with the conduct 
of his sherilfa in judging their own counties; 
for, while in 1174 the number of countiea 
judged bv their own sheiifis bears a very 
considerable proportion to the whole, in i 
1176 the whole kingdom seems to have been 
practically placed under the power of six 
justices acting in couples. It was probably 
as a result of the great rebellion of 1174 that 
Henry II inaugurated this change; but in 
any case the name of Alard Banastre doee 
not, apparently, occur again as one of the 
kings justices. The sheriff of Oxfordshire 
for the four years preceding 1174 was one, 
Adam Banastre, who, as Foes suggests, may 
have been the father of Alard Banastre. 

[Foos's Judges, i.; Had<a'i History o( Ex* 
cheqaai, i. 1S4, ISS; Fuller's Worthies.] 

T. A A. 

8TER, GILBERT (d. 1487), poet and 
musician, probably belonged to toe York- 
shire family of that name (cf. Harleian MS. 
805, ff. 29-30, and Col. Patait RalU, 1467- 
1477, p. 257), and may have been educated 
at Bardnev Abbey, Lincolnshire, where in 
later life oe held a corrody. He devoted 
himself to the study of literature and music, 
and his earliest work was probably composed 
aboutl450. ThisisextantmBritishMusenm 
Addit. MS, 12526, the greater part of which 
consists of a transcript in Banastre's band 
of Chaucer's ' Legend of Iisdies,' or ' Le^nd 
of Good Women;' appended to it in the 
same hand is an English poem in seven-line 
Btanias on ' Sismonda,' which in the last 
stanza Banastre says be wrote at the request 
of one John Rayner. This poem appears to 
be the earliest known English version of the 
legend of ' Sismonda and Guiscard' fcf. art. 
WilTEB, Wiujiji] i in the ' Cat. of Addi- 
tional MSS.' the manuscript is erroneously 
ascribed to the end of the fourteenth century ; 
a nineteenth-cent urv transcript is in Brit,. 
Mas. Addie. MS. 20^76. Another work by 



tenung c 

BuaMn ma hia ' Blinwlo of St, ThonuH,' 
writtoniit 1467, uid ezUnt at Corpua Chiuti 
College, Cambridge {MS. Q. Tui.) ; and ka 
iaalaoanid to hate written a dmna,ormon 
prabaU]' a •art of interinde, in 1483. 

Banaotra waa a mnaician aa well aa an 
anthor, and in 1483 ho appean aa ' maater 
of the aong,' otherwiae of Uie ctildrsn of tho 
chapel royal. On 32 Aug. 1486 Robert Colat 
ma gmd«d two oonodiea, one within the 
inanaat«rr of St. Benet, the other within the 
Bonaataij <tf St. Oiwald (d Bardnejr, CO. Lin- 
Mln, 'ig>on the aturender of the aame bj 
OQbart Booaatre' (Campiill, MaUriaU for 
a* But. qf tM* £^ ofHmay VII, RoUa 
8«r.LM7). OnISept.l487ThomMWorla7, 
' one of the gentlemen of the king's cliapel, 
waa gnnted ' the eorrody or nuatentation in 
the monastery of Bardney,' vacant bj the 
death of QUbert Banaatre' {ib. ii. 180). He 
waa (occeeded as maater of the childrea 
of the chapel royal by William NewarlL 
Banaatie left behind him several musical 
' ' IS in a somewhat stiff and unpre- 
unterpoint. Some three- voiced 
_ u PW US. 1236 at Magdalene 
College, Cambridge; there are others in a 
manoscript at Eton Oolite, and one sons 
for three voices is in the ' Fayrfax Bake" 
now in the British Museum {Addit. MS. 
646fi,f.g0(). Leland<O3UM;t<inM,ed.l770, 
iL 620) mentions a William Banaatre who 
waa author of ' Prophetia quedam,' and 
Tanner says ' one or other' of these waa 
oxtantwnonEthe manuscripta of one Henry 
■Worslav, while Brian Twyne \a. v.] citea 
aome ' VaticinaliB Carmin*^ by this William 
aa belonging to one H. Muon. Tanner 
anggesta that this William may have been 
the Qilbert Banaatre who, he sayi, was pre- 
bendary and canon of Wells in 1368 {BibUo- 
iieaa Brit. Bibem. p. 73). 

rCampball'a Materials for thi HisC of Hrary 
Vn, Bidia 8«r. ; Cat. of Addit. MS3. in Brit. 
Koamn Ubmy; Ritaoo'a BibL Ando-Poetiiia, 

844 ; Waitoa'i Hist, of English Poetry, ed. 
aBKtt,m. 81. ISS,188; Qiove'i Diet. iii. 370; 
Davay'aHiat of English Music, pasum.] 

BAHBURT, fint Euu. of. [See 
Kholltb, Williah, 1547-1632.] 

friar. [See Burxnt, Jorv.] 

portrait painter. [Se< 

KDSR (1694^-1739), 

BAHOK, PETER viir dbk (1649-1697), 
line engraver. [See Vajtdbrbikx.] 

BANOKS, JOHN (170»-17S1), miscel- 
Itneoni writer, [See BiNU.j 

s Bancroft 

(1744-1831), politician, naturalilt, and 
diemist, was bom at Weatfield, Hassacho- 
aetta, on 9 Jan. 1744. He roceived only a 
rodimentarv education, and after a few years' 
apprenticeship to aome trade, he ran aw^ to 
sea. In 1763 he settled in Oniana, where 
he eonunenced to practiae medicine. He 
then removed to England, where in 1769 he 
published ' An Essay on the Natural His- 
tory of [Dutch] Guiana . . . with an account 
of the Keligion, Mannera, and Customs of 
several Tribea of its Indian Inhabitants' 
(London, 8vo). Bancroft had by this time 
become a freethinker, and in 1770 he pub- 
lished s novel, ' Charles Wentworth,' of 
which the motive is said to have been as 
attack on the Christian religion (there is no 
copy in the British Museum Library). 

Meanwhile, in 1769, Bancroft publiabed, 
in answer to William Knox (1782-1810) 
[q.T.l and George Grenville, hia ' Remarks 
on the Review of the Controversy between 
Great Britain and her Coloniea' (London, 
8vo). Possibly it was this work that 
brought him the aequaintanoe of Ben- 
jamin Franklin and Joseph Priestley, who 
secured him employment on the ' Mfonthlj 
Review.' He was elected fellow of tho 
Royal Society on 20 May 1778, being then 
described as M.B. ; he afterwards became 
M.D., though of what univeteiCy is not 
known ^Thokbok, Soyal Soe, App. p. liv). 
When the breach with the American eolo- 
nies became complete, Bancroft seems to 
have acted as a spy in London for Franklin, 
who removed to Passy. In 1777 he waa 
suapected of complicity in the attempt to 
bum Portsmouth dockyard, but he escaped 
to France (cf. Fhaiixub, Memoin, 1861, 
i. 316). There he proceeded to turn king's 
evidence, and forwarded to the British 

Svemment information communicated to 
m hj Silas Deane, one of the American 

After the close of the war Bancroft be- 
came principally concerned in dyeing and 
calico printing, m which he made important 
discoveries. In 1786 an act of parliament 
secured him special rights of importing and 
using a certain kind of oak bark in calico- 
printing, but in 1799 a hill which had passed 
the House of Commans, for extending his 
rights for seven years, failed to pass theLords, 
in consequence of the opposition of many 
northern calico-printers. Bancroft waa bit- 
terly disappointed, aa he considered be had 
exerciaed his rights liberally ; and in less 
thao twelve months the urk in question 
rose to three tiiaee the ^ice at which Ban- 
croft had iDvariablysupplied it,and at whic^ 

i,y Google 



tpy the proposed bill, he would hare been 
bound to HUPPI7 it for seven yean more. la 
iTMbepabluhed ■Experimeutsl ReMHichei 
concerning the Philooophj of Permuient 
Colotm.' The first volume ins remodelled 
knd tk second added in 1813. The work con- 
tains a valuable aonont and discussion of 
the theory of colours and the methods of 
fixing them. 

Bancroft died at Harnte on 8 Sept. 1821 
{OerU.Maff. 1821, ilSfv). He was married, 
ud Edward Nathaniel Bancroft [q.v.] was 
hi* son. 

[Bueroft's Vorki in Brit. Mm. Libi. ; Bic^. 
Diet, of Living Anthon, lilt; Priettlej'i 
VforU, six. 288, LaCters, ed. Bntt, il. SS, SS, 
ee.] O. T. B. 

NIEL, M.D. (1772-1M2), phjsicUn son td 
Edward Bancroft [q. y.\ was born iaXaadou 
and received his echoolW ujider Dr. Charles 
Bumey and Dr. Pao. He was entered at 
St. John's "iillnii. Cambridge, and graduated 
BJ£. ia 1794. In 1796 he waa appointed a 
vlmilcian to the forces. He served in the 
Windward Islands, m Portugal, in the Medi- 
terranean, and with Abercrombj's expedi- 
tion to EijTpt in 1801. On his return to 
England he [^oceeded M.D. in 1801, and 
be^n to practise as a phj'aician in London, 
retaining half-pay rnnl: m the army. He 
Joined Uie CtdWe of Physicians in 1806, 
Aecame a fellow m 1606, was appointed to 
give the Qul«tonian lectures the same year, 
and was made a censor in 1808, at the com- 
paratively early age of thirty-six, doubtless 
for the reason that he had endeavoured to 
ia the monopoly of the college some service 
by p|amphlet«enng agaiuat the growing pre- 
tenaiona of army surgeons. In 1806 he was 
tppointed a physician to St. George's Hos- 
"ital, but in 1811 he gave up practice in 
idon, owing to ill-health, and resumed 
his full-j>ay rank as physician to the forces, 
proceeding to Jamaica. He remained in that 
eolonv for the rest of his life (thirty-one 
years), his ultimate rank being that of deputy 
inspectoi^general of army hoepitaU. Ue 
died at Kingston on 18 Sept. 1842} amural 
tablet to bu memo^ was placed in the 
cathedral church of Kingston ' by the phy- 
■1 clans and surgeons of Jamaica ' (Mcnz'b 
Soil qf the ColUge of Phpiudant, vol. iii.). 

Bancroft's earliest writings were two po- 
lemical pamphlets — ' A Letter to the Com- 
missioners ol MilitaiT Enquiry, containing 
Animadversions on the Fifth Report,' Lon- 
don, 1808, and ' Exposure of Misrepresenta- 
tions by Dr. UcQngor and Dr. Jackson to 
the Commissioners of Military Enquiry,* 


London, 1808 — oa entain proposed ohanra 
in the army medical department in which na 
contended tat the then existing artificial 
distinctions between phymcian to the force* 
and regimental snrgeon, and for the preoe- 
dence of the former. His opponents m ths 
controversy were two army medical officen 
holding Scotch degrees, Br, James McGrigor 
(aA«rwards created Ijaronet, and director- 
general of the army medind department) 
and Dr. Robert Jackson. HcGrigor chaijpw 
Banotift with want of accuracy, whC <tf 
candour, and partiality. Jackson latMes him 
of being ' preenrnptuoua in his profesaional 
rank, trnicn he eonceivM to be superior to 
actual knowledge.' Apeiiual of the writings 
on both aides mH serve to show that theee 
criticisms ^rere justified. Bancroft's best 
titb to be remembered in medicine is hii 
* Essay on the Disease called Yellow Fever, 
with Obeervations concerning Febrile Oon* 
tagion, lyphns Fever, Dysentery, and th« 
PUgne, TOfftly delivered as the Qulstoniaa 
Leetnres Defore the College of Physicians in 
the years 180S and 1807,' London, 1811, 
with a ' Sequel ' to the same, London, 1817. 
'Never,' says Muicbison {Omtinued Rven 
<lf Great Mritam, lat ed. 1863, p. HI), • haa 
any work efiected a greater revolution in 
professional opinion in this country.' Tbn 
spontaneous, autochtbonous, or d« novo origin 
01 tjie contagia of pestilential diseasee waa 
then the generally accepted one, although 
the doctrine now current of the continnoua 
reproduction of a virus existing ab ctUrM 
had been stat«d in the most precise terms, 
among others, by Ef^rdes, a Prussian pfay» 
■cian, for the plaffue as early as 17S0. Ban* 
croft's undoabted skill in dialectic made the 
ab mtemo doctrine popular. 'There is n» 
chance, nor even poesioility, of thus gen»< 
rating anything so wonderM and so immu- 
table aa contagion, which, resembling aninmli 
and vegetables in the facultv of propa^tinff 
itself, must, like them, have been the onginu 
work of our common Creator. ... As well 
might we revive the for-ever eiploded do<y 
trine of equivocal generation ' {Euay, p. 109). 
Tliis ingeniously misleading use of an ana- 
logy is a fair specimen of his method. All 
tluough his book he shows great clevemeaa 
in explaining away an entire let of facts 
vouched for bv competent observers, such aa 
Fringle, Donald Monro, and Blane, who lived 
in the great days of ^phus, and were inti- 
mately acquainted witn its natural history. 
The value of his argumentation for yellow 
fever may be judged of &om the fact that 
there runs through it a side-contention for 
the identity of tnat disease with malarial 
fevera. In &ming into that ikdical nroi. 



Biunift only fidlowad most (rf iiu coatsm- 
VOTties; hut it wa pocalUriy nafbrtaiuta 
tar him that ha shonld hkn niwd k lofty 
■trnctun of dialectic upon that fotudatioB 
of Mud. Th« sinrie uct, iriiieh ha might 
OMilj haTa TeriiSea in the Wett Indiea, that 
mftUrion* oonditiona are iireleTBiit for Tellow 
ierer, ahould have kcrpt him right. Huichi- 
Km'i ttatement that ' the doctrine of Batt- 
noft wu tmuTalh adopted, without inveP' 
tigation ta the Acta wpoa which it wa« 
finmded,' may be accepted aa true, without 
piniidice to the &cta that may hxr» been 
collected in enpport of the lame dogma bj 
■nbasquMit writera. The p^nlarity of tu 
ab teUrm doctrine of febrile contagiim, which 
ia Mid to hare fbllowad Bancroft's 'Esny 
on Yellow Fever,' ftc., ia rather an trideoce 
of hia akill in word-fence than of hi* acian- 
tiflcfaimeaa of mind. 
[Unnk'i Boll, iii. II ; BuKnrffa wttki.] 
0. a 

latoi, waa a dinue of the diurch of Idigland, 
who, for the edi:fying of hia dear brethren in 
Chiiat and for the pravantion of tiieir dacep- 
tion by crafty connirance, tranalated into the 
En^liali Umga^ the ' Besponaio Pnedicatonun 
Bauleeaaium in defenHOB^ Mete Admiot* 
atiationia Ccenn Dominicn.' The pre&ce ia 
dedicated to the right worahipfuf and hia 
* nngnler good Maator SilTeater Butlra,' and 
wiahea him ' proBperitye and healthe boeth of 
bodyeand aoula. The book ia written in the 
conunonheated&shionofliistime. Itspeaki 
of the clergy of the Roman Catholic church 
aa ' derillea apes,' ' beastly biahopa of Bat^- 
lon,' and ' maekinge masse priestas.' The 
precise title of Bancroft's book ia ' The An- 
ewere that the Freachera of the Gospel at 
Basile made lor the defence of the trae ad- 
ministration and use of the holy Supper of 
OUT Lord. Agaynst the abhominatiS of the 
Popyshe Hasee. Translated out of Latin into 
Englyahe by Qeorge Bancnfte, 1648.' 

[TaiuiBT'a KbL Brit.-Hibem. p. 73; Watt^ 
KbL Biit. ; Brit. Ho*. CaUL] 3. M. 

BANCBOFT, JOHN, D.D. (1674-1610), 
the seventh bishop «f Oxford, was bom in 
1674 at Aathall, a viUaga between Borford 
and Witney, in Oxfotdjliiia. He was the 
•on of ChriBtophei, brother to Archbishop 
BanCToft; andhiapiit«Tnal gnndmotherwss 
« niaoe of Hugh Corwan, second bishop of 
Oxford \a. t.]. He was educated at West- 
minstei School, whera, under the maaterthip 
of Edwaid Grant, 'the most noted>Latinist 

"~ Kianofhis ' "" 

s eleiAed t 


hip at Christ Ghnroli, Oxford, in tbrt yi 
nd took tha dwree of Bjk. in 16B6, and of 
--\ FoTiO 

Mme time after ^radn- 
D have preached m and 

ating he is known t< 

about Oxford, and before quitting Christ 
CSiurch to hare acted aa tutor to Robert 
Burton, ' Democritus Junior,' Uie author of 
the 'Anatomy of Melancholy.' In 1601 he 
waa presented by his ancle, at that time 
biihopof London, to the rectoirof FinoUsy, 
Hiddlesez, vacant by the deaUi of Richaid 
Latawar, who. vritila in attendance on Loid 
Monn^ciy aa hia chaplain, waa killed in s 
battle with Irish rebeb at Oeriingfcvd. This 
living Bancroft retained till 1606. 

On the occasion of a visit (rf King Jamea I 
to Chiiat Church in 1606, he compoeedaLatin 
poem, which waa printed wiui othen in 
• Uuaa HoBpitalia.' In 1607 ha toe* hia 
B.D. dwree. In 1608 he was presented It^ 
hia nncQe, who had become uchbishop M 
Oanterbuiy^ to the living of Orpingttm in 
Kent, snd m the following yeai to that nf 
Biddeaiden, in the same county, both of 
which, being sinecures, he continued to hold 
later UlCDmincndam with his bishopric. The 
recto^ of Woodchurch, Kent, he TCMgned 
in 16&. In 1609 ha obtained the dMree of 
B.D., and was presented wiUi the preundW 
Uuleahniy, ^ FWU^ «> tin Tangnation 
of Dr. SsmnelHaranett. OnSHsrchl60»-10 
he was elected master of Univeru^ College, 
Oxford. For a period of twenty-three years 
he discharged the duties of this office with 
considerable administrative ability, settling 
on a firm basis the rights of the college to 
its varions landed estates. He had an apti- 
tude for efisirs of this natiir^ aa was seen 
later in the part he took in giving efiect t» 
Land's benefactions to St. John's College^ 
and mora strikingly in hie erection of Ua 
palace at OuddeBOon, loon after his elevation 
to the episcopal bendi. It might be said of 
him wiUi truth that he waa made rather fbr 
a good steward than for a great eodeuastio. 
In 16S9, however, he was chosen one of tha 
delegate to revise the univerai^ statntea. 
Though sharing the high t^nrch opinions 
of his uncle, the primate, who died in 1610^ 
and of his friend Laud, Bancroft took no 
prominent part in the controverues between 
bigh churcnmeii and puritans that raged 
in Oxford while he was presiding over Uiu- 
versity College. Bancroft's masterehip of 
UniveraitT Colli^ terminated on &3 Aug. 
1682, on Die appointment to the bishopric of 
Oxford. Severe language is used conc«niing 
his conduct aa a bishop, in the charge drawn 
up by PiynneaminstlAud, who, when bishop 
of ixindon, had procured Bancroft's eleva- 
tion to the epis^ipal bench} 'and what a 


Bancroft t< 

otHTuptimpiMchitig popish preUtfl Bancroft 
-nrnSfU known to ftUtnemuTenitr of Oxford' 
{PBnrm, CSmfariuru'a Dotm, foL 1646, p. 
llie work which ha* mo«t eontributod to 

oiiginallf ', 

succesMn at Ouddeadon, •even mile* aonth- 
wut of Oxford. GlonoeMer Hall, which had 
' rinallf been aaaigned aa a leaidenoe for 
aopa of thia diocese, wa« rwumed bv the 
crown in Uie time <^ Edward VI, and the 
holdera of the aee had smce been oompelled 
to lodge in piivate honaea. Bancroft, finding 
•oon after hia eleration that the vicarage M 
Onddesdon waa Tscant and in bis gift, col- 
lated himself to it, and with the aaaistauce 
of Laud procured it« annexation in perpetuity 
to the biahmirie by royal warrant. He at the 
game time obtained a grant of timber from the 
i^al forest of EQiotorer, alio byLaud'a influ- 
ence, and an aimnal rent«harge of 1001. ae- 
enred on the fineita of Sbotorer and Stowood. 
He built the new palace, a cammodiana 
rather than s^oidia manaim, which waa 
completed wiUi ita chapol in 168fi, at the 
then large ccat of 8,600i. In 1086 Bancroft 
aaaiated at the reception of Ohariaa I at 
Oxford, and gare ajpnnd entertainment in 
his new palace. When Oxford became the 
fortified reeidence of Obarlea 1 dutingtbeciril 
war. Colonel William Legg, the goTemor 
<tf Oxfordj fearing the paliwe mi^t be uaed 
a* a gsmaon for the parliamentary foicee, 
had it burned down, uiougli with aa much 
reaaon and more piety, obaerves Dr. Heylin 
{I4/i of Laud, ia.l9(y), he might have gar- 
riaoned it for the king, and preaerved the 
home. The ruina remained untouched till 
Bi^op Fell rebuilt the palace and chapel 
*t hia own coat in 1679. Wood thua de- 
aoribee Bancroft's end: 'In 1640, whan 
the Long parliament began and proceeded 
with great vigour againat the bishops, he 
was posaeased so much with fear (having 
always been an enemy to the pnritan), that, 
with little or no sickness, he surrendered 
up hii last breath in hia lodgings at West- 
mmster, Hia body was conveyed to Oud- 
deadon, and there buried in the church, 
Feb. 12, 1640-41.' Hia arms are in a 
window in Uuiverai^ College, and his per- 
trut, with a draft of the new Cuddeeaon 
palace in the right hand, hanRs in the col- 
lege hall. There is also a halT-length por- 
trait of tiim in hia episcopal robes in '* 
hall of Christ Church. 

[Welch's List of WsatminBter BdtDlan, 68-4 ; 
Wood'i Athea» Onni. (Blin), ii. 893-6 ; Fallsr'i 
Cbanh Bist.iii, SSB; Lyaons'sEiiTiroDa (Fioeb- 
W) i Kippi^'i Biogr. Brit. i. 469-70.] B. " 


BANCROFT, JOHN (d. 1686^ drama- 
it, wa* by pn>fMaion«anigeou. Heiaaaid 
to have had a good ^acticA amrag the 'young 
wits and frequentera of the theatres,' and to 
hava been thus led to write fbt the stage. 
One tragedy, the materiala for whichua diawa 
from ^utHeh, ia nnqoectionedly hia. Thk 
it ' Sertorina,'a dull and ignorant w<^, whieh 
licensed fin performance 10 March 1678- 
79, and waa printed in 4ta in 1679. It waa 
played in the same year at the Theatre Royal, 
subaeqnentlyknownasDmiTLane. 'Henry 
" I Saoond, King of England, with the Death 
Roaam(md,'i«odncedin I683at theThea- 
. Boyal, ia alao aaaigned to Bancroft, though 
the dedication ia signed 'Will. Houutfint, 
1693,' a date aubeequmtto Mountfort's mur- 
der. ' Hen^ the Second,' a decidedly supa- 
rior production to the ptevioua, waa printed 
inl^. It ia included m 'Six Flayawrittw 
by Hr. Uountfort in two volumea,' London, 
1730. Coxetar, by whom the materiala wen 
collected for the compilation known as ' Cib- 
ber'a I^vea of the Poeta,' auribntea to Ban- 
croft ■ King Edward the Third with the Fall 
of Mortimer, EaA of Btarch,' publiahed in 4to 
1681, and ajao included in tne coUeotton of 
Hountfoit. He atatea that Bancroft made a 
present to Monntbrt, both of the reputation 
and profits of the piece. In the bookaallar a 
preface to Mountfort's collected worka it 
IS said of tlieae two dramaa that ' tho' not 
wholly composed by him, it is praaum'd ha 
had, at Isaat, a share in fitting tnem for the 
stage.' Bancroft was buried in 8t. Faol'a 
Church, Oovent Qaiden. 
[Biographiea Dramatica ; Qaoaat's Aaxmnt ot 
- "ngiisli Stags ; Qilw Jaoob's Poetical Ra- 
: I^ebaiDa's Aceoiut of the Bnglish Dca- 
- ^ J.K. 

1610), archbishop of Canterbniy, scm (^ John 
Bancirift, gentleman, and Mair, hia wife* 
was bom at Famworth, Lancashire, in Sep- 
tember 1644. His mother, whose maiden 
name wsa Curwen, was niece of Hugh Our- 
wan, bishop ofOiford[q.T.], and young Ban- 
croft, afterbeing well grounded in ' grammar ' 
(i.e. the Latin language) at the excellent 
■diool in his native town, waa sent at hia 
great-uncle's expeuae, and at a somewhat 
more advanced age than ordinary, to Ohiist'a 
College, C&mbrit^. Here he waa elected a 
scholar, and proceeded B.A. in 1666-7. He 
was further aided at this time by the arch- 
bishop in the proaecution of hia studiea, by 
the grant of the prebend of Malhidert in 
St. Patrick's Church in Dublin, with the 
royal license to be absent for aix months. 
He was required, lunre.ver, to leave Chriat'a 


Bancroft i< 

College^ which lay under the euniioion of 
'Normiam' ^i.e. puritan principlee), and to 
join the eociet; of Jmos College (Hbius, 
Atrnu Bedivivui, p. S47). Here, •ccording 
to tha histonen of the college (SHHBJfAHHi 
Sut. Call. Jeut Gmt. (oriKin&l manueenpt), 
p. 04), Klthovgh aminendj sacceaeful u » 
eollege tntor, and himaelf MUBting nuuy of 
his pupUi to fellowehipe, he wm not elected 
k fulow ; ind the bet that he was unong 
the opponcnta of the Eluabjtham staitut«fl 
gtven to the uniTeraitT in 1G72 (Lues, LetUr» 
tmd Dotamtmtt, p. 36d) would lead us to 
eonelode tlut be hod at this time a certain 
^mpathj with the puritan party. As, how* 
•rer, he was ahortl; aftorwaMa appointed one 
of the ehapluna of Richard Cox, bishop ot 
E]y,aataunchsupport«roftlie above statutes, 
it may be infeireo that thia sympathy waa not 
of long duntion. 

On 24 March lfi76-6 he waa collated 1^ 
the bishop to the rectory of Terersham, near 
Cambridge, and before the end of the rear 
was appointed one of the twelve pieacnera 
whom, on their acceptance of the Thirty-nine 
Articlea, the nniTersity was empowered to 
license. Tbia appointment ted to important 
after-reenlte ; for in 15BS, on the holding of 
the assises at Bury in Suffolk, the sheriff, 
being unable to hear of a duly qualified 
preacher in the county, sent to Cunbridge to 
obtain the services of one for the occasion, 
snd BancrcA was selected. While inspect- 
ing the chniches of that ancient town, he 
discovered attached to the queen's arms 
. aoapended over one of the altars a libellona 
piece of writing, in which Elisabeth was 
Gompaied to JeiebeL The discovery would 
appear to have stimulated the indgea to 
Mveril^; fiw tiey aantenced to aeath two 
Brownuts who were brought before them, 
while Bancroft gained eiedit for his vigilance 
in the detection (rf sedition. 

In 1684 we find bim acting on behalf of 
Adam LoftDB, arehbishop of Dublin (t( 
whom, as a contemporary at Cambridge, hi 
was probably well Imown), as a supporter of 
a remonstrance diawn up and forwarded to 
Bnrghley against the scheme of Sir John 
Perrirt, whweby it was proposed to epjiro- 
mate the site and endowment of St. Patrick's 
Church, Dublin, for the purpoee of founding 
a new coDege. Hw scheme, as subaeouontly 
modified, reimlted in the foundation of Trinity 
CollegB, Dut without involnng the sacrifice 
«f the ecclesiaatioal foundation. 

He was admitted D.D. of Cambridge in 
April 1S86. A treatise which ha compiled 
about Uiis time, entitled ' IKsoonrse upon the 
Bill and Book exhibited in Parliament by 
the FnribuH for t, fortttw Reformation of 

g Bancroft 

the Church Principles,' fte. (an unprinted 
manuscript in the State Paper OfEioe),showB 
that he luid now definitely taken up the rSla 
for which he was afterwards distinguiahed, 
as a vigorous and uncompromising opponent 
of pnntaniam. Dignities and emoluments 
followed in quick succession. In April 166{» 
he was maae treasurer of St. Paul's ; Sir 
Christ<Hiber Hatton presented him to the roo- 
toryof Cottin^iam in Northamptonshire ; he 
was one of the commission appointed to visit 
tiie dioceee of £lv, which baa become vacant 
through the death of hia former patron, Cca ; 
and uiortlv after he was included in th« 
much-dreaded Ecclesiastical Conuoission. Un 
19 July ISSThewasinataUedacanonofWeet- 
minster. An able but intolerant sermon which 
be preached at Paul's Cross on 9 Feb. 1588-9 
gave rise to much indignant feeling. He 
not only attacked the puntans with consider- 
ableacerbity.deaignatmg them as'the Martin- 
ists' (with r^rence to t£e Marprelate tracts), 
but he also asserted, with a plamneaa hitherto 
unheard in the Bnglish church, the claima itf 
episcopal^ to be regarded as of divine origin. 
Episcopacy and heresy, he muntained, wer« 
essentially opposed the one to the othn. In 
insisting on this view he contrived to cast * 
slur upon the principles of presbyterianiam, 
which was warmly lesentel in Scotland, 
where steps were even taken with the design 
of forwarding a remonstrance on the subject 
to Elizabeth. It does not appear, however, 
that any petition waa actually presented. 
In the following Februaiy Bancroft was pre- 
sented to the prebend of Bromesbury in the 
church of St. Paul. 

It was mainly through his Tigilance that 
the printers of the Marprelate tracts were 
detected, and when they were brought befbre 
the Star Chamber he inatructed the queen's 
counsel He is also said to have originated 
the idea of replying to the toaete in a like 
satirical vein, aa was done by Thomaa Nash 
and others (see Pappe vith a Satchtt, A* 
Almond for a Parrot, ftc.) with considerable 
success. In 1592 he waa appointed chaplain 
to the primate, Whitgift, and in this capacity 
took a prominent part against Barrow, Cart- 
wnght, and others of the puritan leaders. In 
1593 he published his two most notable pro- 
ductions — ' A Survey of the pretended Holy 
—an of the ■ DiscipUoa,' 
ik of the puritans) and 
Daungerona Poaitiona and Proceeding*, pub- 
lished and practised within tbe Hand of Bry- 
taine under pretence of lUformation' (r^ 
printed in 1640), ftc. 

Bancroft now stood high in tbe royal 
&VOUT, and Aylmer, bishop of London, hav- 
ing bt«onie eminently unpopular with the 




pnritui puty in his diocese, Eliubeth wm 
oienroui that lie should ha tmufeiTed to the 
•M of WoroMter, tad tbKt Bancroft should 
niecaed to hi« episcopate. ' Bishc^ Elmer,* 
Mije Baher, ' ofiered uirioe in two y«&n to 
hkve lengned his bisbopnck with him upon 
eertkia oonditions, which he [Bancioft] n- 
fnaed. Bishop Elmer signify'dthe Aa,j before 
Us death how sorry he was that he had not 
written to her majeetie, and commended his 
lut suit unto herhi|(lme8S, hare made 
him his neceMor ' (Baker MS8. ixxvi. 336). 
Richard Fletcher, who was appointed Ajl- 
bmt's bucobsbot, held the office only about 
aightaen months, and on 21 April 1S97 Ban^ 
eitrft WM deeted, and bis eothronementtook 
plan on 6 June. Shortly after he expended 
no less tlian a tbonsand poimds on the repair 
of hii London houae. 

He was now, if we msT credit Fuller 
(^WortUet, Lancash. p. 112), virtually pri* 
mate; for Whiteift's increasing infiimitiea 
read««d him unaUe to diichaige the active 
duties of his office, and his former chaplain 
had gained his mtira confidence. Bancroft 
alto upears a* often now taking part in po- 
litiou afbiiB. We find him, along with Dr. 
Christopher PerkinB and Dr. lUchard Swale, 
fbnniiig one of a diplomatic miuion to Emb- 
den in the ^ear 1600 for the pnrpose of 
there confemng with amheBsadoFB from Den- 
marii respecting certain matters in di«pnt« 
between the two nations ; but the airange- 
;a having miscarried, the mission proved 

tempted to induce the citiieoa of London to 
rise in hia &TOUr, Bancroft collected a body 
of pikemen, who repulsed the earl's followen 
atLndgate. He was present at the death-bed 
of Elisabeth, and joined in proclaiming King 
Jamea; and when the new monarch set out 
m bis progress from Scotland to London, he 
waa met near Boyston by the bishop, attended 
1^ an imposing retinae. On 22 July follow- 
ing, Jamea and his consort honoured the 
Usbop with a Tisit at his palace at Fnlham. 
His conduct from this time was marited 
1^ a severity and arbitrarineas which his 

rlogista hare vainly endeavoured to defend. 
the Hampton Court eonfei«nce (January 
1601) bia hostility to the puritan party was 
evinced in a manner which drew down upon 
him the royal rebuke; and when Rcmwlds, 
on the tOBoai day's eaatmaice, brou^^t for- 
ward a well-snstained ^opoaal (or a new 
translation of the Bible, Bancroft petulantly 
observed that ' if every man's bnmonr aboula 
lie followed, there would be no end of trana- 
Uting ' (Baslow, Sum of U« Co>^tria»e», &■);., 
Fksnix, i 167). Of bia whole ooadnot, 

throughout the proeeedinga Hr. 8. R. Gar- 
dinar writ«s i 'It is Bcarcdy aoaaible to find 
elsewhere stronger proofs at Bancrofts defi- 
ciencies in temper and character' (GiABi- 
VXB, Hutoty rf EngloBJ, i. 166). 

Archbiahtm whitffA having died ehortlv 
after the counrence^aocroft waa appointed 
topreude in theoonvooatioaof thedenyof 
the province of Oanterfaurv, which asaemMed 
on 30 Haich 1601. B^ his direetiooa a book 
of canons was compiled which embodied 
some of the moat ooercive provisions of the 
vaiions articles, injonetiona, and synodieal 
acta pat forth in the reigns of Edward VI 
and Eliaabeth. Thia collection was presented 
to convocation, and, after having paaaed both 
houses, received the royal wprovaL It wat 
however, BtreDuonalyoppoaea and dttunincea 
in the aeauon of parliament in the following 
Hav, and a bill was passed by the Commons 
declaring that no canon or constitution eecle- 


or hurt any person in his life, libertv, Unda, 
or goods, unless first confirmed by tlie legis- 
lature. This haa alwavs been regarded aa a 
serious blow to the authority of convocation^ 
as the highest legal authorities have since 

rsd that these canons ue not binding on 
laity (Lathbitbt's Convoeatitm, p. ^1). 
Baucreft, as the reputed originator of the 
above collection, was exposed to all the odium 
attaching Co the measure, and the result waa 
to place him in a position of bitter ant agoniam 
to the civil courts for the rest of his life. Itwas 
one of his favonrite ideas that, by fomenting 
the controversies that were then being waged 
between the secular catholic clergy and the 
Jesuits, he should succeed in winning many 
of the former over to the English church ; 
and with this view he seems to have given a 
kind of sanetion to the study of the litoi** 
ture which illustrated the points of difierenoa 
between the two partiee in the Roman com- 
munion. He had already been glanced at on 
this account in the Hampton Court eonf^ 
renoe (Bablow, Sum <^ Me Ot^fartiue, pp. 
168-9), and an act waa now brought into 
the House of Commona, and an infbrmatioa 
laid against him by William Jraee,theprinter, 
declaring ' certain practices of the Bishop <m 
London, the publisning trutoioua and popiidi 
books,' to be treason ^State JPapen, Item, 
"tiese proceedings led U 
Nov. followii '■■"-'■ 

Bancroft waa elected archbishop o 

buiT. In tliis exalted position he was still 
unable to fo^jet former difierence^ and hav- 
ing bean a]^inted eommiasitmer m the fbl- 
lowmg Mav in coi\}Uiict)OB with Uie lord 
adminl and othti^ to hold n ar ' " " ~ " 

3y Google 



Qoart in tlie dIoMM of WineliMtor, lie &TAiled 
bimaelf of the infonn&tion which he wm thna 
ankbled to collect to laj before the privy 
eouDcil, in the following Michaelmaa, the 
&mmis Artidas of Abuses (' Articnli Oleri "^j 
in which he piot«el«d, in the n&me of the col- 
lective clergif of the reatm^ aninst the ' prohi- 
bitioBs' wtueh the civil jndgM were m the 

Ctice of issuing egunat the proceedings of 
eccletiMtical oourti. This ioterferenoe 
WH repudiiled bv the m^rity of the clergy, 
who Duintained tut those courts were unen- 
ftble for their proceedings to the crown alone. 
Bancroft, although aupjwrted Inr King James, 
found hinself ctMifanted hj Coke and the 
net of llie ooiomon-Uw judges, and the whole 
diftintB (see OaBimnB, j&^wy qf England, 
ii. 85-43) afibrds a ibihing illustration of 
die rtniggla which the interpreters of the 
law, in accord with the national feeluig, now 
lonnd it oeoeMary to carry on sgajnat the 
combined influence of the crown and the 
church. It is difficult indeed to doubt the 
justice of Hallam'a obserratton when he as- 
•erta {pon$t. Sut c. Ti.) that Bancroft, while 
siagBi^ing the royal auth<mty over the eccla- 
■iasUcu oonits, was really aiming at render- 
tngthoae courts independent of the law. 

The scheme of a new translatbn of the 
Bible, which he had opposed when it had 
emanated &om a puritan quarter, found in 
him a read^ supporter when enforced by the 
loyal sanction ; and it is due to Bancroft to 
leo^niise the fhet that much of the success 
whidi ultimately attended that great under- 
taldng wa« due to his lealoos co-operation. 

In the excess of indignation directed 
•gainst the Roman catholics in consequence 
td the disooveiy of the Gunpowder plot, Ban- 
eroft ■ecma to have striven to mitigate the 
Tiolenee of popular feeling; but that he 
liMuwIf inclined to eatholieum ia an allega- 
tion which rests on no adequate evidence. 
In January 1606-6 he brought forward a 
motion in the House of Lords for the ap- 

Kintment of a committee to inqnire into the 
m in force for the preservation of religion, 
the protection of the Icing, and the mainte- 
nance of the commonwaalth ; and his efforts 
resulted in the enactment of two additional 
MWtures directed against popish recusants. 
With refsrence to the puritan party his 
«(mduet was fitr leas defensible. Soon aftrar 
Us eonflnaation aa arehlnshop he devised the 
* ax antmo ' form of subscription, as a further 
tast of unrMerved complianoa i» the part of 
the cImbt with the doctrines of the payer- 
bode Suay who had befoM been read;^ to 
TiaU a general eonibmu^ to Whilgift's 
time artiislM oonld not be brought to suIk 
■criba to a daclantios that thay aid so wiUi 

full approval and n 
croft extended to them no indulgence, and 
some two or three hondred were consequently 
dispossessed of their benefices and driven 
&om the church. Of the feelings which he 
thus evoked against himself we have a notable 
example in ti& taogiuf^ addressed to him by 
the eminent Sooteh divuu^ Andrew MalviU«^ 
when cited before the pnvy council in No- 
vembw 1606. On that occasion Helville, to 
quote the description given by his own 
nephew, ' burdeinit him with ail thais eor- 
ruptiounee and vanities, and superstitiounes, 
vnth pfo&natiouue of the Sabbath day, 
sile&eeing, impTissonninK. and beiring doun 
of the true and hithfuU preicherea of the 
Word of God, of setting and holding upa tk 
antichriatiane hierarchie and popische cere* 
moniee ; and taking him by the quhyt aleive* 
of his rochet, and schalking them^ in his 
manner, frielie and ronndlie, caUit them 
" Bomishe ra^is, and a ]^airt of the Beastea 
mark I " ' (Dtary qfJamei MeltilU ( Wodrow 
8oc), p. 679). 

In 1608 Bancroft was elected chancellor of 
the univeraity of Oifjrd, and was iucoraov 
rated BJ). of the university. In the parlla- 
ment of 1610 he brought forward an ^bonta 
scheme (which he failed to carry) for better- 
ing the condition of the clergy, whereby, 
among other provisions, all pmdial tithek 
were to be made payable in kind, while those 
collBCted in cities and large towns were to 
be estimated according to the rents of houses. 

Another project, attributed to him by 
Wilson, was that of founding a ctdlega of 
controversial divinity at Chelsea, wherein 
' the ablest scholaia and most pregnant wits 
in matters of oontroveraies were to be asso- 
ciated under a provost,' for the express pniv 
pose of ' answering all popish books ... or 
the errois of those that struck at hierarchy ' 
{Om^eUHiitory i^ Bngliatd, ii.BSS). Ac- 
cording, however, to another writer (sea 
Biog. Brit.), the author of the scheme was 
Buteliffe, dean of Ezater, who was afterwards 
first provost of the college. But that Ban- 
croft warmly sympathised with the deeign is 
shown by the fsct that when, at his death, 
he bequeathed his valuable library to his 
Bueceaaors in the see of Canterbury, it was 
on the condition that they should lueceiaively 
give security for the due preeervaticm of the 

Oollege, then in proceea of erection. The 
ooU^ proved a failure ; and vrhen, at the 
puritan revolution, tha episcopal office was 
abolished, Bancroft's library was, by order of 
parliamtnt, transfened to the onivenity of 
Cambridge, which he had hJmaslf deaignalad 


Bancroft n 

in the event of ChelBea Coll^ not bein^ 
conpletad vithio a certain time after hia 
deeeue. At the Reatontion Archbishop 
~ Sheldon ueerted his clum, uid the coUaction 
went hack to Lambeth. 

Bancroft died (after protract 
of the atone S Not. 1610, and 
in Lambeth Church. There are portraits of 
him at the palace, at Ihirham Castle, at 
Oambridfe UniTeraitj Librar;, at Trinity 
Hall, a^ Jeeiu Golleffe. 

An examination of hi* Tarioiu writings 
oan hardly fail to conTinee the reader that 
his literal^ abilities and his attainmenta 
irere eouaidershle, when eatinuted by the 
Btandaid of hk age. Although his dispo* 
eiUoB was arbitrary and his temper irri- 
table, he conld at times, like his predecessor 
Whitgiftg show much conciliatory pnidenoe 
and tact in winning over opponents. HaUam 
eoroparea him with Becket, and in one 
respect there wo undoubtedly a strong re- 
■emblance, vii. in the lenieoCT with wUch 
both were disposed to reganl the general 
misdemeanours and offences of the orthodox 
clergy. In dealing with such cases in the 
Conrt of High Oammisgion, Bancroft was as 
mendfnl as he was infiexible in the suppres- 
sioD of schism. Hacket, in his 'Lite of 
Archbishop Williams' (p. 97) — a writer not 
likely imdnly to eulogise the pTelat« whom 
laud took for his mcMel — says : ' He would 
chide stoutly, but censure mildly. He con- 
sidond that he sat there rather as a father 
Uianajndge. "Bt pro peccato magno paul- 
Itdnm tupplieii satis ease patri." He knew 
that a pastoral staff was made to reduce a 
wandenng sheep, not to knock it down.' 
Oamden speaks of him as a prelate of ■ singolar 
eonrage and prudeue* in ill matters relating 
to tho discipline and establishment of the 
ehnrch ' (Brttamtia, ed. Oibson, i. 342). But 
" ■■ '• '- 'o t)e noted, was one of Ban- 

1 "irn'n — j lif is i« tn uumki, ttbb uuq vl uou- 

eroA'e personal biend8,and the archbishop is 
entitled to the credit of haviiw induced the 
historian to bequeath some of Ms manuscript 
collections to Lambeth library (Camdem 
Vita, by T. Smith, prefixed to 'Camdeni 
Epistole,* 1691, p. It), Clarendon, in an 
ofr«uoted comparison of hia Tirtues as s 
disciplinarian with the latitudinarian ten- 
dencies of his aucceasor Qeorge Abbot [q. v.], 
saTS that he ' disposed the cle^y to a 
•olid course of study than they had 
accustomed to; and if he had lived, would 
qoickly have extinguished all that Are b 
England which had been kindled at OeneTa ; 
or 3 he had been succeeded by Bishop An- 
drews, Bishop OTerall, or any man who 
understood and loTed the chuidi' (Siitoiy 
^Ot SdMbM, i. 126). 


[EarleiaD Boe. v. 270 ; Biographia Britannica, 
L Eippis; Oalindar of State Faprai (Dom.), 
leign of James I, 1003-10, ed. Qrean ; Baam* 
utner Fspers, voL i. No. 2S ; Hackat'a Lif* 
f Aichbiihop Williama ; Heyiin'a Aarios Bad>« 

Tiva* ; CardweU's Doeoroaotarr Annals, voL iL ; 

Joyce's SaCTed Synodal Fnller'a Chordi History ; 

Cooper'* Athen* Caotabrigieiisss, iil 28 <qd- 

Archbiahops of C^aterbniy should ba avoidad, 
as full of aeriona inaecaiacieB and miarspnaantA^ 
tiona.] ;.^. U. 

BAirCEOPT, THOMAS ifi. 1683-1658), 
poet, was a native of Swaiston, a villaae on 
the Trent, in Derbyshire. This wb leant 
from one of his own epigrams, and finm Sir 
Aston Cokaine's commendatory lines. He 
tlso an epigram in celebration of hia 
IT and mouier, 'buried in Swaiston 
Church.' He was a contemporary of Jaraea 
Shirley at Catherine Ball, Cambridge, to 
whom he addresses an epigram. He seems 
to have lived for some time in his native. 
Derbyshire. Sir Aston Cokaine, as a neigh~ 
hour and fellow-poet, appear* to have visited 
and been visited oy him. He had amiarently 
only ft younger son's fortune, hia elder bro- 
ther, ' ijecesaed in 1689,'haTing broken up tba 
little fkmily-pToperty. 

Bancroft s nrst'publicataon was ' The Qlo^ 
ton's Feauer,' 16S3. This is a narrative, in 
verse of Beven-Une stanzas, of the parable of 
the Rich Man and Latarus. Thomaa Coraer, 
in his ' Collectanea Anglo-Foetica ' (pt. i.), 
writes of it: 'There ia a amoothnes* and 
grace, as well as foroe and propiiety, in Ban- 
croft's poetical lansna^ vrWh have not, aa 
we think, been siuBmently uotioed.' Ban- 
croft's next and better-known book was hia 
■Two Bookes of Epigrammea and Emtaphs, 
Dedicated to two top-branches of Gentry : 
Sir Charles Shirley, Baronet, and William 
Davenport, Esquire, 1639.' The interest of 
these epigrams lies in the numberof the men 
of letters whom they celebrate, including 
Sidney, Shakespeare, Ben Jonson, Donne, 
Overbury, John Ford, Quarles, Randolph; 
Shirley, the Beaumont*, ftc. In 1649 Ban- 
croft contributed to Brome's * Lachrymte 
Muaarum, or the Tesres of the Hums,' a poem 
' To the never-dyinff memory of the noble 
Lord Hastings.' lanally he published, in 
1668, 'The Heroical iJover, or Antheon 
and Fidelta' — a work smooth lathei than 
strong, in spite of Cokaine's laudation. In 
1668 Bancroft wa* living in retirement at 
Bradley, near Ashbourne, Derbyshire. It is 

Srobable that he oontinued there until hi( 
eath, of the date of which we have no 
knowledge. Incidental notices inform us that 




Suteraft WM 'snudl of sUiture,' and tbut 
he yraa talked of u ' the smtU poet,' pftrtlj' 
in refimtiae to hia littleneH, and partly in 
■lliuion to hiR'amall* poems and spignunf. 

[Conar's OoUeetanM (Chethsin Sodatj) ; Hud- 
ta^i MS. Chonu Vatsm ; Ljtciib'i DerliTthirs ; 
Glntton'a FesTor, nptinud Utt th* Boxbucgha 
Club 1 BBDcroft'i Works.] A. B. O. 

BANCBOFT, THOMAS (1766-1811), 
vicar of Bolton, the aon of Thomas Baucrofi, 
a thnBd-makar, wm boni in Beanwate, 
HaiiehMt«r, in 1766. At the age of aiz he 
vae Bdmitt«d into the Hanchaatei grammar 
•chool, wheiB^ couiae of time, he became 
a teacher. He held a echbol ezMbition 
from 1778 to 1761, and graduated BA. at 
BraMnose Collega, Oxford, 10 Oct. 1781. 
In 1780 he obtained t-he Craren scholar- 
ahip; in the same jeax he aulsted in cor- 
recting the edition of Homer published by 
the Cluendon Pre**, and fiirther helped Dr. 
Falconer in correcting an edition of Strabo. 
Being disappointed of a fellowship at Ox- 
ford, he reUimed to Manchester grammar 
school as staietant master, and remained 
then until he was appointed bead- 

" ~ r vnn sc 

t century,' writes 
Th. Ormerod, ' the school attained a consider 
able degree of classical celebrity nitder the 
direction of the late Rer. Thomas Bancroft, 
afterwards near of BoltOD'le-Mooi* in Lan- 
cashire. Flays were occasionally performed 
1^ the boys, and a collection of Cfrmk, Latin, 
and English exercises, partly written by the 
•cbolara and jpartly Vr Mi. Bancroft, was 
published at Chester (1788)iinder the title 
<ft" Proluuimee Poeticse"' {Sitt. i^CheMn, 
i. 866iK>te). VhileattluatchODlliemaiTied 
Misi Bennett, of WiUaston HaU,agunst the 
wishes oS ha bdier, a wine mmsbant in 
Chester. Hei&tharpniTsntad an attempted 
elopnnent b; nuninglus sword throu^Ban- 
ennt's le^a feat for which he had topay Ban- 
ooft I,000i. eompeoMtioii. A mamagesoon 
who was never reeoncOed to his daughter. 
He bequeathed, however, 1,0001. each to her 
two daughters. In 1793 Bancroft was pio- 
■ented by Bishop Cleaver to the living of 
Bolton-ls-Moore, then worth about 260t a 
year. In 1798 Bancroft was made chiplun 
to the Bolton volonteers bv royal warrant, 
and four years previously ne had been i 
iMinted domestic chaplain to Viscount Cast 
Stewart. He was made one of the four 
'king's preachers' allowed to the county of 
LancssterhvDr.Majendie, bishop of Chester. 
in 1807. He continued vicar of Bolton nntil 
his aeatb on 6 Feb. 1611. There is a Ublet 
to his memory in the parish church. 

He published various sermons, the 'Fro- 
lusiones' already mentioned, and wrote 

three dissertations (Oxford, 1836). Two 
tracts, ' The Credibility of Christianity vin- 
dicated,' Manchester, 1681, and 'The English- 
man armed against the Infidel Spirit of 
the Times,' Stock]>ort, 1633, were privately 
printed for bis son-in-law, J. Bradshaw Isbei- 
wood. There remain several of bis manu- 
scrints in possession of the family of Major 
Fell, of Bolton, who married one of Ban- 
croft's granddaughters. 

iBtntth's Begistci of MaDchratar Qiammar 
ooUChethamSoc],!. lOi-^. iii, 840; Orme- 
rod'i Hisiorj of Cbssliire, i. 288, note ; Bolton 
Weekly Jonnial, IS and 23 April ISSl.] 


1661), librarian of the Bodleian Library, was 
bom at Oxford 21 Feb. 1T81, and was de- 
scended from an Italian family long settled 
in Jersey. Having been educated at lUading, 
Winchester, and New College, and having 
served as chaplain to Sir James Saumsxei in 
the Baltic, he was in 1610 sppointed nnder- 
librarian of the Bodleian, the librarian, Mr. 
Price, bein^ his godfather, and he succeeded 
the latter id 1618. He appears to have 
entered upon his duties with eaergj, it beins 
recorded m Mscra/s ' Annals m the Bo£ 
leian' that the sum expended in purchasea 
immediately i 
catalogue ol 

to seventeen. At the visit of the allied 
sovereigns to Oxford in 1814 Bandinel was 
proctor for the uDiversity, and in this capa- 
city pained ^reat crodit. "Iha moet important 
administrative occuirences during his long 
tenure of office as Bodley's librarian were the 
publication of the catalogue in 1843 and suc- 
ceeding yem, and the a£)ption of the means 
bv which it has ever since been kept in 
alphabetical order, The acquisitions during 
the period were exceedingly numerous and 
important, including the (^nonici M9S., the 
Oppenheim Hebrew library, the Sutherland 
collBCtion of prints, and the stores of various 
Unds accumulated by Bruce, Horace Wilstm, 
Count MortaTB,Malone, and Douce, the latter 
acquiritionbeingsaidtobedue tolhepemmal 
courtesy shown to the irritable antiquary by 
BandineL In 1860 Bandinel, worn out Oj 
age and infirmity, regigned his post. He r»- 
tired OB his full salary, and was appointed an 
honorary curator, but onl^ survived his Teais>> 
nation a few months, dyin^ on 6 Feb. 1861. 
He is highly euk^ised wt 'seal, energy, 
courtesy, and discretion,' as well as for his 
suipriringly accurate acquaintance with the 
collectjons committed to ois obaxg^ 

that the sum expended in purchssea 
sdiatelv rose from 26U to 72Gi., and the 
ogue of annual additions from two pagea 




In addition to lii« offlcial publicfttiona in 
RonnectJon witb the Bodleivt Libnur, fian- 
dinal edited Du^le's < Monsaticon (1817, 
and again in lS4i3),andClarendon's'Hi«toi7' 
of the Rebellion' (I8S6). 

BANDHTEL, DAVID (d. 1644-6), deui 
of Jeraev, tlia date of whoM birth is nn- 
Mrtwji, but who is auppoted to have been of 
Italian deacent, waa appointed to the office 
of dean of Jeraej on its revival bj James I, 
abont 1623. Paulet had been dean of the 
Channel Ii<lands in Queen Hary'sreign, when, 
if Hejlin ia to be believed, the persecution of 
piotsstanta was carried to even greater ex- 
cenea in this dependency than elsewhere. He 
ratvned the office till 1666, after which time, 
in consequence of the iramiCTation of per- 
Mcated French pmteatants, the islands were 
inundated lyj a flood of Calvinism, and threw 
off alnuwt entirely their allegiance to the 
church of England. The diaconal office conse- 
quent]; lapsM, the diaciplineof Calvin being 
observed under the direction of a consistory 
— a colloque and a synod. Jamee I, on the 
naderstanding that this arrangement had 
been formally sanctioned by Elisabeth, eon- 
flrmed it in the first year of his reign. He 
soon, however, repented of his decision, and 
appointed a governor, Sir John Peyton, who 
was expressly charged with the duty of urging 
a return to unity with the English church. 
Peyton's measures, provoking a storm of anger 
ana initation, resulted in an appeal to Qie 
court of England, whereupon Archbishop 
Abbot eomiunded the isUndert, in the 
name of the king, to adc^ again the English 
litnnr and make use of the Book of Com- 
mon Pnyer in all their churches. This act 
of antliority met ^th resistance which, how* 
ever,afl»r a time relaxed,and by the twenty- 
first ^ear of James's reign the opinions of 
tiie inhabitants had become ao far modified 
that an address, drawn up by Baudinel in 
conjunction with othen of the clergy, was 
presented to the king, b«^(ging him to restore 
the office of dean and the use of the lituq^. 
Upon thi« Bandinel waa appointed dean, 
with instmotions to draw up, for sub- 
mission to the king, a body of canons agree- 
able to the diaci[uine of the church of 
Ei^And, which were referred to a commis- 
eion conaistiiuj' of Archbishop Abbot, the 
lord^keeper Williaina, and Andrewes, bishop 

of Wincnerter. These were, after modifica- 
tion, confirmed, and the islands were placed 
under the jumdiction of the dean, subject 
to the Bishop of 'Winchester, in whose diocese 
they were declared to be..^ 

The chief personal interest of Bandinel'a 
life lies in the part he took in the dissen- 
sions which convulsed the island at the time 
of the great civil troubles in England, hia 
quarrel with the Carterets, and consequent 
tragical end. Sir Philip de Carteret waa 
appointed lieutenant-governor of the island 
1^ Charles I, and, although a lealous pro- 
t«stant, was always an ardent loyalist. He 
is said to have been a man of ability and in- 
tegrity, but of austere manners, and he was 
accused by his enemies of abaorbing all the 
more lucrative offices in the island. He ia 
charged with having attempted to deprive 
the dean of .part of his tithes, an aggression 
that roused m Bandinel an animosity to the 
lieutenant-governor, which wis fostered by 
subsequent events, and which endured 
throughout his life. At the time of the civil 
war in England, Bandinel was considered 
the head of the parliamentaryparty in Jersey, 
whose cause he is said to have espoused 
chiefi^ out of opposition to the leading 
loyalist Carteret. When the parties were 
in conflict in the island, Bandinel kept back 
all supplies from the fortresses of Elizabeth 
Castle and Hont On^eil, where the lieu- 
tenantrgovemoT and his wife were shut up. 
The rigours and mortifications which ne 
had to endure brought Carteret to his grare, 
and in his last illness Bandinel evinced the 
bitterness of his enmity by refusing all 
spiritual and material comforts to the dyinf 
man, keeping even his wife from him untU 
the last moment. On Carteret's death, in 
1343, his son. Sir Oeoi^ Carteret, was ap- 
pointed by the king lieatenant-govemor in 
his stead, and he gratified at the same time 
his resentment for the treatment of hie 
father, and his loyal leal, by arresting Ban? 
dinel and his son on a chtuve of treason. 
They were confined first in EUiabeth Castle 
and afterwards in Mont Orgueil, where, after 
'' twelve months' imprisonment. 

other material as they could procure, on the 
night of 10 Feb. 1644-5 they forced their 
way through the grating of their cell, and 
proceeded to lower themselves down the side 
of their prison. The son sacceeded in reach- 
ing the end of the line, which, however, 
being too short, he fell and was seriously 
injured ; but the dean, by his weight break- 
ing the line, fell from a great height on to 
the rocks below, where he was discovered in- 
sensible by a sentinel on the followingmom- 
ing, and only lingered to the next day, when 
he died. His son escaped for a time, but was 
recaptured and died in prison. Dmd Ban- 
dinel vra$ also one of, the rectors of tike islan^ 

3y Google 



[AiMtcd's Chanml laUnda : Cmwm; Hook'i 
Aichbi^Mpi, T^ T. i f aUt'i BiBtoi70f Jeney.] 

BASDIiraL, JAMEa (1783-1849), 
viiter on iUvery, born in 1783, was ion ot 
Jkmee Bandinel, a doctor of St. Petoi'g, 
Oxftml. Bulkeley Bondinal [q. y.J, keeper 
of the BodleUn Library, «u hiB elder 
brother. James Bandinel waa a clerk in 
the Foraigfn Office for some fifty years, from 
which he retired akortly before hia death on 
ft full penaion. In 1842 he published ' Some 
Account of the Trade in SUvea ftota Africa. 
as connected with Europe tnd America, 
and dedicated the book to Lord Aberdeen, 
the then foreign secretary. It deacribea, 
first, 'the introduction of the African slave 
trade into Europe, and prMrrew of it among 
European notions;' Becondly, ' the abandon- 
ment of the alave trade by England ; ' and 
thirdly, 'the eBbrta of the British go cero- 
ment with other BOvemments to e&ct the 
entire extinction of the trade.' 

Jamea Bandinel died on 29 July 1849 at 
bis residence in Berkeley Square, at the age 
of 66. 

BASIM, JOHN (17BB-1842), norsliit, 
dramatist, and poet, wa« bom in the city of 
Kilkenny, S April 1798. His father pui^ 
■ned the double occupation of farmer and 
tnuler in oU the necessaries of a sportsman's 
•nd angler's outfit. Prospering in business, 
he waa enabled to give his sons, Michael [q. v.] 
«nd John, a go<KL education. The latter, 
who was the younger son, was sent, after 
aoma preparatory training, to Kilkenny col- 
lesa. There he evinced aptitude for poeti- 
cu compoeition, as well as talent for draw- 
ing and painting. Deairing to adopt the 
profession of artist, Banim was sent lu the 
year 1613 to Bublin, where he became a 
** 'd the drawing academy of the Roval 
I Society. ^ was constant in his 
once at the academy, and ' he had the 
honour to receive the highest priie in the 
sift of the com.inittee for Us drawings placed 
in the first exhibition held after nis year 
of entrance ' (Mitshai'b Ii^fe). On leaving 
Dublin he became a teacher of drawing in 
Kilkenny, and while pursuing hia profe^ 
Hon was the subject of a romantic but un- 
fortoaate love^ttachment. It had a very 

Kthetic end in the death of the lady, and 
intm embalmed his grief in the wst of 
liis asrly poenu. The mental agony and 

DubUn t 

bodily pain he endured at this time obtained 
so fiirn a hold upon his system that he was 
never afterwords able to shake off their evil 
efiecte. Driven almost to despair, he now 
spent several years unhuppilv and unprofit- 
oUy. It become obvious to his friemb that 
a complete change was essential, and accord- 
ingly in ISSOBfuiim removed to Dublin. It 
was laivelv owing to his efforts that the 
artists M the Irish capital obtained o chorter 
of incorporation and o government grant, 
and to mark their sense of hia services they 
presented Bonim with an address and a con- 
siderable sum of money. Giving up the 
artistic profession, and devoting himself to 
literature, he wrote, in addition to much 
enbemeral work, a lengthy poem entitled 
'The Celt's Paradise,'which was very fevou^ 
ably regarded by Lalor Shell and Sir Walter 
Scott. This was followed by an unsuceeas- 
fol dramatic composition, 'Tuigeaius;' but 
a second tragedy which he ehortlv produced, 
' Damon and Pythias,' deservedly brought 
him high reputation. Although ' Damon 
and Pvthias is frequently stated to have 
been tbe joint work of Banim and Sheil, 
Banim's biographer affirms that the onl; 
assistance rendered by Bbeil to the young 
dramatist consLst«d of'^an introduction ona 
recommendation to a manager. ' Damon 
and Pythias ' was performed at Covent 
Garden theatre 28 May 18^1, with Macreadj 
and Charles Eemble in the principal ports. 
The success of this tragedy enabled Banim 
to pay his debts. 

In the year 1S2S John and Hichoel Banim 
conceived the idea of writing a series of 
novels which should do for the Irish what 
Scott had done for the Scotch in his ' Waver- 
ley Novels.' Hitherto such Irish characters 
as hadappearedin fiction hod been ridiculous 
and grotesque. There waa a wealth of Irish 
feeling, sentiment, and patriotism which had 
heretofore been untouched and unrepre- 
sented, but which the Banim brothers now 
began to utilise ond explore. John had now 
married, and, having settled in London, was 
working as a periodical wnt«r, ond contribut- 
ing largely to the ' Literary Register.' He 
wrote another tragedy, 'The Prodi gal,' which 
waa accepted at Drury Lone (with ports cost 
for Keanond Young), but never performed. 
Towards the close of 1823, Bonim woe 
enabled to be of service to onother Irishman 
of genius, Gerald Griffin, who had gone up 
to London for the purpose of pursuing a 
literary career, A aeries of essays by Banim, 
under the title of ' Revelations of tne Dead- 
Alive," met with great favour in 1824. The 
year ibllowing oppeored the first series of 
the ' O'Hora Tales,' which ot once enioyed 

3y Google 


tales, ' The Fetchee,' wm the -work of John 
Bsnim, m vi* tieo ' John Doe ' or ' The Peep 
o' Dv/,' with the exception of the opening 
ohspter. He next wrote the ' Bovne Water, 
• political novel, which dealt with the period 
ef William of Orange and Jamea II. It 
contained graphic deacriptiona of the siege 
of limerick and other epieodes of the time. 
'Th i» work waaeevetely handled by the critics, 
and we have good authority for stating that 
the author regretted having written It, and his 
brother prevented its being reprinted in the 
new edition of the " (yHara Talea," published 
by Messra. Dufff k Son in 1666' (Rbid'b 
iMuitt of Irith Literature). As sometimes 
happens, however, that which the critics 
abused found fervent admirers amongst the 
readiu; public; and after the appearance of 
the ' Bojne Water,' Colbum offered a very 
large anm fbr the next tale of the O'Hara 

Accepting the offer, John Banim produced 
' ^16 NowLuu,' a powerful though painful 
Btorj. Success was insured to the toiler, but 
he was harasasd by bodily affliction. Never- 
thdess be toiled on, simering 'wringing, 
agonising, burning pain,' Though not eight- 
•nd-twenty, be bad the appearanes of forty, 
and he tottered as he walVed. At this time 
be found an excellent Mend in John Sterling. 
In 1826 Banim wrote his tragedy of < Syll^' 
foondedupon theplay of M..H)uy. Domestic 
iQiUBS and anxiety now preyed upon him, but 
he laboured oa, producing 'The Disowiied' 
and other stories for the second series of ' The 
O'Hara Tales.' In 1829 he went abroad, but 
continued to write for periodicals and for the 
stage. But he was straitened in circumstances 
as well as ill in body. Writing from Boulrani 
to hi* brother Michael, 26 Feb. 1632, he t£at 
ravealed his position: 'Yea, it is but toe 
true, I am embarrassed, more so than I evei 
expected to be. By what means ? By eX' 
travaganeeP Myreceiptsandmylivingsinct 
I left England would contradict that. By 
castle-building f No — " the visitation of 
GwL" ' In another letter be stated that of 
twenty volnmee he had written, and of treble 
thor quantity of matter in periodicals, no 
three pages bad been penned free from bodily 
torture. An appeal was made on his behalf 
in the 'Timm,' 'Spectator,' and other journals, 
with liberal reaults, including contrQiutions 
from Earl Orey and Sir Robert Peel. But 
Banim's aufierings increased ; he lost the use 
of bis lower limbs, and was pronounced in- 
curable by his pbyucians. He wss brought 
from France to London by easy stances, and 
finally he was conveyed home to Kilkenny. 
TluB was in the year 1836, and in passing 


through Dublin Banim was greeted with 
popular enthuniaam. He experienced much 
kindness from the lord-lieutenant, the Earl of 
Mulgrave, and a performance in his htmour 
and for his benefit waa given at the Dublin 
Theatre Koyal. On arriving at Kilkenny hi* 
fellow-towuamen showed tneir appreciation 
of his genius by presenting him with an ad- 
dress and a handaome Bum of money. Banim, 
who was of a warmly sensitive and grateful 
nature, was deeply moved by this tribute from 
his native city. 
In 1836 Banim wss granted a pension of 
lOl. from the civil list, chiefly omng to the 
exertions of the Earl of Carhsle, who mor« 
than once called upon the novelist in his little 
cottage of Windgap, iust outside the town 
of KOkenny. A further pension of 401. was 
granted on account of Banim's daughter, 
whom be was otherwise unable to educate. 
Theae pensions greatly lessened bia anxiety, 
and when the evening of his life closed in 
upon him prematurely it found him patient 
and resigned. When 'Father Connell,'tbe 
last jointwork of the brothers, had been pro- 
duced, it became apparent that John Banim 
was gradually sinuing, and at length, on 
1 3 Aug. 1842, he expired at the age (H fortf 

John Banim has been called ' the Soott of 
Ireland.' He delineated the national cha- 
racter in a striking manner, and his pictures 
of the Irish peasantry will doubtless Uvefor 
many generations. ' Fault haa been found 
with him on the ground that there is through- 
out the whole of his writings a sort of over» 
■trained excitement, a wilfiH dwelling upon 
turbulent and uncbastened passions.' Of the 
strong writing thus complained of, which waa 
characteristic of both brothers, an example 
LB furnished in the story of ' The Croppy,' 
ralatii^ to the rising in 1798. The autiiOTi 
'wrote m this novel : ' We paint from the 
people of a land amongst whom, for the last 
aix hundred years, national provocatioiu have 
never ceased to keep alive the strongest and 
often the worst passions of our nature i whose 
pauses, during that long lapse of a country's 
existence, from actual eonmct in the field. 

have been but so many changes int« mental 
strife, and who to this day are held prepared, 
should the war-cry be given, to rush at each 
other's throats and enact scenes that, in the 
columns of a newspaper, would show mors 

terribly vivid than any selected by i 
former facta for the purpoaes of candid 
alight illustration.' 


lut full justice has been done to the 
tealistio powers of Banim, one English eritie 
acknowledging that he united the truth and 
circumstantiality of Crabbe with the dark and 

3y Google 

Banim i 

gloomy nowsr of Oodwia ; while in know- 
ladm 01 Irisli ehuKter, hftbitt, cuatoma, 
uvi feeling, be wu superior even to Miss 
Gdgewortk or lAdy Uorgui. Hul Banim 
VOtMHed the heutj humour of a Lover or a 
Lerer, he would have been Mved from msnj 
t^ hia litenu^ ezceMW. Ae t, deliiteator of 
life In the higher nnlu of BOtdetj, Bonim 
oonapicaonalT failed ; hia strength lay in hii 
TJ^roua ana characteriatie aketehea of the 
Irish peaaautry , and theae in their light and 
ahadtt have something of the breadth and 
the strong effects of Ilembrandt. 

A aelectiou from Banim's contributions to 
periodical literature (together with some 
aketchea bj> his brother) appeared in 1838 
under the title of ' The Btt a' Writin', and 
other Tales.' His other works are : 1. ' The 
Celt's Paradise.' % 'Turgesius.' 3. 'Damon 
and Pythias.' 4. 'Srlla.' 5. ' The ProdigaL' 
6. ' llie Moorish Wife.' 7. ' RaTolations of 
the Dead-AIire.' 8. ■ John Doe.' 9. ' The 
Fetches.' 10. ' The Boyne Water.' 11, 'The 
Disowned.' 12. 'TheSmuggler.' 13. 'Peter 
of theCsstle.' 14 < The Nowlans.' 16. 'The 
Anglo-Irish.' 16. 'The Denounced,' a work 
which included two tates, ' The Last Baron 
of Crana,' and 'The CanformiBtfl.' He also 
collaborated, as we hare seen, with hia brother 
in several of the O'Haia tales, fumished 
akatches as a basis for others, and wrote 
beaidea many eaaays, sketches, and stories of 
a slighter character. 

[Murray's life of John Banim, 1867 ; The 
O'BanTBlw, naw«ditian,188t,- Bead's Cabinet 
of Irish Litaratnre ; and the various works of 
. Banim.] G. B. S. 

BAHIM, MICHAEL (1796-1874% hro- 
therof John Banim[q.T. land co-worker with 
him in the series of novels called the ' CHora 
Tales,' was bora at EUkenny, 6 Aug. 1796. 
He was educated first in Kilkenny aiS afteiv 
wards at a well-known catholic school con- 
ducted bv Dr. Magrath. At the age of sixteen 

chose that ol 

id bvDr. Hagrath. Attheage 
IS offered the choice of a prof« 
I that of the bar. He studied assiduously 
for soma time, and looked forward hopefully 
to his future. But his prospects were over- 
cast by a serious reverse oi fortune whii^ 
befell his father. ' With a self-sacrifJce for 
which his whole life was remarkable, Michael 
Banim gave up his cherished design, and 
quietly stepped back into what he considered 
the path ta duty. He took up the tangled 
threads of business, applied hia whole fmergy 
and perseverance to the task, and at length 
had the satisfaction ot unravelling the o<un- 

Silication, and replacing his parents in com- 
ort, both material and mental' (Rbui). 
I'or himself he found happiness in studying 

T Banim 

the lives of those around him, and in tha 
enjoyment of the beautiful somerjr OT EU- 
kenny. It was in 1823 that John Banim 
broached to Michael hiaschemofta'aseriMof 
national tales. The eld« brother at one* 
fell in with the idea, and related certain cir- 
cumstaneei which were well adapted to serve 
as the foundation of one of Uiese novels. 
Urged by his brother to write the story himself, 
Michael consented to do so in such hours aa 
he could snatch from business, and the result 
was the novel entitled ' Crohoore of the Bill- 
hook,' which proved one of the most popular 
in the first series of the 'OUara lUes.' 
Many years later, in explaining the reasons 
why these talee were undertaken, and in also 
defending their bias, Michael Banim wrote : 
' When Lish character was dealt with only 
to be food for risibility in consequence of ita 
peculiar divergence from established rulea of 
judgment, the wish of the authors of tha 
"OHaraTales" wss to retain ita peculiarity 
of humour, even in adversity, while account- 
ing for ita darker phase of ret&liation for insult 
and injury. It was the object of the authors, 

□uently creating the lawlessness. iWiugh 
the medium of fiction this purpose was con- 
stantly ke^ in view.' 

MioWlBaimn travelled through the south 
of Ireland for the purpose of supplying tha 
historical and geognphical det^s for hia 
brother's novel, the ' Boyne Water; ' and in 
1826 ha visited John in London, making the 
acquaintance of many distinguished men of 
letters. When the struggle for catholic 

:ea energetically for the ca 

lublished the ' Croppy,' and the sama 
KiUienny, he had tha 
tionour of a viut from the Comte de Monta- 
lembert, who was then on a tour through 
Ireland. The comte told Banim that he had 
first read the ' CHara Tales ' in Stockholm, 
and that he could not leave Ireland without 
jonmeying from Cork to Kilkenny, specially 
to thank the writers of those tales. A pn^ 
longed illness interfered with Banim's literary 
exertions) and it was not until five yeaia 
afrer the publication of the ' Croppy ' that 
his next veuture, the ' Ohoet Hunter and his 
Pamily,' appeared. But fr«m 1834 onvraid, 
f«r a number of year8,_ stories appeared in 
rapid succession from his pen. Wlien John 
Banim was struck down by illness, his brother 
wrote and earnestly besought him to return 
to Kilkenny and share nis home. 'You 
speak a great deal too much,' he observed in 
one letter, 'about what you think yon ow* 
me. As you are my brother, never aUuda ta 

he publis 

I, Google 

Banim i 

it •mn. My creed on this subject is, tlut 
one DTother should not want while the other 
esn sapplf him.' In 1840 Hichael Bonim 
murieo, being then ■ mtn of smple meona ; 
but in leas t£aii a jear he lost almost the 
whole of his fortune through the foilura of a 
merchant. The blow fell severely upon him, 
snd s second seriaiu illnesB ensued, through 
which he brsvely struj^led. When he had 
sufficiently recovered, he wrote ' Father 
Connell,' one of the most plessing of the 
fictions written by either brother, the chief 
character being a faithful delineation of a 
worthy priest who had been known to Banim 
since childhood. As a creation, Father 
Connell has been compared by some critics, 
and not nnfavourably, with the Dr. Primrose 
of Oliver Qaldsmith. In 186S Banim'e 
'Olough Fion' appealed in the'Bublin Uni' 
versity Magazine, and about the same time, 
through the influence of the Earl of Gai>- 
lisle, the author was appointed postmaster 
of lua native dty of IGlkenny. Although 
Banim was in a very delicate state of health 
for s<mte years after receiving this appoint- 
ment, be fulfilled its duties ; but all nt«»r^ 
occupation was suspended. It was not nntil 
18M that the <Tovm of the GaMades,' his 
laat work, was published. In this story, 
which exhibited no lack of power, the author 
depicted the terrible efiects of the vice of 
intemperance. Banim's health completely 
broke down in 1673, and he waa obliged to 
resign his utuation of postmaster. Leaving 
the neighbourhood, he went with his family 
to resi& at Bootetstown, on the coast of the 
county of Dublin, The committee of the 
Royal Literary Fund made him an annual 
allowance. But there is no doubt that his 
clowng yeaiB were years of aniiety and 
hardship. He died at Booteretown on 
80 Auy. 1874. The Prime Ministw (Mr. 
Disraeli) granted his widow a pension mim 
the civil hst 

In character Hichael Banim was amiable, 
unambitious, modest, and generous to a de- 
gree. He imeelfishly thrust himself into the 
background, inorder that his younger brother 
might enjoy to the full the fame that was 
dear to him. He even refrained from claim- 
ing his hir share in the tide of popularity 
which set in upon the authors of the ' OUara 
Tales.' 'At the same time, it is a noteworthv 
£u!t that his contributions to the joint publi- 
cations, which appeared under the well- 
known nom dt plume of the " CHarsFamilyj" 
were most favourably criticised by the pubho 
journals.' While not possessing the poetic 
vein of the youngieT brother, Michael Banim 
was certainly his etjual in the power of 
-vividly depicting passion and character. He 

8 Banister 

had also an irresistible, if at time* uncouth, 
eloquence of stvle. 

As there has men much misunderstanding 
concerning the relative share of the brother* 
in the compoaition of the various talet 
written hy them, we may quote from a docu- 
ment drawn up by Micba^ Banim, in which 
he set forth his own share of Uieir jtunt 
labours. Out of a total of twenty-four 
volumes, he claimed to have written thirteen 
and a half, including the following stories: 
I. 'Ciohoore of the Billhook.' S. 'The 
Groppy.' S. 'The Ghost Hunter and his 
Family.' 4. 'The Mayor of Windgap.' 
G. 'TheBito'WritinV 6. ' Father Connell.' 
7. ' The Town of the Cascades.' 

[The Nation (Dublin); Cabinet of Irish Ltt*- 
ratare ; Freeman's Journal (Dublin) ; Mnrraj'a 
Life of John Baoim.] O. B. S. 


Elizabeth's reign. He began his professional 
life as surgeon to the forces sent noder the 
Earl of Warwick in 1563 to t^lieve Havre. 
On this expedition he and William Clowes 
[q. v.], another surgical author, began ft 
Qiendshipwhichlastedthioughoat their lives. 
Some time after his return he studied at Ox- 
ford, and received a license to practise in 
1678. For several years he practised both 
physic and surgery at Nottinriiain. L^ 
coster's expedition to the Low Countries in 
1586 gave Banister another opportunity of 
public service, and he served on board ship 
iBoyal LttUr, IE98 ; see Mirnz). After tb« 
expedition be settled in London, and in 1688 
he and Clowes are associated in the dedica- 
tion of Read's ' Translation of Arceus.' Tbey 
saw many cases together, and in 1691 T. P., 
a patient of theirs, praised both su^eons in 
a wretched English poem. Complaints were 
often made at that time to the CoUe^ of 
Physicians as to surgeons practising medicine, 
and, perhaps in consequence of some such 
difficultv. Banister in 1693 obtained a royal 
letter oi recommendation which led the col- 
lege to grant him a license (IB Feb. 1685-4) 
on the condition that in dsLngerous casM bo 
should call in one of its fellows. Banister was 
famed for hia kindness to the poor, especially to 
old soldiers, and for his extenuve pnrfeauonal 
reading. He edited Wecker, with coReo 
tions, ' A (Compendious Chymrgerie gathered 
and translat«a (especially out of Wecker/ 
12mo, London, 1586. He compiled a collee- 
tion of remedies and prescriptions, ' An Anti- 
tgieall, London, 1689, in which 


he acknowledges the generous help of his c< _ 
temporaries, Oeoige Baker [q. t.^ Baltluop, 




Clow«8, anil Ooodms. He ilto pnblubed ii 
folio ' The HisUirj of Hui, rocked from the 
Siipof the mo»t mpproved Anatomists, 9 books, 
l^don, 1578.' CalttiDetiuB, Tagaltius, uid 
Wecker, three dry and unprofitable writers 
on BBtgaiT, form tbe basis of bis -wTitingH. 
No caseB Rom his o'vnt practice are given, and 
neither domestic history nor interesting ex- 
unplea of atjle are to be found in his pedantic 
pages. He lived in Silver Street (Aniido- 
tarie), and vaa buried in the church of St. 
Olave in that street, since deatroyed, with 
the record of his death, in the ^(leat fire. 
He had a long epitaph in English vene, 
which bean sufficient resemblance to some 
poenu of Clowes to make it likely, that il 
was written for Banister's tomb hr hia old 
biend. In 1633, some time after Banister's 
death, a collected edition of his surgical 
works was published, ' The Workes of that 
Famous Chjrn^iian, Mr. John Banester,' ' 

BAinSITER, JOHN (1680-1679), mn- 
aical composer and violinist, was the son of 

one of the ' waits ' of the parish of St. Otles- 
in-the-Fields, and that profession he at first 
followed. His father was his first instructor. 

him and sent him for further education to 
France, appointing him on his return to the 
post of leader of nia own band, vacated by 
thede«thofBaltUT[q.v.] in 166S. Awar- 
ntnt of that year (AdH. JitS. 6760) informs us 
that ha waa appointed to the band at a salary 
of 4(U^pw annum, pavable quarterly. About 
1666-Y he ia tud to nave been dismiaaed by 
the king for an impertinent remark concern- 
ing the appointment of French musicians to 
the lonf Mutd. This seems to be referred 
to in Pems's Diary, dat« 20 Feb. ieeft-7, 
■Ithongh Baniater's nanw occurs in a list of 
th« King's Chapel in 1668 (J^rton M& 
2169). On 30 Dec. 1672 he inaugurated a 
•eriea of concerts at his own house, which 
are remarkable as being the first lucrative 
concerts given in London. One peculiarity 
of the Birangementa was that the audience, 
on payment of one shilling, were entitled to 
demand what music they pleaaed to be per- 
formed. These entertainments continued t« 
be given bv him, as we learn from advertise- 
menta in tne 'London Oaiette' of tbe period, 
until within a short time of his death, which 
took place on 3 Oct. 167S. He was buried 
in the cloisters of Westminster Abbey. 

His most important composition ia the 
KiBic to the tragedy of ' Circe ' l^ Dr. G. 

Davenant, which was performed at theDuke 
ofYork'BTheatreinl676. Manuscript copie* 
of thefitstact are preserved in thelibivvof 
the Royal Collie of Music, and in tbe I'lbi- 
wUliam Museum at Cambridge. Li the same 
year he wrote music to 'TheTempest'in con- 
junction with Pelham Humphrey. Several 
songs by Banister, some of them belonging 
to some elasaic tragedy of which the name 
is unknown, and written jointly with Dr. 
Blow, are in a manuscript in the Christ 
Church Libraj^, Oxford. In the collections 
of printed music which date from about 
this time his name ia of frequent occurrence. 
Besides his vocal compositions, which are 
not of very great int«re«t or importance, 
he wrote a great many short pieces for one, 
two, and tluee violins, and also for the lute. 
He was eepecially skiUed in writing upon a 
ground bass. A work of this kind ia pre- 
served in the British Museum (Add. M& 
18940) for two violin* on a ground, and 
•evenu nmilar compositions are among the 
manuscript! in the Music School at Ouord. 
There also many of hie other compositions 
are preaerved, one of which (MS. 36) is 
curious, as it appears to be an exerdse in 
bowing. The name is ^ven variously aa 
Bannister, Banester, and Banster, but most 
commoD]y,andnodoubtcorrBctly,as Banister. 
His son, John Banister the younger, waa 
a pupil of his father's, and became, like him, 
a violinist in the royal band, where he re- 
mained under Charles IL Jamea H, William 
and Mary, and Anne. When the first Italian 
operas were given in this eountrrat Drury 
Lane, he played the first violin. He died in 

[Bnmaya History of Music ; Hawkins's His- 

ry of MuaJe; Grora's Diclionm of Stosioand 

Fitiwillism Museum, Cam- 

bridge, MuBio School nnd Christ Chorata, Oxford, 
and ID the Srltieb Museam.] J. A. F. M. 

BAN I8TEB, JOHNJd. 1692 F), natural- 
ist, travelled first in the East Indies and later 
in Vii^inia, apparently as a Church of Eng- 
land missionary, as well as with the purpoM 
of investigating the natural history of those re- 
gions. His stay in Virginia extended over at 
least fourteen years, dunng which time he cor- 
responded with John Ray, Gompton fbishop 
of London), and Martin Lister. To Hajr he 
sent in 1680 a lengthy catalogue of VirginiA. 

?lants, which is published in the 'Historia 
'lantarum ' (ii 1928), where Ray styles 
him 'eruditiasimua viret consummatissimua 
botanicus.' In the previous year he had sent 
~ similar catalogue, with drawings, to Comp- 
in. He was an entomologist as well as a 
botanist, and published papers on the insect^ 
mo]lusks,and plants of Virginia intbe'PhijJcH 



In oBB of Ilia «xp»- 
ditioDB in ViigiaU Iib (ell from tlie (ooki «nd 
■m* killed (about 1692). His notM uid 
p«pen wen tent to Ooi^ton; bia dried 
pUnU wen aeqnind hj Sir Huu fflouM, 
vod in now in the Bribflh Mtuflom. 

BANISTER, RICHAItD {d. 16S6), ui 
oeulist, of Stunford in Ijncolnahire, wu 
educated under bit near kinamajt, Jcdin 
it«nister,tlie«iig«on[^.T.]. Hedevoted him- 
self etpeciallj to certain bnncliet of Borgerj, 
auch as ' the help of hearins bj the instru- 
ment, the cure ot the haie-lip and the wrj- 
neck, and diseases of the ejea.' He studied 
under variont peraona uninent in these sub- 
jects, amonir whom were 'HeniyBlackborne, 
Kobeit Hall of Wonetter, Haator Veldar of 
Fennie Stanton, Master Sniflrt of Lynn, 
and Master Barnabie of Peterborough.' To 
complete his edncation he betook himself to 
the studr of tiie beet authors, as Rhatea, 
Mesne, Fenieliue, Vesalius. ftc. 

Banister then eatabliahea himself in Stam- 
ford, and acquired conuderable npntation aa 
anoculiat. &ewasinreqoeatinaUtl>eU^ 
towns round about, and was eren sent for to 
London. He appear* to hare perfbrmed 
numerous operations for cataract, and to have 
curad twenty-four blind persons at Norwich, 
of which he obtained a outiflcate from the 
>r and aldermen. 


Diseases of the Eyes and Gj^di, with some 
profitable additions of certain pnnciptes and 
experiments, by Richard Banister, oculist and 

C'Jtioner in physic' It i* a translation 
the French of Jacques Gnillemeau, 
made by one A- H., and at its first publica- 
tion dedicated to the elder Banister. Quil- 
lemeau was a distinKuished surgeon at the 
courts of Charles IX, Henrylll, and Henry IV 
of France, and his work, 'Trait£ dee MaladLea 
de l'(Eil,' was published at Fans in 1585, and 
at Lvons in 1610, and was translated both 
into Flemish and into German. The English 
translation by A. H. baring become out of 
print, a second edi^n was pablished in 
l622 by Richard Banister, together wiA an 
'appendant part' called 'Cervisia Hedicata, 
Pu^jing Ale, with divers aphorismsand prin- 
ciplee.' The work received the name of Ba- 
niater'e Breviary of the Eyea. In this treatise 
he uamw the best oculists for the last fifty 
or sixty years, not university graduates. 
BnnisterwBB buried at St. Marv's, Stamford, 
I.incolni<hire,7 April 182«. His wife Anne 
was buried then 16 April 1624. 

o Bankes 

[Wood* Athtom (Bliss), i. HI ; Hntehinsoa'e 
Bi(]enphia Hsdira ; Baniitn's Traatin, as 
above.] B. H. 

BANISTER, Sir WILUAM (d. 1781>| 
judge, vras a student of the Middle Temple, 
and received the coif in 1706. For a few 
years bewasoneofthejudgesofSonth Wales* . 
andtbrough the friendshipof Lord Chancellor 
Hsrcourt was promoted ID June 1718 to be a 
beion of theezchequer, when he was knighted. 
On theacoession otOeorffe I,Lard Chancetlor 
Cow^, in bn propoaaTs for reforming the 
judicial stafi*. adrised the nmoval of Banister 
as being ' a man not at all qualified for the 
place' (CiMPBBLL'lXtMf^UsXord Ckait- 
txtlori, iv. S50). and on U Oct. 1714 he was 
accordingly removed (Lord RinfOHD's Se~ 
parU, 1261, 1S16), His public career and 
his private life appear to have been equally 
devoid of general interest. Turk Dean in 
Gloureetenhire ' descended to him from bis 
ancestors,' and he possessed ' a great estate 

til Jan. 1730-1, and was buried in tbeparish 
church, where there is a memorial to him 
iHiit. Reg. 1721, Chrm. Diary, p. 6). 

[Tom's JndgM of Bnglasd, and works cited 
aboTB.] O. V. B. 

BANKE, RICHARD (jt 1410), judge, 
was appointed a baron of the exchequer Dytne 
continual council in 1410, during the virtual 
interngnnm caosed by the mental and phy- 
sical decay of Henry IV, and r»-appointed 
by Henry V in 1414. He married Hargaret, 
daughter of WilUam de Kven. Hu date 
of faia deatli is alt^i^ethar ascertain, dien 
being nothing to indicate who succeeded him 
on the bench. He was interred in the priory 
of St. Bartholomew, London, on tw site 
of which St. Bartholomew's Hospitsl now 
stands, as was also bis wife. Stow, to whom 
we an indebted for the record of this fact, 
spells bis name Vancke and bis wi&'s maiden 
name Rivar. 

BANKJBS, GEORGE (1788-1B66), tho 
last of the cunitor barons of the esobequer 
— the office bnuE abolished <m his death ia 
I866~vraa the Uiird son of Henry Bankea 
[q. v.], of Kingston Hall, Donetahire, who 
npresHited Com Oaatle for nearly fifty yean, 
and <^ Fmnces, daughter of Wm. Woodley, 
governor of the Leeward Islands. He was 
a lineal descendant of Sir John Banks* 
[q. v.], chief justice of the oonunon pleaa 
tn the nign of Charies I, Bankes wM 


Bankes n 

•duntedat WettmuuterSohool uid Trinity 
Hall, Oambiidge. He Btudied l«w fint M 
Lincoln's Inn, and afterwardi at the Inner 
Temple, and ma called to the bar by tha 
latter aooiety in 1816. In the foUowiiw 
jear be enteied parliament ai bia fiitbeni 
oolleapie fbi the fiunily borough of Coffo 
'Cattle, which he repreaentod in every sno- 
oeedingpaTliamentontil 1S33. Hewaaagain 
MtnnMd for Oorfe Outle in 1836, and eat 
nntil 1832, when the &nilj bonWh waa 
united irith that of Wareham. He doea not 
appear to have achieved any remarkble pn>> 
feaaional succesa, but owing, preenmably, to 
bia fiunily infloenee, h« was appointed one 
of the baakn^t^ oomminioneiB in 1839, 
and cuiaitor baron in 1834. In 1829, nnder 
the Wellingtmi adminletration, he became 
chief aecretaiy of the boud of eontiol, and 
in the next year a junior lord of the trMaury, 
and one ctf the commissitMieia for the affiLuv 
of India. At therenenlelactioniu 1841 he 

r'n entered paruament, beinr returned by 
oountT of Dorsat, for which be continued 
to lit until his death. He supported the toiy 
party, and itrenuously opposed Sir Bofaert 
Peera commercial reform!. Bniing the short 
administration of the Earl of Derby in 1863, 
Bankes held the office<f jndgs-adTocat«-gene- 
ral, and was sworn a privy cooncillor. On 
the death of his elder brother, William John 
[q. T.], in 1856, ha succeeded to the fiunily 
ettalea. He died at his reeidoice, Old Palace 
Yard, Westminster, Isaving issue three sons 
and five daughtan by his wue Geo^ina Char- 
lotte, only child of Admiral 3ir Charles 
Nugent, O.C.B. Bankes was the author of 
' TBb Story of Oorfe Castle and of many who 
hare lived there ' (London, 1863), and of 
'BraveDameUary,'* work 01 fiction founded 
on the ' Story.' 

[lUiutnted London News, IS July 18SS; 
Borka's Diationary of tlia Laodad 6«atry ; Fom's 
Lira of tbe Jndgas of Eugland.] a. V. B, 

BAHKBS, HENUT (1767-1S34'), poll- 
tician and author, was bom in 1767, the only 
Biirviving eon of Henry Bankes, Esq., and 
the rreat-^nndsonofSirJohn Bankes [q. v.], 
chiM justice of the common pleas in the time 
of Charles L He was educated at Westmin- 
ster School and at Trinity Oollem, Cam- 
bridge, where he graduated B.A in 1778, 
and HA. in 1781. After leaviuff Cambridge 
be sat for the close borough of Corfe Castle 
from 1780 to 1826; in the latter year he 
was elected for the coonty of Dorset, and 
r»«tect«d in the general election in the same 
^ear, but was rejected after a severe contest 
In 1830. In politics he was a eonservative ; 
he gave a general support to Fitt; but pre- 


I Bankes 

served his independmoe. H« took an active 
but not a leading part in nearly every debat* 
of his time, and closely attended to all par- 
liamenta^ dutiea. m was a trustee of tlw 
British Museum, and acted as its o^^ in 
lent Bankes piiUiahed ' A (Svil and 
utional Histoiy <d Bmne, bom th* 
FoundaticHi to the Am of AngustuL* 3 vols. 
1818. Heniarriedinl784Fnuioea,daught«r 
of William Woodley, governor of the Lee- 
ward Isles, and left a large fiunily. Hia 
second sou was William Jolm Bankea [q.T.l, 
and his third Owam Bankea fq. v.1. Hia 
daughter married tiie Earl of Falmouth. 
Bankea died at Tre^hnan, Cornwall, 17 Dec 
18S4, and was buned in Wimbome Abbey. 
[Oent. Mag. iiL newMrits, p. 32S; Parlia- 
mantary DsbatM, lT80-lsa»; BTiLMaB.CBl.J 
A O-a. 

, BASKSS, Sib JOHN (1689-1644), chief 
justice of the common pleas, ' waa bom at 
Keswick, in Cumberland, of honest parentSt 
who, perceiving him judicious and industri- 
ous, beatowed good breeding on hinr in 
Gray's Inn, in hope he should attain to pre- 
ferment, wherein they were not deceived' 
(FvLLEB, WorOiet, ed. Nichols, L 387). His 
&ther waa a morchant, and hia mother, 
according to scmie authorities, Eliiabeth, 
daughter of one Haasell, but according to 
Burke's ' Landed Gentry,' Bankea'» mother 
was Jane Malton, and bis gnndmotha Ann* 
HosseL Bankeswastenttoagrammarschool 
in his own county, and thence to Queen^ 
CoUe^, Oxford, in 1604, at the age of fifteen. 
Leaving the oniversity without a d^ree hn 
entered Gray's Inn as a law student in 1607; 
was called to the bar SO Nov. 1614 ; became 
a bencher of the souety in 1639, reader ia 
1631, and treasurer the next year (DUOUL^ 
Or^. 397, 399). Meantime he had been (»• 
turned to parliament in 1628 for the boroo^ 
of Morpeth, and had taken port in the debate 
on the question ol privile^ arising out ot the 
seizure of a member's goods for tonnage by 
order of the king (19 Feb. 16281 on whica 
occasion he declared that 'the Mug's CHfr- 
mand cannot authorise any man to break the 

Erivilege ' (Part. Mitt. a. 480). He did not, 
owever, take much part in the politica of 
the day. 
In 1630 the king made him attorneys 

Sinaral to the iniant Prince Charles, then 
like of Cornwall, and on the death of At- 
torney-general Noy, Bankes succeeded to his 
place, Sept. 1634. His professional reputa^ 
tion was very high at this moment, for one 
of Lord Wentworth's correspondents men- 
tions ' how Banks, the attorney-general, hath 
been commended to his mqesty — that ba 


Bankes i: 

tauamAa Bacon in doq[ienoe,GIiAnMllor Elles- 
neie in judgment, and William Noj in law ' 
(Bisrm, (hrfe OutU, 54). His wealth ap- 
pean to have grown as rapidly aa his repu- 
tation, fbi about this time oe purchaaed the 
manor of Corfe Castle, in Dorsetshire, from 
Lady Hatton, widow of Sir Edward Coke. 
That he should hare been able to purchase 
so important a property at so comparatively 
eariy; an age as 46, sppuently out of the 
legitimate earnings of hie priTate practice, 
proves the ve^ lucrative nature of the legal 
profeMion in those days. As attomey-ffeneral 
It fell to bis lot in 1637 to cany out the arbi- 
trary prosecutions in the St-ar Chamber ag&i nst 
Prynne, Bishop Williajne, and othen {Stat» 
Trial*, iil 711, 771). In the same year he 
represented the crown in the still more im- 
portant case of John Hampden, on which oc- 
casion his aigumeot lasted for three days (ibid. 
1014). The cdiiefjusticeehip of the common 
pleas becoming vacant by the promotion of 
Bir Edward Lyttleton to be lord keeper was 

fiven to Sir John Bankes, 29 Jan. 1640-1 
RTiun, xz. 447). A month later, while 
sitting as temporary speaker of the House of 
liords during the illness of the lord 

sitting as temporary speaker of 

liords during the illness of the lord keeper, 

hia friend and former client, the Earl of 

Strafford, was brought before him to the bar 
on some matter connected with his impeach- 
ment {Qnfe Qutk, BS). Sir John remained 
at his post at Westminster for some time 
after the king bad left London, but, fearing 
that this might be considered as showing ap- 
proval of the parliamentary cause, he eoon 
followed the king to York, He was now 
admitted to the privy council, and signed 
the declaration made by the lords at York, 
in which they asserted that the kin^ had no 
intention of making war on the paniament. 
6ii John accompanied the king to Oxford in 
the winter, and received from the university 
the honorary desree of B.CJa, SO Dec. 1642 
(Woon, Fagti, a. 44). 

Though steadily adhering to the kinVs 
cause, he incurred the royal mspleaaure by his 
caution and moderation. In a letter, dated 
York, May 1642, to Mr. Green, one of the 
members for Corfe Castle, he says: 'The 
king is extremely offended with me touching 
the militia; saith that I should have per- 
formed the part of an honest man in protest- 
ing against the illegality of the ordinance ; 
commands me upon my allegiance yet to do 
it. I have told him it is not safe for me to 
deliver ania opinion in things which are voted 
n the houBSes.' In this and other private 

letters to the leaders ofparliament he warmly 

issitv of frank ' 

promise on both sides with a 

s ofparl 
urges the necessitv of frankness and com- 
promise on both etd 
coramodation,' foreseeing that 

1 Bankes 

have civile wars it would make us a tnisr 
rable people ' ( Qn/) Coitle, 186). His efforU 
to prraerve the peace aeem to have been 
appreciated by the parLament ; fat, notwith- 
standing the prominent pait he had takea 
in the Star Chamber prooecutions and the 

>p1e proofs of his devotion to the king l^ hia 
liberal contributions to the royal treaauiVjand 
still more by the stubborn resistsiice offered 
by his castle Ions after all the neighbouring 
■tionf^iolds had &llen into the hands of par- 
liament The heroic defence of Corfe Ca^la 
by Lady Haiy Bankes [q. v.] during nearly 
three years, against great odds, to which sho 
yielded only when oetrayed, ie one of the 
brightest spots in that ^oomy p^od. Th* 
parliament, on the other hand, Ead ceased to 
regard Sir John as a mediator, and the com- 
mons were so highly incensed against him 
by his charge to the grand jury at Salisbury, 
where several members of boui housea were 
indicted for high treason before Bankes and 
three other judges, that they ordered the 
four judges to be impeached (Whitbloczb, 
78). A similar order was made the next 
year against the same judges in consequence 
of the trial and execution of Captain Turpine 
at Exeter [ibid. 96). Fortunately for Sir 
John be was beyond the reach of the com- 
mons, but they made him feel their dis- 
pleasure by ordering the forfeiture of all his 
property, even to his books (ibid. 177). He 
continued to act as privv councillor and 
chief justice at Oxford until hia death, which 
occurred there 28 Dec 1644. He was buried 
in Christ Church Cathedral, where there is a 
monument to his memory. ' It must not be 
forgotten that by his will he gave to the 
value of 3W, per annum with other emolu- 
ments to be bestowed in pious uses, and 
chieSy to set up a manufacture of coatM 
cottons in the town of Keswick ' (Fullbb, i. 

Clarendon tells us that at one timetheking, 
being displeased with Lord-keeper Lyttleton, 
proposed to give the great seal to sir John 
Bankes, but that the latter ' was not thought 
equal to that charge in a time of so much 
disorder, though otherwise be was a man of 
great abilities and unblemished integrity' 
(CUKEirsox, V. 200). Elsewhere the same 
writer speaks of him as ' a gr^ve and a 
learned man in the profession of the law ' 
(ibid. vi. 396). This estimate of him app^rs 
to be acquiesced in by all his contemporaries. 
His conduct as well as his letters prove him 
to liave been moderate and cautiouS) but 



Mrbament after eoMideimble paymenU by 
Lady Buikea and her diildi«D ( WaiTBLocKB, 
S70J. Sir Jolin Idt a nnmennu funiW, and 
liu d«acendanta, who still own conBiderable 
property in the neighbourhood, represented 
the boroDsh of Oorfe Castle until it vu dis- 
fraDchised in 1632. The meaeat head of the 
fiunilj lirea at Kingston Lat^, not far from 
the ruins of their ancient casus. 

[Foaa's Judges of England ; KognphU Bri- 
tsnnica; Bankn'a Stor? of Corfk Castla ; FqUbt's 
Woithies ; Wood's Fasti (BUss), ii. 44 ; JJ^d's 
UsiDoina of SoSenrs fbr Chaitn L] Q. V. B. 

BASKESB, I.A]>T MAKT (d. 1661), the 
heroine of Cone Castle, was theonlj daughter 
of Ralph Uawtrey, of Ruislip, in the county 
of Hiddleaex, the lepiesentati-re of an an- 
cient flunily of Korman origin. Of her early 
life nothing Mema to be recoided ; but baring 
married Sir John Bankes [a.T.l, chief justice 
-of the common pleaa in tne latter part of 
' the reign of Charles I, she retired with her 
children, m the eomtoeneeuient of tbe dvil 
troubles, to Sir John's newly purchased resi- 
dence, Corfe Castle, in the Isle of Purbeck, 
Dorsetshire, for many centuries a royal resi- 
dence and one of the strongest castles in Eng- 
land. Hen Lady Bankes, with the assistance 
of a amall garrison, stood two prolonged siegu, 
' lrrtinl64S,] - ' ' ' ' 

Q the flight ol 

ucBiiigiiiB : the second 
liffht weeKS ended in 
the taking of the castle through the treachery 

n 1646, which afler eight 
' akijig of the castle througt 
leof the garrison. The fullest am} best 

original account of the £rst siege is 
tained in a contemporary royalist publication, 
' Mercurius Rusticus,' No. zi., which, not^ 
withstanding its oontemptuous benter of 
'the rebels, is probably a fairly truthful 
account, and is confirmed by occasional allu- 
sions in contemporary newspapera of the 
Opvoeite side. 

From this authority we leam that in May 
1048, Sir John being in attendance on the 
kiiuf, the commissioners of Foole sent a force 
of &ty seamen (' they in the castle not sns- 
wcting any such thing') to demand of Lady 
Bankee the surrender of the four small pieces 
of cannon which formed the armament of 
CfOrfe Castle, ' but instead of deliverina them, 
though at that time there were but five men 
in the castle, yet these five, assisted by the 
maid servants, at their lady's command 
moont these pieces on their carriages, and 
lading one ol them they give fire, which 
•mall thunder so affriffhted the seamen that 
they all quitted the piace and ran away.' 

Un 23 June 1643 the regular eic^ was 

3 Bankes 

betrnu by Sir Walter Earle, with a force of 
COO orSOO men, andafewpiecesof ordnanoe. 
Lady Bankee meantime had quietly laid in 

ftom Prince Maurice, by her earnest en- 
treaties, a garrison of about ei^tymen, com- 
manded by Captain Lawrence. Her resolu- 
tion was unshaken by the oath taken by tha 
besiegers, ' that if they found the defendant! 
obstinate not to yield, they woold maintain 
the siege to victory and Uian deny qnartoi 
unto all. killing without mercy man, women^ 
and childim,' All the assaults of the be- 
uerers were successAilly repelled by tho 
little garrison. In the laiat of theae attacks, 
' the enemv bung iu>w pot-valiaot and poe- 
saasad with a borrowed course, wlucfa was 
to evaporate in sleep, they divide thar force* 
into two parties, whereof one assaults the 
middle ward, defended by valiant Captain 
Lawrence and the greater part of the souU 
diers; the other assault the upper ward, 
which the Lady Bankee (to her etemall 
honour be it spoken), wilJi her daughters, 
women, and five tooldiers, undertooke to make 
good against the rebels, and did bravely 
perform what she undertooke, for by beavina 
over stones and hot embers, they repelled 
the rebels, and kept them &om climbing 
their ladders.' Having lost in this assault 
100 men in killed and wounded, and hearing 
that the king's forces were at hand, Bir 
Walter on 4 Aug. drew off his men so pre- 
cipitately that they left their artillery, am- 
munition, and hones behind. 

For the nest two years Lady Bankea 
seems to have lived nnmoleoted, partly at 
Corfe Castle and partly near London. Tha 
death of her husband in December 1644 
caused no abatement of her devotion to tha 
royal cause, and in the summer of 1646 Corfb 
Castle was again attempted several times by 
the parliamentary forces, and at last closely 
besieged a second time, thero being now 
'no garrison (but this) between Exceeter 
and London ' still holding out for the king 
(Spsi66B,iii.l46). On 26 Feb., or according 
to some accounts 8 April, 1646, Lady Bankes 
and her little garrison, apparently as far as 
ever from yielding, were betrayed by on* 
of her own officers who was ' weaiv of the 
king's service.' Under pretence of bringing 
in reinforcements this officer introduced by 
night fifty of the enemy, and neit moming 
the oamson, finding themselves betrayed 
and nirther reeistance useless, gave them^ 
selves np prisoners at discretion, their livet 
only exce^ed. 

In Spngge's table of battles and aiegea 
Corfe Castle is said to have been taken in 
April ' by atratsgem and stoim ' ftltet forty- 




•jght dm' siege, during which elsren men 
««!» Idllad. By ordai of puliameat the 
cutis wu ■ lighted.' The nussive frsg- 
nuuita of medueTal maoonrj which still oo- 
eup J ita site bear witneu Bt once to the diffi- 
cultj of the task and the thoroughaeM with 
which it wu uoomplisbed. 

L«d^ Bankee wm allowed to depart with 
hm ohildreD in aafety, leaving, howefsr, all 
her houaehold effects behind. She now pe- 
titioned the aequafltratorB to be allowed her 
}ouitaie, which, along with Sir John'i pro- 
perty, lud been ee^jueitered. Her petition, 
beino' ' a case of ditBcuIt]r,' waa referred to 
headquartera, but appears to have remained 
unanawered until C^mweU's aAoewion to 

EDwer, when, on payment of large aoma by 
ereelf and her children, the sequeetration 
waa removed (Cor/a CaitU, pp. 123, 244). 
She waa not further molested during the 
Commonwealth. In the church of Ruislip 
there is a monument dedicated bj Sir Ralph 
Bankea, her son and heir, which tells us that 
'having had the honour to have borne with 
« constancy and courage above her eex a noble 

Eroportion of the late calamities, and the 
appinesa to have outlived them «o far aa to 
have aeen the restitution of the government,' 
ahe ' with great peace of mind laid down her 
moat deaired Ufa 11 April 1661 ' (Lysons). 
Posterity has willingly endorsed this brief 
tammaxj of her career. Lady Bankea had 
four aona and ux daughteis. Several noble 
fiuniliea, aa well as the Bankea of Kingaton 
Lacy, near Corfe, claim her aa an ancastreaa 
(NqU* and Qumiet, 1st series, iiL 46B). 

[Lfaoiu's MiddlMgi,p. 311i Hntchina'a Dor- 
art, I. iU; Yican's Parlismeotaiy Chronicle, 
iv. 872; Sprigga'a Auelia Rediviva ; Ueicurins 
BnsticuB, no. si. ; Lloyd's MenuMres, 6B0 ; 
Bankca's Story of Corfs Castle; HoCaa andQnsriei, 
lat aeriea, iii. 4fiB.] Q. T. B. 


•urviving son of Hwiry Banltet [q. v.], of 
Kingston Hall, Dorsetahbe, and elder brother 
of the Bight Hon. George Bankea [see BAjixEa, 
Gbobsb, 1786-1866]. He waa educated aC 
Trinity College, Cambridge ; was B.A. 18(^ 
and H.A. 1811. From 1810 to 1812 he 
mted Truro in parliament. In 1831 
) returned for Cambridse Univeraity, 
but waa defeated in 1826 by Lord Palmer*- 
ton and Sir J. Copley. In 1829-31 be 
sat for Marlborough, and waa returned by 
the county of Doiaet to the first reformed 
parliament, but lost this seat in 1836, after 
which he did not again enter parliament. 
On the death of his great-nnde, Sir William 

ome into the fiunily eatatea in Dotaetahira. 
Byron, his oontempoian, describes him aa th> 
leader of the set of col^e fiienda which in- 
cluded C.S. Matthews and Hobhouse. Banlua 
was Byron'a friend through life. Byion gava 
him letters of introduction when he waa 
Starting on an eastern jonmey in 1812. 
Bankea afterwards viaited Byron in Venice. 
Byron apeaks of him with affection. Several 
letterstohimareRivenbyMoore. Bogerssayi 
in his 'Table Talk' (ad. tyce, p. 291) that h* 

literary world by hiatravela in the East. He 
inspired or wrote a review of Silk Buck- 
ingham's work on Paleatine. which appeared 
in the ' Quarterly Review ' for January 1^2. 
He afterwards published a letter to Hobhousa, 

.! .. ■_^-n...,., jham,wh» 

itiuf hia drawing*. Buckinghun obtained a 
renfict of 400J: damage* for the libel, 26 Oct. 
1826. He also traualated from the Italian 

repeating charges against Buokingl 
had accornpamed him in Syria, of 
ating hia drawing*. Buckingluun ol 

vanni Finati, with whtmi he travelled i 
Egypt and the Eaat. In 1816 he discovered 
an ancient Egyptian obelisk is the island ot 
Philn, and had it brought to England for the 

Sirpoae of erecting it in hia own grouuda at 
ingston Hall. He died at Venice 16 ^iril 
1856, leaving uoisBue,audwaa succeeded by 
his brother the Right Hon. Oeorgs Bankea. 
[G-ant. Hu. August I8GS; Bnrks's History (^ 
the Landed Qantry ; Sanlus's Life of Oiovanni 
Bnati.] Q. T. B. 

fiANKHEAD, JOHN (1738-1833), Irish 
Presbyterian minister, was horn in 1738 of a 
family said to have come from Bank HMd 
in Mid-Lothian, and settled near Clongh, oo. 
Antrim, He is said to have graduated at 
Qlasgow, but hia name ia not found in the 
college rwister. He was licensed by Bally- 
mena presbytery (before S9 June 1762), and 
called 13 Feb. 1763 to the congregation of 
Ballycarrj (or Broadisland), CO. Antrim. This, 
the oldest preabyterian church in Ireland, wa* 
founded by Edward Brice in 1613 [see Bbicb, 
Edwabb], and had been vacant since the 
death of James Cobham (22 FeK 1769). 
Bankhead subscribed (36 July 1763^ the con- 
fession of faith in the following cautious fbrm : 
'I believe the Westminster Confeesion to con- 
tain a systemof the christian doctrines, which 
doctrines I subscribe as the confession of my 
faith ; ' and was orda 
presbytery, 16 Aug. 1 
was given him in July 1774 by the richer 
congregation of Comber, co. Down ; but h* 
remained at Ballycarry all his days, and mada 
a considerable fortune out of a graaing bta. 

ined by Tempi 
763. Aonanm 

lonof mr 




In 1786 hi publiahed & estechinu, yaluable 
•s indicating tbe departure frmn the old 
ttmndarda of doctrine, ^readylunt«d ftt in the 
twmi of hii ■ubecription. Tho qneBtioiU are 
mwiwlj thoM of the Westmintter Shorter 
Catechiam ; the answera are naJced eitracta 
from Scriptnn, without oomment. In the 
Mcond edition, 1B2K, m further projp^aa ia 
tnade ; aome of the Westminster quegtions are 
omitted, others are altered. Bankhead was 
moderator of aynod in 1800. On 30 July 
1812 William Olendv (d. 24 Julj 1663 
■ged 71) was ordained aa hia aagiatant and 
mcceaaor. In 1829 Olend; took the congre- 
gation with him to join the heterodox i 
monstrant Bvnod ; but Bankhead remained 

in the ninetv-aizth jear of hie age, and the 
MventieUi of hia ministry (the inscription on 
his tombstone oreieetimatM on both points). 
It is remarkable that the whole period of 220 
Taws (I61&-1833) in the history of Bally- 


r men, the interstices between 
iniatries amountinff collectiTslj ' 
•erenteen years. Bankhead was a man 
mnch natuial atnlitj. A satirical poem 
1817 (' The Ulster Synod,' b* Rer. William 
I, of Ballyclare) descriDes him, 

eightieth year, as ' scattering brit^t wit, sound 
aeaM, and Dublin snuif. He published 
1. ' Faith the Spring of Holinew' [Hab. ii. 4] 
Self. 1769 (funerJ sermon for Arch. Ed 
monstone of Bedhall, who left Bankhead his 
library). 3. ' A Cat«chism,' &c. Belf. 1766, 
19mo (the date is misprinted 1736) ; 2nd ed. 
Belf. 1B36, 12mo (deMnibed aboTe). He wan 
twice married, (1) to Jane Martin, (3) in 
February 1812 to Maiy Hagill, and wu the 
futhw en twen^-two children, nineteen of 
whom reached matnrity, and some found cU»- 
tinctMn. His eldest aon was John Bankhead, 
U.D.,aleadinEpby^cianofBel{ast. Another 
was James Buikhead, ordained S3. March 
1796, p i e sb y t e rian minister of Dromore, co. 
Down (d. 10 Jan. 1824). Another son, 
Charles Bankhekd, M.D., was private physi- 
cian to the celebrated Lord liondonderry, 
who expired in his arms in 1822 ; he died at 
Florence, aged 91, and was ftther of Charles 
Bankhead,Britiah envoy to Washington. The 
latest aurrivor of the twenty-two children 
ma William Bankhead, unitarian minister 
■t Briditon and Diss, Norfolk (1837-43), 
irho 1(A the ministry, and died inEdinburgn, 
1881, aged 69. 

[BeUsst Nnrs-Lstlar, 13 July ISSl (ms letter 
IBoriiig ths y«ar of his birth) ; Chr. Unitarian, 
1883 (extraeta ftom OTtirinal racorda of Temple- 
patrii^ pnsbytary) ; ITithetov'a Hist, aod Xiit. 

of Prwbytorianinn in Irtland, 3 nr. 1880 ; 
Min. of Gen. Synod, 1824 ; infonnation trwa a 
descendoDt.] A. Q. 

BANKS, — {Jl 1568-1637), a famoua 
showman, to whose 'dandng horse' allnsion 
is made by all the best^known authors of his 
day, was a native of Scotland. He is stated 
in 'Tarlton's Jests' (1600) to have ori^ 
nally served the Earl of Essex, and to have 
exhibited his horse ' of strange qualities . . . 
at the Oroese Eeyes in Ghncioua-atreete ' 
before 1C88. The animal went by the name 
of Morocco or Maroceo. His feats, which are 
briefly described in an epigram in Bastard'a 
' Chrestoleros ' (1598), included, among many 
like accomplishments, the power of count- 
ing money, to which reference is made by 
Shakespeare (Zore't Labma'i Lett, i. 2. 1. 53), 
by Bishop Hall (TootMest Satyrs, 1597), and 
p. 821) ; of singling out peisons named hr 
his master (Taklmu's Je*U ; Bbathwutbs 
Strappado for the BiveU, 1615) ; of deniv 
ing, to which very frequent allusion is mads 
by the Elizabethan dramatists. At the end 
01 1596 there appeared a pamphlet^ of which 
only two copies are now extant, entitled ' Ma- 
roocus Extaticus, or Bankes Bay Horse in 
a Trance, a discourse set downe in a meny 
dislogue between Bankea and his beast, an^ 
tomixing some abuses and bad trickes (rf this 
age, written and intituled to mine host of tho 
BelsavDKe, and all his honest guests, by John 
Dando, the niei>dnwer of Hadley , and Harrie 
Runt, the head ostler of Bosomes Inne, 1696.' 
A woodcut represents Banks in the act of 
opening his entertainment, and the horse 
standing on his hind legt, with a stick in 
his mouth and dice on the ground. From 
the title-pa(^ it appears that Banka was at 
the time exhibiting his horse at the Belsavago 
Inn without Ludgate, where such entertain- 
ments were frequent, and where, as was his 
custom, Banks chafed twopence fbr admis- 
sion to hia performance (BsATHWim^ 
Strappado). !%» dialogue, of whidi ths 
pamplilet consists, deals with the hypocriar 
of the puritans and other allied abuses. It 
promises a second part, which never appeared. 
About 1600 the horee ia reported tohavepep- 
fonned his most famous but hardly ciedibls 

is stBt«d that 'since the dancing horse stood 
on the top of Fowlee, whilst a number of asses 
stood braying, below seventeen yeares.' Re- 
ferences to the event ace to be found in many of 
Dekker's plays and prose tracts, in Rowl^a 
' Search tor Honey, and elsewhere. In 1 wl 
Banks oossed the Channel, and exhibited 
his horse atParis) aod tJis bsst soconut of 


Banks i 

Horoceo'a fesU is Kiven by a French ejB-vit- 
BeM, Je*sde MonuTftrd, Sieur de Helleniy, in 
ft note to a French translation of the ' Oolden 
Aaa ' of Apuleiua (1603). The horse's ftga is 
there stated to be about twelTe yeara, but he 
vas certoinlj some three or four years older. 
The magistrates of Paris suspected that his 
tricka weie performed by magi^ and for 
aome time Banks was imprisoned and hit 
horse impounded. But on hi* master declar- 
ing thiitiie had cftrefullv instructed Morocco 
by signs, they were both released, 4iid Banks 
was permitted to contiDue his exlubition. At 
Orkuis, according to Bishop Norton {Direct 
Annoer tmto CAc Seandalma Exc^tiotu nf 
TlMfuUhw WggoM, 1609, p. 11), Morocco 
wu again aoapected of being a pupil of the 
devil, and Banks, to allay the suapieion, 
' commanded his horae ' (who at once obeyed 
bim) ' to aeek out one in the pieaaae of the 

nlewbohad acTudfixe onhishat; which 
, he had him kueele downe unto it, and 
not this onetj, but also to rise up againe and 
to kisse it.' According to the same autho- 
rity, Banks, with Morocco, viaited Frankfort 
■hortlj after thia adventure. In 1606 he 
had returned to England, and was tempo- 
rarily employed by Henry, Prince of Walea, 
in the management of hia hones {M&. Prtnji 
Arte Expmeee, 1606-9). lu succeeding 
yeaiB Banks, according to references in the 
worka of Ben Jmaon, Sir Walter Raleigh 
(Siitcry nf Oe World, 1614, i. 173), 
Michael Drayton, John Taylor, and Sir John 
Harin^n, continued to give hia entertain- 
ment m London. An elaborate account of 
*how a hone may be taught to doe any 
tricke done by Banks bis curtail' is given at 
the endof Oerraae Harkham'a 'Cavelarice' 
(1607). Some mystery has been ascribed to 
the &te of Banks and Morocco. According 
to plavfiil alloaions in Ben Jonson's ' Epi- 
frams (1616) and in a majvinil note to the 
nock romance of ' Don Zara del Fogo ' (1666), 
they were both burned at Borne ' by the com- 
mandinent of the pope.' But no important^ 
Deed be attached to these statementa. The 
showman is almost certaitdy to be identified 
with Banksj a vintner in dheapeide in later 
yeara, who is said to have * taught his horae 
to dance, and shooed him with silver ' (Lffe 
md Death of JUutreu Maty IWtA, 1662, 
p. 75). A« a vintner. Banks was evidently 
alive in May 1637 {AOmoU MS. 826), and 
mention is made of 'mine host Bankes' in 
Shirley's ' Ball,' 1639. Curiona allusions to 
Banka and his dancnig horse are found as late 
■s 1664 (KiuioBBw's ite-son'* Weddtjig). 
An early Lancashire pedigree states that a 
•daughter of . . . Banks, who kwt the horse 
vith theadmimUe tricks,* manied John Hyde 

r« Banks 

of Urmstone, a member of an ancient county 
family (HinfTHR's lUmtratione t» Bkak»' 
tptaret i. 266). , 

rrfae bast acwnrata of Banks, with monberleaa 

rsKnocM to conUonporary authorities, appear in 
H&llivBll-Pbillipa'a folio ahakeapcare, iV. iiS 
at aeq., and in bis privatoly printed Memoranda 
onLove'BLaboni'sLoat(lBT»),pp.31-e7. The 
rare tract, Maroccns Extatieng, one copy of 
which is nov in tta* Britiah Museum, was r^ 

g-inUd with notea by E. F. Bimbanlt for the 
grey Society (No. 47). Be« also Donee's Illn»> 
tratJons to Shaksapeare, i. 212 ; Corur's Collao- 
tanea, i. 1S3 et aeq. ; and Frost's Old Showmea, 
p. 28.] 8. L. L. 

BANXa, BENJAMIN (1760-1796), a 
violin-maker, was one of the most prominent 
among the English followers of AmatL 
He b^n as a pupil of Peter Walmsley, of 
the ' Golden Harp* in Piccadilly, the great 
imitator of Stainer violins. Banks, fbUow- 
ing Daniel Parker, discarded the Stuner 
traditions, and copied the instrumente of 
Nicholas Amati. His violas and violoncellos 
are eicelleut, but his violins are not so 
good. At an early period of his life he 
esteblished himself at Salisbury. His busi- 
ness there was carried on after hia death by 
his two sons, James and Henry, who subse- 
quently migrated to Liverpool. 

[G-rora's DieUonaiy of Mosie uid MoiicianB, 
ii. ie*i.l J. A. P.M. 

BANKS, StB EDWAHD (1769 M8S6), 
builder, raiaed himself from tJie humble statical 
of a day labourer to the chief control of the 
firmofJoUiffe&Baiika, contractors for public 
works, and was the builder of Waterloo, 
Southwark, and London bridges. He owed 

the Rev. W. J. Jolliffe, 
under the superintendence of the Renuies. 
Among his other undertakings may be men- 
tioned Staines bridge, the naval worka at 
Sheemess dockyard, and the new channels 
for the rivets Ouse, Nene, and Witham in 
Norfolk and LincolDshira. In June 1832 
Banks received the honour of knighthood. 
He died at Tilgate, Sussex, the residence of 
his daughter, Mre. Gilbert Esst JollitTe, 
6 July 1836, in his sixty-sixth year. While 
working as a day labourer upon the Ment- 
ham tram-road, he had been struck witji 
the besuty of the neighbouring hamlet of 
Chipstead, and, when he died nearly forty 
years lst«r, desired that be might be buried 
in ite quiet churchyard. 

[Brayley's Burrey, iv. 305-7; Gent. Mag. 
(183S), iv. 4*4.] Q. Q. 


Banks i^ 

1881), DuacelUneoui writer, bom at Binn- 
inghun S Huch 1831, wu tha aon of John 
Banka, s wednnui. The fitther wm a rigid 
metbodist ; he onea took a ' Robiiuon 
CroMM ' from hia am, and throat it into the 
fire. When a boy George was totally blind 
for seven montha, and was eventuaUr cured 

Sa quack, who applied leeches to the soles 
his feat. He was sent to an engraver, 
but hi* eyes proved too weak for this work, 
and he uterwards went to a modeller, and, 
when neglected by his fttther, bound himself 
apprentiM to a cabinet-case maker. His 
master feiled, and ha became, at the sge 
of seventeen, or eighteen, a contributor to 
nswipapen and maffuines, an amateur actor, 
and orator. He had a remarkable faculty for 
ailhouette portnuture, and was also a mpid 
improvisatore. For years he was intimately 
associated with many of the movements for 
the political enf^MichiBement and social ad- 
vancement of (he masses of the people. One 
of hi* lyrics, called ' What I five for,' was 
frequently quoted by platform and pulpit 
inatora,«nd is widely Known. It is believed 
that it first appeared in a Liverpool news- 
paper. During his reeiidence in Liverpool 
Im wrote a play called ' The Swiss Father,' 
inwMehOreewick took the leadinrpart. He 
also wrote for the negro actor. In Aldridge, a 
drama entitled ' The Slave King,' and in Uter 
yean two smart burlesques for the Duriism 
and Windsor theatres. These were ' Old 
Maids and Mustard,* and < Ye Doleful Wives 
of Windsor.' He wrote the lon^ popular 
ne^ melody 'Dandy Jim of Caiohne.' 'The 
Mmstral King.'set by Hacfarren, and' War- 
wickshire Will,* are still sung at Shake* 

»n gathermgs. 

18M he married Isabella Varley, of 
Uandietter, the authoress of ' Ivy Leaves ' 
and c^ several novels. Between 1848 and 
I8S4 Bonka was editor of tha ' Harrwate 
AdvKtiser,' 'Birmingham Mercu^,' 'Dub- 
lin Daily Express,' ' Durham Qironicle,' 
' Siuaex Mercury,' and ' Windsor Boyal 
Standard.' Foratimehehadsome share along 
with Mr. William Sawyer in the 'Brighton 
Ezcnnionist.' He also wrote ' Blossoms of 
Poetry,' 1841 ; ' Spring Gatherings,' 1846 ; 
' Lays for the Times,' 1845 i ' Onward,' 1848 ; 
'Peals from the Belfry,' 1853; 'Slander, a 
Beroonstiance in Rhyme,' 1860; 'Life of 
Blondiu/ 1662 j ' Finfrar-post Guide to Lon- 
don;"SUvesforUieHumanLadder, 1860; 
'AUaboatShakBpere,'1864; and ■ Daisies in 
tha Orass,' 186B (this is a volume of poems 
by Benin and his wife). He took part in 
tnetarcentenuyofShuetipeareamd theDai> 
hUB Bums oeatmary. He was actively in- 

7 Banks 

terested in the success of friendly sodeties 
and mechanics' institutes. 

It was the intontion of his wife to edit » 
complete collection of his poems, and to write 
a memoir of his active public dareer. Uni 
fortunately in the later and clouded yean of 
his life he deatroyed much of tike requisite 
material. He died after a long and painful 
illness, 3 May 1881, in London, and ia ouried 
in Abney Park Cemetery. 

[InfoTmatioD snpplisd by Mn. Q. L. Banks; 
and bj puaonal frieods.] W.&AA. ' 

BANES, JOHN (A 1696), a dramatist 
of the Restoration, of whom verv little ia 
definitely known, is supposed to have been 
bom about 1650. He was bred to the law, 
and wai a member of the society of the 
New Inn. In 1677 he was tempted by the 
success of Lee's ' Rival Queens ^ to write a 
similar tragedy in verse, entitled ' Rival 
Kings,' and tlus was accepted and played 
at the Theatre Royal. In November 1678 
another tragedy by Banks, tha ' Destruction 
of Troy,' was acted at the Dorset Garden 
Theatre, and printed in 1670. In 1682 was 
brought out at the Theatre Boyal the ■ Un- 
happy Favourite,' a tragedy on the romantie 
fate of the Earl of &sei. This enjoyed 
considerable success, and Dryden wrots the 
proltvue and the epilogue. It is a play 
which, although ill-written, showed a con- 
siderable power over the emotions of tha 
audience, and Banks doubtless imagined 
that it was to be the precursor of a long 
theatrical success. He was, however, dis- 
appointed. In 10S3 he wrote the ' Innocent 
tfsurper,' a play founded on the ston of 
Lady Jane direy, but he failed to find for it 
eitherapubliBherorssto^. Hewasscarcely 
less uniortunate with lus 'Island Queans ? 
in 1684, for that also was rejected at the 
theatres. Ha printed it, however, and twentft 
years later, on 6 March 1704, it was brought 
out at Druiy Lane as the ' Albion Queans,' 
and so reprinted. For many ^ears Banks 
did not appear before the public. In 1692 
he brought out his * Virtue betrayed,' a tr^ 
gedy on the story of Anna Boleyn, which 
was the most successful of all his works, 
and held the stage until 1766. In October 
1 693 he Sffain brought forward the ' Innocent 
Usurper, but this time the play was -on- 
hibitad. He published it in 1694 His last 
production was 'Cyrus the Great,* produced 
at Lincoln*s Inn Fields in 1696. For some 
time the acton refused to act this play on 
account of its insipidity; their otgactiona, 
however, were overruled, and the piece en* 
jo^ed a considerable success, but liad to ha 
withdrawn after the fonrth night on account 

3y Google 

Banks tt 

Vf the nidden death of Smith, the trag«diui. 
Nothing more is known about Buihs ; it U 
reporWa that ha waa buried at BL Junee'a, 
Wettmiiuter. He published nothing except 
the seven dranuw mentioned above, all of 
vrhicli an tragedies in five acta and in veiee. 
Bai^ is a drMiy and illitenta writer, whoaa 
Uink vetM ia execraUe. It appeaie, how- 
•vor, that hia aootei poaseaaed a melodTamatic 
pathoa which appealed to vulgar heaien, 
and one or two oi hia pieeee survived most 
nf the Bastoration drama upon the stage. 

[OuiMt'i Hiitoij of th* Stag*, i, ii; Cibb«r'i 
UvolQMVotbt.ia.l7i.] K.O. 

17Sl),niiscellBneoiA writer, was bom w 1709 
at Scorning in Berkshire. Losing his father 
early he was placed by his mother's brother 
at a^vate school, and taught bj an 'ana- 
baptist' ministeT. His teacher, jealoua, it ia 
aaid, of hia abililicB, pronounced him to be 
hopelessly dull, and his ancle accordingly re- 
moved him from school and apprenticed nim to 
a weaver at Keadiog. Befnre his epprentice- 
■hip waa finished an accident disabled him 
fl«m following that employment, and be re- 
moved to LcmiMn, buying with the pioceeda of 
a tmalilegacy left him by arelative aparcel of 
fields. Ettimulated ty the patronage which 
*The Thteaher' of tlwt poet of humble life, 
Steven Dock, received vomQtteen Caroline, 
BajuES ptodnced, bat without sneoess, 'Hie 
Weavera HisoeUany.' Giving op hia book- 
atalllw entered aa journeyman the aervice of 
a bookeeller and booktHnder, and published 
by mbseription poems, two seta ofwhich, it 
ie said, were ordered by Pope, who, it is also 
■aid, praised them and bestowed enconnge- 
ment on their author. The poems bringmg 
him some money and refutation. Banks be- 
oame an author by profession. Hia next work 
-was a laige folio 'Life of Chrict.' In 1739 
be published anonymously hia beat-known 
book, ' A Short Cntieal Review of the Life 
of Oliver Cromwell, by a Gentleman of the 
Middle Temple,' althou^ it doea not appear 
that tba author ever went to the bar. Several 
•ditions of this volume wen called for daring 
his lifMime, and on the titl»-page of the fift^ 
issued is 1767, it ia described as being 'by 
the lata John Banin, Esq.' The book u 
written with some vigour, and was one of 
tJie eariieat in which was taken a view on 
tiie whole &vonrable of Cromwell's career 
■nd character. In his account of ' the bio- 
naphiea of Oliver,' prefixed to his 'Oliver 
Chomwell's Letters and Speeches,' Carlyle 
•otea this peculiarity of Banks's work, which 
be pKmon&eea to be ' otherwise <tf no moment.' 

9 Banks 

In speaking of Banks as ' a kind of lawyer 
and playwririkt, if I mistake not,' Carlyla 
seems to eonlbund him with John Banks the 
dramatist [q.v.]. Inl744,ii^napprehensiona 
of a landing of the Pretender and of a French 
invauon were entertained, Bankapnhlished a 
'Hiatoi^oftheUfeandBeign of William in, 
King 01 England,' in tone Mid tmor strongly 
an&Jacobite. In his latest years he is said 
to have conducted two London newspapers, 
'Old England' and the 'Westminster 

Banks died at bis house at Islington on 
19 April 17S1, and is described as cheerful 
and good-natured. On the title-page of au 
edition of his poemi in two volumes (Lon- 
don, 1788), his name is spelt Bancks. 

[CfbWi Lives nf the Foats (IZSS), T. 810; 
GMit. Has. zzl 1ST; Banks's Works in Brit. 
Una. Libr.j F. B. 

1S67), major, waa in 1828 nominated to a 
eadetship m the Beng^ enny by the Ri^t 
Honourable Charies Wynn, at that time 
preudent of the board of oontroL Arriving 
m India in 1829, he was posted to the SSrd 
regiment Bengal native in&ntiy, of which 
he became quartermaster and interpreter in 
1833. He was anbeeqnently employed for 
some time on civil duties in the Saugor and 
Nerbudda teiritoiy. In 1842 he served with 
Gmeral Pollock's army of retributjon in the 
march upon Oabul, and shortly afterwards 
was (^pointed to a subordinate office in the 
military secretariat. In this office some 
years later be vraa brouriit into contact with 
the governor-general, the Harqnia of Dal- 
housie, irtose confidence and peraonal n^ard 
he speedily acquired. Oaring to the absence 
of the head of the department on uck leave, 
it devolved upon Mqot (then CMtain) Banks 
to make all the aRangemente for the expe- 
dition which resulted at the conquest uid 
annexation of Pegfx. Shortly after the close 
of the wsi, he accompanied Lord Dalhonsie 

luimah- a 
jr ot the 

on a visit to British B 
qnentlv became a member ot the govemor- 
generel's perscmal staff in the capacity of 
militarv Secretary. In July 1866 he waa 
deputed npon a confidential misuon to 
Lucknow, to ccnununic&te to Sir Jamea 
Ontram, the resident, the intentions of the 
goverao>geneTal legaiding the annexation 
of Oudh. 

When Lord Dalhousie left India, Major 
Banks joined the Oudh oommisuon aa com- 
nussioner of Lucknow, and soon became the 
trosted adviser and friend of the cbirf com- 
missioner, Sir Henry Lawrence, by whom, 
on hia death-bed, be was nonunated to bu» 

3y Google 




eeed m chief comniiuioner, but he amrived 
hie chief only s few weeks. In Sir John 
' '' ' ' le despfttch 

' lesideno^, 
Hajor Baulu wu noticed m the fbllowing 
temu ; — ' The gameon h^d scarcely re- 
coTsmd the shock which it had sustained in 
the loes of its revered and beloved general, 
'when it had to mourn the death of that 
able and respected officer, Major Banks, who 
received a ouUet through his head while 
aijinining ^ critical outpotit ott SI Julj, and 
died without a groan.' 

HajoT Banks was a man of excellent judg- 
ment and tact, able and industrious in the 
diacharge of his official duties, a brave soldier, 
■nd an excellent linguist. Hin widow, a 
daughter of Major-^^eral R. B. Fearon, C.B., 
Teceived a special pension from the India 
Office in reo^nition of her husband's services. 

BANSEL So. JOSEPH (1743-I8S0), 
president of the Royal Society, bom at Ar- 
fr^le Street, London, on IS Feb. 1743-4, was 
the only son of William Banks of Revesby 
Abbe^ in Idncolnshire, and Sarah, daughter 
of WiUiam Bate. He received his early edu- 
oation under a private tutor, and at the age 
of nine wai tent to Harrow School, and 
thauoe transferred to Eton when thirteen. 
He was described as being well disposed 
and good-tempered, but so immoderately 
£>nd of play that his att«ntion could not be 
fixed to his studies. At fourteen his tutor 
had the satisfaction of seeing a change come 
over his pupil, which Banks afterwards ex- 
plained as follows. One fine summer even- 
ing he had stayed bathing in the Thames so 
Icmg, that he found that all his companions bad 
gone. Walkinjg back leisurely along a lane, 
toe udesnCwhichwere clothed with flowers, 
he was so struck by their beauty as to resolve 
to add botany to the classical studies imposed 
by authority. He submitted to be instructed 
l^ the women employed in culling simples 
to supply the dnig^ts' shops, paying six- 
peoce for each material item of information. 
During his next holidays, to his extreme de- 
light be found a book in his mother's dressings 
room, which not only described the plants 
he had met, but also gave engravings of 
them. This proved to be Qerard^ 'Herball,' 
and although one of its covers was gone and 
several of its leaves were lost, he carried it 
back to s<^iool in triumph, and was soon 
able to turn the tables upon his fonner in- 


He left Eton in his eighteenth year, but 
lost the last half-year of his education there. 
He had been taken home to be inoculated 
for small-pox, but the first attempt failed, and 
when he had fidly recovered &om the second 
it was thought fit to send him to Oxford. 
He was accordingly entered a gentleman 
""""■""-" -t Chnst Church in jDecember 


His liking for botany increased while at 
the university, and he warmly embraced the 
other branches of natural history. Finding 
that no lectnres were given in botany, he 
sought and obtained from the professor per- 
mission to procure a teacher to be paid by 
the students. He then went by stage-coacn 
to Cambridge, and brought back with him 
Hr, Israel Lyons, astronomer and botanist, 
who afterwards published a small book on 
the Cambridge flora. Many years subBe- 
qtientlyL^fOns, through the interest of Banks, 
was appointed astronomer under Captain 
Fhipps, afterwards Lord Mulgrave, on hia 
voyage towards the North Pole. 

Banks's father died in 1761 during his 
first year at Oxford, leaving him an ample 
fortune and estate at Revesby. He left 
Oxford in December 1763. In Fatwuary 
1764 he came of age and took possession 
of his paternal fortune. He had already 
attracted attention in the university by 
his superior attainmenta in natural history ; 

' ' May 1766 he was elected fellow 

He returned to England during the following 
winter by way <m Lisbon. After his r^ 

was only ended by the death of the fm^ner. 
Solander had been a favourite pupil of 
LinuBus, and at tlie time when Banks first 
came to know him was employed as an 
assistant librarian at the British Husenm. 
He afterwards became Banks's compani<Hi 
round die world, and subsequently his librae 
rian until his death. 

By his influence with Lord Sandwich, first 
lord of the admiralty. Banks obtained per- 
mission to accompany Cook's expedition in 
the Endeavour, equipped at his own expense, 
taking with him Dr. Solander, two draughts- 
men— Hr. Bnohan for tandacape, and Mr. 
Sydney Farkinscn foe objects m natnral bis- 
twv — andtwoatt«ndants. The journal which 
he kept was largely utilised by Br. Hawkes- 
worth in his relation of the voyages of Car- 
teret, Wallis, and Cook. Thence we learn 
that the Endeavour left Plvmoudi on a &ir 
wind on the aftenioon of 26 Aug. 1768. 


Banks i; 

GnMwng the Bay of Biscaf, Banki captured 
many of the euT&ce animala and marine 
biids, and three weeks after quitting Eng- 
land Madeira waa eighted. The Darboui 
of Rio de Janeiro was reached on 13 Not. 
The jealous; of the Portuguese officials pre- 
Tented mucli collecting being done, except 
bv stealth, and all«r manv altercationa with 
the governor Cook eet Bail after three weeks' 
Btay in that port. They reached Le Haire's 
Strait in January 1769, and Banks with his 
assiBtants gathered winter's-bajk in abun- 
dance. Here Banks, Solander, Qreen the 
BstronomeT, and Honkhouse the surgeon 
started for ■ day's trip into the interior. 
Ascendins a hill they came upon a swamp, 
where a fall of snow greatly incommoded 
and chilled them. Buchan, the artiat, waa 
seized with a fit, and, a fire being lit, the least 
tired completea the ascent to the summit 
and came down without much delay to the 
lendeiTOUS. It was now eirfit o'clock, and 
they pushed forwards to tne ship, Banks 
brincring up the rear to prevent straggling. 
Dr. Solander begged every one to keep mor- 
ins. The cold suddenly became intense. 
Solander himself vras the first who lay down 
to rest, and at last fell asleep in spite of all 
Banks's efforts. A few minutes aflerwards 
aome of the people who had been seat forward 
returned with the welcome news that a fire 
was burning a quarter of a mile in advance. 
Solander was aroused with the utmost diifi- 
culty, having almost lost the use of his limbs, 
and a black servant had nearly perished. 
The flre having been leached. Banks sent 
back two of tboee who aeemed least affected 
by the cold to bring back the couple who 
were left with the negro. It was then found 
that a bottle of rum was in the knapaack of 
one of the men ; the negro was roused bv 
the spirit, but he and his companions drank 
too neely of it, and all bat one of them 
sDCCumbed to the frost. Others of the 
party showed signs of frost-bite, but, thanks 
to Banks's indomitable energy, they were 
brou^t to the fire. Here they passed the 
night in a deplorable condition. They were 
nearly a day s journey from the vessel, and 
were destitute of food, ezc«pt for a vultuie 
which had been shot. It was past eight in 
tUe morning before any ngns of a thaw set 
in ; then they divided the vulture into ten 
portions— about three mouthflils apiece— and 
by ten it was possible to set out. 'To their 
great surprise, they found themselvea in 
three honra upon the beach. 

After passing Cape Horn on 10 April 1769 
tlie Endeavour ughted Tahiti, and three days 
kIW anchored in Port-Royal Bay. Withui 
tour days ttom this Buchao, the landscape 


artist, died. Thia island being the appoint«d 
place of observation, a fort was built and jire- 

Ctioos made for observing the tranait (^ 
as ; during the night the quadrant was 
stolen bv the natives, but Banks had suffi- 
cient influence over them to n^ain it. The 
transit was observed on 3 June, 1769, par- 
ticulars of which are siven in the 'Philo- 
sophical Transactions/ Ixi. part S. 

Whilst in the island Banks lost no oppor- 
tunity of observing the customs of the in- 
habitants, and of getting a knowledge of the 
natural productions also. He was present 
at a native funeral, blackened with cnucoal 
and water as low as the waist. Previous to 
sailing f^m Tahiti, Banks made as complet« 

an exploration of the island as time 
mitted, and sowed in suitable spots seei 
melons and other planta, which ha 

brought from Rio de Janeiro. 

The Endeavour proceeded to New Zealand, 
where six months were spent in exploration 
of the ooast and its productions- 
Australia was next visited, and a small 
kangaroo observed for the first time in Botany 
Bay, which was so named by the exploring 
partv on account of the abundance ol forma 
of plants unknown to Banks and Solander. 
The course of the vt^^age was northward, 
inside the great barrier reef on the nortb-eut 
coast of Queensland, and all went well until 
the night of 10 June 1770, when the En- 
deavour stuck fast on a coral rock. The 
ship was lightened nearly fifty tana by 
throwing overboard six guns, ballast, and 
heavy storee. Soon aftenvards day broke, 
and a dead calm foUowed. The pumps wera 
kept going, but the orew became exhausted, 
and the situation was very critical. But at 
last the ship was hauled off the rocks, and 
sail waa set to carry her to the land, abont 
six leagues distant, One of the midshiianen, 
Hr. HoqkhouM, suggested the expedient of 
■ fstherinr ' the ship, which he earned out by 
sewing oaJcum aad wool on a sail and draw- 
ing it under the slup's bott«m. The suction 
of tbe leak drew it inwards, so as to stay the 
mah of water inwards. On 17 June, a con- 
venient harbour having been fbund, the En- 
deavour was taken into it for careening and 
repair. The timbers were found to have been 

if all, a fragment of rock remained 

jingufar of , 

Egging tbe hole it nad made. Hod it not 
n for this happy circumstance, the ship 
must have inevitably foundered. In the 
operation of laying her ashore, the water in 
the hold went aft, and the bread room was 
flooded. In this room were stored the dried 
plants collected with great taouble during 
the early part of the voyage. The bulk, 1^ 



inde&dgable cue and fttten 

« Mvoi, 

•e ntterl J miiiad. 

Whilatheie the luoguoo and other Austr^- 
lUn animala which were new to acience were 
ofaaarred, and aonie oocklM m> luge thct one 
waa more than two men could eat. 

On 4 •Tuly Banks and hie part; left the 
EndeaTOUj RLver, bo named by Cook, and hj 
the 13th they managed to " ' ' - -' • - 


la thiough the great Baniar Beef, 
'--ed through ProTidential 

I>ntch poaasuionH in the Malay Archipelago 
to Batavia, which wa* reached on 9 Oct. 
1770. Here it was found neceaaaiy to refit. 
Ten dayi afl«i their arrival almost eveiybody 
waa attacked by feTer. Banks and Sofandar 
were so affected that the phjisician declared 
th^ case« hopeless, unl^ they were re- 
moved to the country. A honae about two 
miles ontWBS therefore hired for them, and, to 

female slai , 

were able to rejoin the Endeavour on Christ- 
mas day, sailing from Batavia on 27 Dec., 
with ftirtv aick on board and the rest in a 
vary feeble state. During the paaaaae from 
Java to the Cape of Good' Hope, oporing, 
ona of Banks's assistants, and Sydney Par- 
kinaon, the natural hiatory draughtsman, 
died and were buried at sea : the total num- 
ber lo«t fa^ death bein^ twenty-three, besides 
■even bunad at Batavia. 

The Endeavour touched at 3t. Helena, and 
left that place on 4 Hay 1771. On 10 June 
tlw liiard was eighted, and two days after- 
wards they landed at Deal. On 21 Nor. 
Banks was created hon. D.O.L. of Orford. 

The anccesa of this voyage, and the enthu- 
naam it evoked, led to a saoond voyage under 
the same commander in the Resnlution. 
At the solicitation of Lord Sandwich, first 
lord of the admiralty, Banks offered to ao- 
conpanv this expedition. The offer being 
accepted, the outfit was begun, and Zoffany 
the punter, three draughtsmen, two secreto- 
risi, and nine other skilled assistants were 
engaged. The accommodation on board was 
found insufficient, and additional cabins were 
built on deck. These were-found on trial not 
only to affect t^e ship's sailing powers, but 
also her stability. They were therefore or- 
dered to be demolished, and Banks abandoned 
hi* intention of sailing in the Keeolutiou, 
Dr. LJnd had boen appointed naturalist to 
theexpedition under agrant of 4,000/., hut on 
beariiu| of Bank^s decision he declined the 
post. Dr.JoIuuinR^nh(JdForst«randhisaon 
ultimately sailed with the expedition. 


I Banks 

Beius- disa^ipointAd in this quarter, Banks 
resolved to visit Iceland with his followera 
and Dr. 9olander. lie reached that island 
in Augost 1772, climbed to the top of Heda, 
and returned in sis weeks, the results being 
summarised in Dr. von Tnnl's volume. 

Sir John Pringle, president of the Royal 
Society, retired from the chair in 1777, and 
Banks was chosen as his successor on 30 Nov. 

nntil his death. He found, it is statei , 
taries assuming the power which belon^sd 
to the president alone, and other abuses which 
he determined to rectify. This inlontion, 
coupled with the fact that natural history had 
been less cultivated than mathematics in the 
Royal Society, caused an amount <^ discon^ 
tent amongst some of the D>embers, which 
broke out a few vBars later in the session of 
178S-4. The office of tormga secretary at 
that time was filled by Dr. Hutton, professor 
of mathematics at Woolwich ; and he having 
been charaied with neglecting his duties, a 
rule was &med by the counoJ requiring the 
secretaries to live in London. Upon this 
Dr. Hutton resigned, after having defended 
his conduct in open meetine and a vote of the 
society having been recorded in his hvour. 
This action was followed bv several stormy 
meetings, in which one of the chief nieakers 
in oppositaon to the chair was the Iter. Dr. 
Horaley, formerly one of the secretaries and 
afi^rwards bishop of St. Aaaph. His speeches 
were of extreme bitt«niess, and as a last re- 
source he threatened to quit the society with 
his friends. He said : 'I am united with a 
respectable and numerous band, embracing, 
I believe, a majority of the scientific part of 
this society, of those who do its scientific 
business. Sir, we shall hare one remedy in 
our power when all others fail : if other re- 
medies should fail, we can at least secede. 
Sit, when the hour of secession comes the 
preeident will be left with bis train of feeble 
amateurs and that toy' (pointingto the mace) 
' u^u the taUe, the ghost of that society in 
which philosophy once reigned, and Newton 
preaidM as her minister. A motion was 
tiltimately carried in support of the presi- 
dent's conduct, and a few members, Dr. 
Horsley among them, left the society. Har- 
mony was restored, and the asoenaency of 
Banks never again questioned. 

In March 1779 Banks married Dorothea, 
daughter of William West^n-Hugeasen, of 
ProrendeT, in Kent, iriio survived him. He 
waa creat«d a hanmet in 1781, invested with 
the order of the Bath 1 July 1706, and 
awom of the privy council SO March 1707. 

In 1803 he was chosen a member of the 
NatMnal Institut* of France; and his Lsller 


Banks i; 

of thftnkB ia response for the honour wu the 
oecuion of & bitter aiuyajraoaa attack bj his 
old opponent, Dr. Horaley^ who taxed him 
with want of patriotic feelmg. 

Towards the close of his life he was greatly 
troubled with gout, ao much ao aa to lose at 
times the use of his limbs. He died at his 
house at Spring Orove,lBleworth, on 19 Jane 
18S0, leaving a widow but no children. By 
his express desire he was buried in the 
simplest manner in the parish church. By 
'will he left 2001. per annum to his librarian 
at his death, Robert Brown, with the use of 
his herbarium and library during his life, the 
rerersion being to the British Museum. 
Brown made over these collections to the 
nation within a short time after acquiring 
poeeeuion of them. Francis Bauer was also 
provided for during his life, to enable him 
to continue his exquisite drawings from new 
plants at Kew. 

The ohuacl«r which Banks has left behind 
him is that of a munificent patron of science 
Tother than an actual worker himself. His 
own writings are comparstiTely trifling. He 
wrote ' A Short Account of the Cauaes of the 
Disease called the BUght, Mildew, and Kurt,' 
whichwBspubliahedin 1806, reachinEa second 
edition in 1806, and re-edited in 1607, besides 
being reprinted by W. Curtis in his ' Observa- 
tions on the British QrBaaes,'and in the ' Pam- 
phleteer' for 1613. He was the author of 

n 1B09 he brought out a small work on 
the merino sheep, a pet subject of his as weQ 
aa of the kinf , Oeor^ lU. There were some 
HorUcultural SocietT,' a few in the ' Arclueo- 
logia,' one in the ' Linneau Society's Trane- 
actions,' and a short essay on the ' Economy 
of a Park ' in vol. ixxix. of Young^ ' Annals 
of Agriculture.' He published Kaempfer's 
' Icones Plantarum ' in 1791 in folio, and di- 
rected the issue of Roxburgh's ' Coromandel 
Plants,' 1796-1819, 8 vols folio. He seems 
to have given up all thought of pubhshing 
the results of his coUectioos on the death of 
Dr. Solander in 1783 by apoplexy, although 
the plat«s were engraved and the text drawn 
lip in proper order for press. The manuscripts 
are preserved in the botanical department of 
the British Museum in Cromwell Road. 

His collections were freely accessible to all 
scientific men of every nation, and his house 
in 8oho Square became the gathering-place 
of science. The library was cataloeued by 
Dr. Dnander, and issued in five volumes in 
1800-5, a work greatly valued on account of 
its accuracy. Fabrici us described his insects i 
Bfousaonet received his specimens of fishes j 

.2 Banks 

Gaertner, Vahl, and Robert Brown have 
largely used the stores of plants, and four 
editions of 'Desiderata* were issued previ- 
ouslv t« the publication of the ' Catal(»ues.' 
Banks spared neither puns nor cost m en- 
riching his library, which at bis death must 
be considered as lieing the richest of its class. 
It is stiU kept by itself in a room at the 
British Museum, although the natural history 
collections have been transferred to the new 
building at South Kensington. 

An unstinted eulogy was pronounced by 
Cuvier iKfore the Acad£mie Royale dea Sci- 
encesintheApril following the death of Banks. 
In this he testifies to the generous interven- 
tion of Banks on behalf of foreign naturalists. 
When the collections made by La Billardi^re 
during D'Entrecasteaux's expedition fell by 
fortuneof war into British hands and were 
brought to England, Banks hastened to send 
them back to France without having even 
glanced at them, writing to H. de Jusaieii 
that he would not st«al a single botanic idea 
from those who had gone in peril of their lives 
to get them. Ten times were parcels ad- 
dressed to the royal garden in Paris, which 
had been captured by English cruisers. He 
constantly act«d as scientific adviser to the 
king ; it wsa he who directed the despatch 
of collectors abroad for the enrichment of the 
gardens at Kew. 

The influence of his strong will was mani- 
fest in all his undertakings and voyages ; he 
was to be found in the first boat which visited 
each unlmown land. After his return he be- 
came almost autocratic in his power ; to him 
everything of a scientific character seemed to 
gravitate naturally, and his long tenur« of 
the presidential chair of the Royal Society 
led turn to exercise over it a vigorous autho- 
ntj, which has been denounced as despotic. 

Dr. Kippis'aaccount in his pamphlet seems 
very fairly to describe the d isposition ofBanks : 
' The temper of the president has been repre- 
sented aa greatly despotic. Whether it be 
so or not I am unable to determine from per- 
sonal knowledge. I do not find that a charge 
of this kind is brought against him by those 
who have it in their power to be better judges 
of the matter. He appears to be manly, 
liberal, and open in his oehaviour t« his ac- 

Siaintance, and very persevering in his friend- 
ip. Those who have formMl the closest 
intimacy withhim have continued their con- 
nection and maintained their esteem and re- 
gard. This was the case with CaptainCook 
and Dr. Solander, and other instances might, 
I believe, be mentioned to the same purpose. 
The man who, for a course of years and with- 
out diminution, preserves the affection of 
those friends who know him best, is not likelj 


Banks 133 

to hsn anpvdonsble fiiulta of temper. It is 
poaaible thftt Sir Joseph Banke m&; have aa- 
mimed ft firm tOD8 in the execution of hie dutjr 
M Resident of the society, &nd hare been free 
in hia rebukes where he appreheoded that 
therewaaanyoccaBianforthem. Ifthishath 
been the caae, it is not aurprisiof that he 
ahouJd not be univerBall j popular. 


toriqae, In te 3 Anil 1831; Sir Joseph B&nks 
and thv Bo^ Sooistj, &c., London, 1846; Na- 
turalists' Ijbraij, zxii, lT~t8 ; Annual Biogra- 
phy and Obllaaty for 1831, pp. 87-120; Gent 
Hag. IS30, i. S74, S37-8, ii. 8S-8, B9 ; Annual 
Begistar, 1830, ii. Ilfi3-B8 ; Nour. Biog. Gia. 
IT. 3S2-7Q ; DlmcaD's Short Acoount of Us lifs 
of Sir J. Banks, Bdin. 1821 ; Sattor's Hemoira, 
fanuoatU, ISSB ; Parkinson's Joumai of a Voj- 
age to ths Sonth Seas in H.M^. EndaaTonr, 
Land. I7TS; Ton Troll's LstMrs on loelacd, 
Loud. I7SI ; Benumhiancsr, April 1784, 
pp. 3SB-30B ; London Barisir. April 1784, pp. 
166-71 : Critical Beriew, AnU 1781, 399-809 ; 
Appral to the Fallows of the BajvX SodstT. Loud. 
1784 ; MarratiTft of th« Dissensions and Dsbatas 
in the Bojal Society, Lood. 1 784 ; Histoir of the 
InstanMS of ExdoKon from the Bojal Sodety, 
Lond. 1784 ; Kipus's Obssrrations on the Ute 
Contssts in the Boyal Society, Lond. 1784; 

1618), only aiat«r of Sir Joseph Banks, was 
bom m 1744 aad died on 27 Sept. 1818, at 
ber brother's house in Sofao Square, aft«r a 
short iUness. She had kindred tastss to her 
bcother, and although debarred from such 
adTeutnioni voyages aa he undertook, she 
iroaseod a considerable collection of objects 
of natural history, books, and coins. Sir 
Joseph Banks Resented her coins and en- 

E Tings to the British Museum. The Abbi 
nn, one of her brother's correepondents, 
patented her, in 1797, with a collection of 
Qerman coins which she added to her col- 
lection (Zetier* of Eminent IMtrary Men, 
Csmd. Soc pp. 44fi-7). 

[OenL Mag. Lnzriii. pt. iL (1818), p. 472.} 
B. D. J. 

BANKS, THOMAS (1736-1806), sculp- 
tor, the first of his country, according to 
Sir Jothna Beynolds, to produce works of 
clasnc grace, was the eldest son of William 
Banks, tita land steward and snrrejor of the 
Bnke of Beaufort. Hawasbomin Lambeth 
on 29 Dec. 1786. He is said by Fiaxraon to 
baT» been instructed in the prmciples of ar- 
chitecture, and to hsTe practised drawing 
under his &ther, 'who was an architect? 

Banks was sent to school at Boss, in Here- 
fordshire. At the age of fifteen he was placed 
nnder Mr. Barlow, an ornament carver, and 
served his fiill term of seven je&rs' appren- 
ticeship. Barlow lived near Scheem^en, 
the sculptor, and after working at Barlow'a 
from 6 a.m. to 6 pjn. the you^ studied at 
Scheemakers' from 8 to 10 or 11. He waa 
employed by Kent, the architect. At the age 
of twenty-three he entered the academy m 
St. Martin's Lane, and between 1763 and 
1769 obtained at least three medals and pre- 
miums from the Societv of Arts. One of 
these honours was awarded for a bas-relief of 
the 'Death of Epaminondaa' (1768) in Port- 
land atone ; another for a bafr^eli^ in mar- 
ble of ' Hector's Body redeemed ' (1766) : 
and a third for a life-siie modd in olay oi 
' Prometheus with the Vulture.' The laat is 
praised by Flazman as 'boldly conceived, 
composition harmonious and compact.' This 
was m 1760, the year of the first exhibition 
of the Boyal Academy ; and in 1770 Banka's 
name appears as an exhibitor of two designs 
of ' jSneat and Anchiaes escaping from the 
FUmesofTroy.' In the same year he obtained 
the gold medal of the Academy for a bas-ielief 
of the ' Bape of Froeerpine.' In 1771 he ex- 
hibited a cnerub hanging a crarland on an tun 
(in clay), and a drawing of the head of an 
Academy modeL The abiUty shown in theae 
woriis and the ' Mercury, Argns, and lo ' of 
the next year procured him s travellingstu- 
dentship, and ne left bis house in New Bond 
Street, Oxford Street, and went to Borne, 
where be arrived in Aufust 1772. He was 
now thirty-seven years (ud, and had married 
a lad^ of the name of Wooton, coheiress of 
certam green fields and flower gardens which 
have since been turned into the streets and 
squares of Mayfair. The portion of his wife 
and some asatatance from his mother (bis 
father being dead) placed him above the fear 
of want, and enabled him to prolong his stay 
in Italy for seven ^ears. In 1770 he returned 
and Xaok a house m Newman Street (No. 6), 
which he retained till his death. During his 
absence he exhibited two works only at tiie 
Royal Academy — a marble bas-relief of ' Al- 
cyone discovering the Body of Ceyz ' in 1776, 
and a marble bust of a lady in 1778 ; but the 
following are reckoned by different authori- 

nlcns,' bought by Thomas Coke, Esq., of 
Holkham ; another of ' Thetis rising to com- 
fort Achilles,' probably the original of the 
fine work in marble presented by his dan^j^- 
t«r, Mrs. Forater, to the National Qallerj 
in 1646; 'Caractacus and his Family be- 
fore Claudius/ in marble (exhibited 1760) j & 


Banks i; 

portrait of t&e Priiic«M SopKis of Glouceatei 
•8 Psyche plucking the golden wool (model, 
exhibited 1781) ; Love Hizing the ounuui 
boqI in the form of a butterfly. The last tm 
broneht homo by the artiat unflnisbed, and 
is probablj the marble Rtatue of Cupid, whicb 
waa exbiuted in 1781. In this year, finding 
little enconiagement in England, he went to 
KuBgia, taking thia figure with him, wbicb 
-waa bought for 380/. by the Empreaa Cathe- 
rine, who gave bim the ' Armed Neutrality ' 
aa a aubject to be done into atone. He ia aud 
to have executed thia and other work* at St. 
Peteraburg; hut either because the climate 
did not Hgrae with him, or from discontent 
at hia prospects in Rusaia, he returned to Lon- 
don in 1783, when he met with considerable 
enconragemmt. Fnnnl780tol803hisname 
n abamttfaieetiinee only &Dm the catatoguea 
of the Ronl Academy~in 1786, 1790, and 
1801. In 1784 appeared (in plaster') hia grand 
figure of ' Achillea enraged ibr tne Loss of 
Briseia,' which was afterwards presented by 
his widow to the British Institution, where 
it stood in the veatibule till the alteration 
of the gallery in 1868. It is now (1886) in 
the entrance hall of the Royal Academy at 
Burlington House. In this year (1784) he 
waa eloBted an associate, and the year after- 
wards a full member of the Royal Academv. 
Ak his diploma work hepresented hia finely 
conceiTedfigureofthe'FallingTifan.' This 
work is sufficient to show that Banks was 

Eift«d with unusual imagination of a poetic 
ind ; but there was little encouragement 
in Inland fbrworks of this order,and though 
he continued to model them forhisownplea- 
snre, his eommissiona till the end of his life 
were confined to busts and monumente. 
Colonel Johnee, of Hafod in Cardiganshire, 
did indeed enf^age him to execute the ' Achil- 
les Atraged ' in marble ; but this friend and 
patron cnanged hia mind in favour of ' Thetis 
dipping Achdles,' with Mrs. JohnesasThetia, 
and Hua Johnes aa the infant hero. Many 
of Banks's works were burnt at a fire at Ha- 
fod. In Weetminator Abbey there are monu- 
ments by Banks to Dr. Watta, Woollett, the 
engraTer, and Sir Eyre Coote. The lost is 
cetebrated for its life-size figure of a Mahratta 
captJTe, which was eihihited in 1789. In 
St. Paul's are his monuments to Captains 
Hntt, Westcott, and Rundle Buneas. His 
' «, which kragooomed the 

Mre Gallery (sfter- 
tion) in T»a HaU, 
1 removed to Stratford. Other im- 

Krtant works of his are the mtmument to 
[8. Petrie in Lewisham Church, the model 
for which, called * I^ty weeping at the Tomb 
of Benerolenoe,' was exhibited m 1788 ; and 

nun, nestcoK, ana Kunaie avm 
figure of Shakeapeare, which king ad< 
fivBt of BoydetTs Shakespeare Oalle 
wards tlw British Diatitution) in I 

4 Banks 

another to Penelope Boothby in Asbbouma 
Church, Derbyshire. The latter repreaents 
the sleeping figure of a child of aiz, and tho 
queen and her daughters ate said to hara 
Dorst into tears on seeing it at Somerset 
House in 1793. Banks was also the author 
of the statue of Lord Comwallis at Madras, 
of General Coutta (executed for the India 
House^, and of the monuments to Hr. Hand 
in Cripplevato Church, and to Baretti is 
St. Maryleoone Old Church. Amongst hts 
busts may be menticmed Home Tooke, War- 
ren Hastmgs (now in the National Portrait 
Gallery), Ian. Coeway, and Hts. Siddons aa 
Melpomene. His last exhibited work (1803) 
was a buet of Oliver Cromwell, At the In- 
ternational Exhibition in 186S, besides the 
' Falling Titan,' ' Achilles enraged,' and 
' Thetis rising to console Achillea,' there waa 
a work called 'Achilles putting on Helmet,' 
belonging to Mr. E. H. Corbould. At hia 
death nis studio was full of sketches of poeti- 
cal subjecta, chiefly Homeric, many of which 
areprsised by Allan Cunningham. 

few incidents are recorded in the li& of 
Banks. He was the friend of Hoppner, flax- 
man, Ftiseli, and Home Tooke, and was ar- 
rested on the chaive of high treason about the 
same time as Tocuce and Hardy. It is said 
that his practice suffered from suspicion of hifl 
revolutionary tendencies. He was noted for 
his kindness to young artists, and waa of spe- 
cial service to young Mulieady. Banks ia 
represented as tul, erect, silent, and dignified, 
with a winniug address and persuasive man- 
ners. He waa religious and strict in hiaman- 
nera, frugal of habit, but liberal to otbera. 
He made a fijie collection of en^vings and 
drawings by the old maatera, wmch, aRer his 
death, came into the possession of his daugh- 
ter, Mra. Forster, and liave since been divided 
between E. J. Poynter, R.A., and Mrs. Lee 
Cbilde. He died on 2 Feb. 1806, and was 
buried inPaddingtonchurchyard. Flazman 
delivered an ad^eaa to the students of the 
Roval Academy on theoccasionof his death, 
and there is a plain tablet to his memory in 
the north aisle of Westminster Abbey. 

[Canningham'a lives; If oUekaosand his Tiniw; 
Flaxman'a I«ctares ; BadnaveTa Diet. : Oent. 
Mag. Izzvi. Bie, 624, andlzzji. (pt. ii.} 017: 
Sojal Acadamy Catalogues ; Fagan s CoUeetora^ 
Maikai Cabof IntemsUDnalSdiibition, )M2.] 

(1766-1864), ^ealf^st, claimed by his 
father connection with the family of Banka 
of Whitley, in Yorkshire, whose deacent ha 
traced from Richard Bankes [q, v.], a baron 
of the exchequer in the tima of H«iiy IV and 





Eenr; V; and he userted that hii maternal 
aneeaton were the NoriAOS of BarbadoB, ' 
baroneto of Nora Scotia. He was educated 
for the law, and on the atrenKth of hiB genea- . 
logical knowledge proffered his serrices as an | 
asent in caaea 01 disputed inheritanee. From ' 
1813 to 1820 be practised at 5 Lyon'a Inn, 
andaubaeqiientlyhe took an ofBce, called the 
Dormant FMiaffe Office, in John Street, Pall 
HaU. Although none of the caaea he under- . 
took poMeeaed more tkan tlie very flimsieat 
daima, ai^ thaw was scarcely an j genealogi- 
cal wiB-of-thft-wiap which he was not ready, 
if the fimer atruck nim, to adopt as a. reality, 
hia reaearchea, when hia imagination was left 
nnbiaeeed, were of the most thorough and 
painstaking kind, and many of his puelished 
works poBsesB a very higli degree of merit. 
The ' Manual of the Nobility/'hia first pub- 
lication, appeared in 1807. The same year 
be htought out the first volume of the ' Dor- 
mant and Extinct Baronage of England,' a 
sectKtd volume following in 1608, and a third 
in 1809. In 181S he publiahed the first 
volume of a correspondiiig work on the 
' Peerage,' nearly one half of the Tolume bdn^ 
occupied with an account of the royal fami- 
lies oi England down to the death of Queen 
Anne, and the Temainder by the peerage from 
AhergaTenny to Banbury ; but the work was 
uerer carried beyond this volume. The same 
year be edited, in one volume, reprints of 
Dugdale's ' Ancient Usage in bearing Arms,' 
Dugdale's ' Discourse tonching the Office <A 
Lord High Chancellor,' with additions, to- 
ffether with Segsr's 'Honorea Anglicani.' 
The fljat of hie pamphleta in aupport of spu- 
rious claims to peerages appeared also in the 
aame year under the title ' An Analysis of 
the tieuealtsical History of the Family of 
Howard with its Connections ; showing the 
legal conne of descent of those nuioerons 
titlea which are generally, but presumed er- 
roneously, attributed to be veetea in the duke- 
dom of Norfolk.' In 1616 the pamphlet was 
republished with the more sensational title, 
' Ecce Homo, the Hysterious Heir: or Who 
is Ur. Walter Howard f an interesting in- 
Quirr addressed to the Duke of Norfolk/ A 
fliird edition Mmared in 1816, with a cofj 
of Hi. Walter Howard's petition to the ki^. 
The same year there was published anony- 
mously the ' Detection of ^i&my, eameetJy 
recommended to the justice and deliberation 
of thelmperial Parliament by an Unfortunate 
Nobleman.' The author of the ^mphlet, as 
attested by his own hand in the Britisfa Mu- 
seum copy, was Hr. Banks ; the unfortunate 
nobleman was Thomas Druinraond, of Bid- 

ceed to the estates in preference to James 
Drummond, who had been rec<»;niBed as heir 
in 1784, and was created Lord Perth in 1797. 
About this time Banks was also eninged in 
comittling the cases printed by Lewis Dymoke 
on his claim to the barony of Harmion in 
right of the tenure of the manor of Scrivelsb^ri 
Lincoln. In 1614 be published an'Histori- 
cal and Critical Enquuy into the Nature of 
the KinglT Office, the (Pronation, and Office 
of Eing^ Champion ;' and in 1816b ' History 
of the Ancient NoUe Family of Marm^un. 
their singular Office of King's Champion. 
In 1826 he brought out ' Stemmata Angli- 
cana; or, a Hisoellaneons Collection of Oe- 
aealogj, showing the descent of numerous 
ancient and baronial families, to which ia 
added an analysis of the law of hereditary 
dignitiea, embracing the origin of nobilitv .' 
The second part contained an account of tna 
ancient and extinct royal familitie of En^and, 
re-embodied from the ' Extinct Peerage.' In 
1837 this was republished aa a fourth volume 
of the 'Dormant and Extinct Baronage d 
England,' and continued down to January 
1837, with corrections, appendices, and index. 
In 1880 be undertook the case of Alexander 
Humphns, or Alexander, who laid claim to 
the earldom of Stirling, aa descended from a 
younger branch of the family hj the female 
side; hismother,whodiedinl8l4,assumiug 
to be Countess of Stirling in her own right. 
In support of the claims of Humphrrs there 
appeared in 18S0 ' Letters to the Right Hon. 
the Lord E— on the Right of Sucoessica to 
Scottish Peerages,' which reached a second 
edition. The fetters were by Mr. £. Lock- 
hart j the advertisement, pp. 1-8, and the 
appendix, pp. 43-118, by !^uiks. The same 
year Banks published on the subject a ' Let- 
ter to the Earl of Roseberry in relation to 
the proceeding at the late election of Scotch 
peers,' and this was followed in 1831 by an 
'Address to the Peers of Scotland by Alex- 
ander, Bart of Stirling and Dovan, and in 
18S3 by an ' Analytical Statement of the Case 
of Alexander, Earl of Stirling and Dovan.' 
Banks gave proof of his own personal faith 
in the claims of HumphryB by allowing the 
pseudo^arl, in accordance with rights con- 
ferred on the first Earl of Stirling by King 
James, to create him a baronet, and by ac- 
COTiting from him, in anticipation, a grant of 
6,000 acres of land in Nova Scotta. When 
the documents on whichHumphrys founded 
his claima were discovered to be foigeriea, 
Banks ceased to make use of his own title ; 
but in his obituary notice he is styled ' a 
Baronet of Nova Scotia and Knight ot the 
HoIyOrderofSt-JohnofJerusalem.' While 
the Stirling case wM atiU ID progrees, Banks 




publtalied the imagiuArj discovery of Miotlwr 
unrecoeitised claim to • peense, tmder the 
title of » ' G«ut>Iogic»l iiul Krtoiical Ac- 
count of the Earldom of Banbury, showuiff 
the detceot of the Baron Andler of Heleira 
from the Williun LongMpfi, ^1 of Salis- 
burj, son of King Hennr II bj the oelehrated 
Fair BtMunond, and showinK also the right 
of the BaroD Aiidlej to the inheritance of the 
same earidom.' In 1844hepubliehed,intwo 
parts, 'Baronia Anglica Ooncentrata,' He 
alao published, withont date, ' Obaervatioas 
on the Jns et Hodns Decnmandi,* an ' Account 
of the ancient Chapel of St. Stephen's at 
Weetminater,' and a ' Poem on the Familv 
of Bruce.' Durinff his later years he resided 
near Ripon, Yorkuiire. Ha died at QreeU' 
inch 30 Sept. 1864. 

1872), antjqua^, was bom at WakeSeld, 
Yoifcshire, in bufch 1820, of humble parent- 
age. He received a scanty education at the 
lA&casterian school in that town, and at the 
age of eleven started life as office-boy to He. 
John Bern, a local wdicitor. Heirasaflei^ 
wards den in the office of Messrs. Msnden 
& lanMn, solicitors and clerks to the West 
Biding justices, and upon the dissolution of 
the flnu in 1844 he remained with Mr. Ian- 

admitted an attorney in Hilary Term, ISGl, 
and in 1663 bscame a partner, the firm being 
Heesrs. lansm ft Banks. On the formation 
of the Wakefield Borough Commission in 
March 1870 he wss sleeted clerk to the 
justices, an office which he retained until his 
death. He had, in 1866, become known ss 
an author by the publication of his ' List of 
Provincial Words in use at Wakefield,' an 
vupretandtDg Uttle volume, bat a model <rf 
its Kind. "The following year he gave to the 
wc^d the first of his excellent manuals, en- 
titled 'Walks in Yorkshire: Lin the North. 
west ; n. In the NortlMast,' which had 
previously appeared in 'we^y instalments in 
the columns of the ' WakeMd Free Press.' 
Shortly before his death he issued a com- 
psjiion volume, called 'Walks in Yorkshire : 
Wakefleld and ite neighbourhood,' Both 
works are remaritable for their completeness 
and happy research. Banks died at his honse 
in Nortlurate, Wakefield, on the Christmas 
day of 1872, having returned but a few 
weeks from the continent, whither he had 
journeyed in a vun search for health. 

BAlfETON, LoKD (1685-1760), SoottiA 
judge. {See Maosowall, Axibbw.} 


1308), jud^ was appointed in 1297 to travel 
the forests m Elssez, Huntingdon, Northamp- 
toD, Rutland, Surrey, and Sussex, for the pur- 
pose of enforcing the obserranceof the forest 
laws of Henry III, and in 1399 was nude m 
justice itiuen^t for Kent, and a baron of the 
exchequer in 1307. We find him summoned 
to attend the king's coronation, and parlia- 
ment in 130B. In this ;ear be died, and his 
widow, Cicely, was relieved from the payment 
of four marks, at which her property had 
been assessed for taxation, by nvour of the 
king. He had landed property at Lee and 
elsewhere in Kent, which deecended, accoTd> 
iug to the Kentish custom of ^velkiud, to 
his two sons Thomas and William. 

[ParL Writs, ii. div. ii. pt. i. 17, IB, pt. ii. S; 
Msdoi's Hist, of the Ezch. ii. 380; HsMed's 
Kent, i. 84, 92 ; Dusdals's Chnm, Ser. 81. 84.1 
J. M. E. 

BANKWELL, ROGER m (jt 1840% 
judM, perhaps of the same family as John 
de Bankwell [q. v.], was one of tares com- 
missioners entrusted with the assessment of 
the tallage in the counties of Nottingham 
and Derby in 1333, and a member of another 
commission directed to inquire into the eiiw 
Gomrtances connected with a fire which bad 
reoentlv occurred at Spondon in Derbyshire, 
the sumrers by which prayed temporary ei- 
emptioB from taxation on account of their 
losses. He appears as acounaelin the yeat> 
book for 1340, in 1341 was appomted to ■ 
justiceehip of the king's benoh,Bnd was one of 
those Bssinied to try petitions from Oaecony, 
Wales, Ireuand, Scotland, and ' other foreign 
parts' between tiie years 1841 and 1S47. 

[RoL Pari, ii, 147, 447 ; Rymsfs Fcsdsn, sd. 
J. M. R. 

(A 1SB3), Augustinian friar and opponent of 
Wyelifie, was bom in London and educated 
inueAiuustinian monastery ofthatdty and 
afterwaids at Oxford, when he attuned the 
degree of doctor of divinity. The ungle r*- 
eo^ed act of his life is hu preaenoe at tba 
provincial council of Blackfiruua which con- 
demned certain of Wyclifie's opinions in May 
1882 (FatdaiU Zuamorum, pp. 380, 499; 
cf. pp. 272 sq. : ed. Shirley, Rolls Series). 
Bishop Bale states that Banana was a populu 
preacher and an able disputant, and that his 


Bannard i, 

mitiiigi compnie 'Determinationes' and 
'SermoneB ad Popalnm.' u well u a book 
' Coutm Poutionea Wictevi ' (^Soript. lUiutr. 
QttaL vi. 97). Of these works, bowerer, no 
C0[»eB are koowii to be extent. 

The ambiguity of the maniucript of the 
'Fasciculi Ziuniomm' (:Bodl. Libt.e Hua. 86, 
fol. 66 1, eoL 1), which iffnorea the distinction 
between n and u, haa led Shirley to print 
the name ' Baukintu : ' and Foxe (Act* and 
MommmU, \. 496, ed. 1684) angliciaea it as 
' Bowkin.' The n, however, appean in two 

copieit (Fate. Ziz. p. 499, and WlLXIKB, 

L Mam. Brii. Ui. IJ 

Oyneii. Mafftt. Brit, a 


emph; an octeonblyderiTM] from the Fasciculi ; 
bat neither the edition nor ihe UBDiueript of this 
vorfc contains anjtbing bejoed the bare name of 
the friar, and Fiti'a notiM ma}' be mfel; taken 
u • linple eatholic version of Bsle. The article 
in J. Pam^ns, Chion. OnL Fratr. EmniU S. 
Angnst (Bom*, IBSl, qoarto), it eqnallj mi- 
originaL] £. L. P. 

BAlfNABD, JOHN {Jl. 1413), Augusti- 
nian Mar at Oxford, is mentioned in Anthony 
i Wood's account of the Oxford membera 
of this frataniity. According to Wood he 
flouiiahed about 1412, and is 8tat«d to have 
been profeaior of theologj, and afterwards 
chancellor of the universitj. Wood profeBsea 
to have collected the materials for his short 
notice of Bannard from some manuscript 
fragments extant in his time in the libran' 
of Crapus Ohiisti College, Oxford, whidi 
fiMmerlj belonged to the library of Eiet«r 
CathedraL Tanner adds that in the same 
college library (MS. civi.) there is a treatise 
dincted agamst the views entertained by 
Jcfan Bannard, the Augustioian, on the 
queationof the Immaculate OonceplJon; but 
no mention of this author is to m found in 
Mr. Coie's catalogue of the Oxford college 
■nannscripta. According to Wood, Baunard^s 
chief work was entitled 'Emditn Qnnetionee 
in Hagistrum Sententiarum ; ' and Iw adds 
that tttia production crested radi a sMr oa to 
call forth a refiitation at the hands of other 
Oxford divines of the sge. 

[TannBc's BibL Brit ; Wood's Historia et An- 
■ ■«-_. 

1606 F), oolleetor of Soottish poems, seventh 
of the twenty^^hree children of JamM Ban- 
natyne of Kirktowu of Newtyle in For&r- 
■hin and Katharine Taillefer, was bred to 
tnde, and acquired oonsiderable property in 
or near Edinburgh, of which he was admitted 
■ buigeaa in 16^. His only surviving child 

7 Bannatyne 

bv his wife Isobel Mawchau, Janet, married 
deorgQ Foulis of Woodhall and BAvelston, 
second son of James Foulis of Golinton. The 
family of Foulis preserved the manuscript 
well known aa the ' Bannatyne MS.,' now 
in the Advocates' Library, Edmburgh, wliich 
entitles George Bannatyne to the {fistitude 
of students of Scottish poetry. This manu- 
script was written during the pesUlenca of 
1568, wliich forced him to leave hie businees 
and take refiige in Forfarshire, and is styled 
l^ him ' Aue most godlie mirrie and luatiu 
Rapeodie maide be sundrie learned Bcola 
poets and vrritten be Geotge Bannatyne in 
the tyme of his youth.' It ia a neatly writtan 
folio of 800 pages divided into five pwts, 
thus described in one of the verses by him- 
self, which prove him a lover rather than a 
maker of poetry: 

The first concemis Qodis gloir and our salvatiomi ; 
The next are mcsale, grave, and als besyd it, 
Oronnd on gnds connaale ; the third, I will not 

Ar blyth and gjaid maid for our eooaoUatiomi ; 
The ferd of Inve and thair richt refbrmationn ; 
The ^'ift ai tailis and storiea weill diMjdit. 

In thi^ a eomewhat eariier comjnlation by 
Sir Ridiard Maitlaud of Lethiugton, and that 
by John Asloan, now in the Ancbenleck 
Library, are preserved moat of the poems of 
Dunbar, Henryson, Lyndsay, and Alexander 
Scott, as well as many poems by leaa-known 
or unknown ' makars ' of the fifteenth and first 
half of the aixteeoth century, during which 
Scottish poetry was at its beet, i '* *' 

splendid re 

u Bums and SeotL The eon- 

tents of this manuscript were first partially 
printed by Allan Ramsay in the ' Evergreen,' 
and afterwards by I<ord Hailes in his ' An- 
cient Scottish Poems,' but the whole manu- 
script haa now been more accurately printed 
by the Bunterian CQub. Bannatyne waa 
adopted as the patron of the Bannatyne Club 
of Edinbu^h, which, under the piesidemnr 
of Sir Walter Scott, was instituted in 183S, 
and printed many Suable memorials of the 
histOTy and literature of Scotland. In the 
■ Memorials of George Bannatyne,' one of its 
publications, will be found a grateful and 
gracefiil memoir of their patron by Scott, 
and a detailed catalogue of the contents of 
his manuscript by Mr. D. Lsing. The exact 
date of his death is unknown, but it was 
prior to December 1608. On returning the 
mannicript to its owner, Mr. Gannicbad, 
Ramsay added the lines : 

In sevsntean hundred twen^-fonr 

Sid Allan Bamsav keen- 
ly gHther from this Book that stole 
Which fill* hit EvMgrMn. 




ThriM tttj and mz towmondt OMt 

Frae when it wm eollactsd ; 
Let vDrthj Pocta bope good &U, 

Hito' time Haifa be nopcetod. 
FkdiioM of worda and witt maj change, 

And rob in part their fine. 
And make tbm U> dull fopa look itiangf, 

Bnt lense ia aCill the aame. 

BamaaT, however, took eonsidenble liberties 
-with the text and added some poems of hia 
own, akilfiilly imitating the style of the 
ancient poete, who«e genuine works must be 
read in t&e publication of BaunatTne'B mauu- 
acript bj the Hnnterian Club or Ute Btandard 
editiotu of the principal snthoia, 

[Memoriala of Qatagt Bamiatjne.] M. M. 

aecretary to John Enoi, the Scottiah re- 
former, has left no 'memorials' whatever 
of himseUI though hie ' Memorials of Traos- 
actiooB in Scotland from 1509 to 1673 ' is 
an importent historic authority. It has been 
inferred that he vas of the same fiunilj with 
Qeoige Bannatyne [q. v.], and that he was a 
reader or catechist under Knox. But there 
is raallr nothing to rest these inferences on. 
Beyoua the facta that he appeared repeatedly 
in the Deneral assembly of the 'kirk' of 
Scotland, and before the 'kirk' session of 
Edinburgh during the illneas or absence of 
the great reformer, and that he was permitted 
to addreas the courts as a ' prolocutor ' or 
apeaker, there is no evidence that he filled 
any public office. 

At the first gemeral assembly hdd after 
the death of Knox, which took place in 
November 1673, Bannatyne presented & 
petition or supplication, prayuw tbat he 
should be appomted ' by the kirk to put 
in order, for their better preeervation, the 
papers toA scrolls left to nim ' by the re- 
former. The general aseemblv agreed to 
his request. About I57G, after he had com- 

Sleted the task, Bannatyne became clerk to a 
[r. Samuel CockburD,of TempilliOrTempill- 
hal), advocate. He remained in his service 
for thirty years, and at last appointed him 
iointrexecutor of his last will ancl testament, 
ID association with an onlv brother, James 
Bannatyne, a merchant of Ayr. He died on 
4 Sept. 1606. It is his relation to John 
Knox tbat givee him bis chief interest. The 
following notice of him, and of one of the 
latest appearances of the reformer in the 

Julpit, ia taken from the ' Diary ' of Jamea 
[elville (1556-1601) :— 
■The toun of Edinbmclie [Edinbnrgfa] 
recouered againe, and the guid and honest 
ram therof retoumed to their houaeea. Mr. 
Knot, with bin fuuilie, past home to Edin- 

bruche ; being in Sanct Androa he was 
verie weak. I saw him every day ... go 
hulie and fear [lie], with a furring of mar- 
trika about his neciL a staff in the ane hand, 
and Kuid godly RicWd Bellanden [Banna- 
tyne], his servand, haldiu vpe the other oxtar 
[ana-pit] from the Abbey to the paroche 
kirke, and be the said Richard and another 

he haid done with his sermont, he was so 
active and vigorous, that be was tyke to 
ding the pnlpit in blods, and file out of it ' 
^p. 26). Juat when the reformer was breath- 
ing his last, Bannatyne is said to have ad- 
dnsaed his beloved master thus : ' Now, Sir, 
the time yee have long called to Ood for, to 
witt, on end of vour battell, ia come, and 
seeing all natural! powers foile, give us some 
eigne that yee remember upon the comfort- 
able promisee which yee nave oft shewed 
unto us.' 'He lifted up his one hand, and 
incontinent thereafter rendered bis spirit 
about eleven hours at night' (Calderwood's 
SUtory, iti. 387). Banuatyne'a ' Memorials' 
(fully and corefully edited by Pitcoim for 
the Bannatyne Club) make no pretence to 
either learning or literary style. They are 
of permanent value for details of the time 
not ascert^nable elsewhere. 

rUcCrie'e Ijfe of Enoi; Kr J. G. Cecil's 
and Pit«aim'a edilion of the Memoriali,- An- 
deison'i Scottish Nadim.] A. B. 6. 

LEOD ( 1 748-1833), ScoUh judge, was the son 
of Roderick Madeod, writer to tne signet, and 
was bomSejan. 1743-4. Admittedamember 
of the Faculty of Advocatea in 1766, he soon 
[uired, by the help of his father and his 
' of dear penpicuons statement, a good 
position at the bar. Xhrou^ his mother he 
succeeded to the estate of Eames, in Bute, 
when he assumed the name of Bannatyne ; 
but his careless and expensive habits lenoered 
it necessary for him m a few years to part 
with the property. In 1799 he was promoted 

gift o 

D the bench, with the title of Lora Banna- 

[nnial conduct and sound legal aoqoire- 
' secured him general respect, although 

tricate and involved when they were put by 
him in writing. On bis retirement from the 
bench, in 1833, he received the honour of 
knighthood. He died at Whiteford Honae, 
Ayr, 80 Nov. 1833. 

Sir William Madeod Bannatyne was one 
of the pToiectoTB of the Edinburgh periodi- 
cals, tlie 'Miiror* and 'Ijoouger, e£tadbj 




Henrj Hukeniie, vith whonij and witli 
Blair, Cullen, EraJdne, Mid Craig, he liTod 
on tonns of intimkte friendihip. Much of 
Ida spue time wu ipent in the gratification 
of hit literary twtea, and his papetB in the 
'Himir' and ' Lounger ' di«pla;macfa genial 
wit and BpriKbtlineu. He wsa one ot the 
oriffinaton of the Hi^iland Societjr in 1784, 

a^nal member of the Ban- 

le Qub, whidi 

jeare be remained the aole surriTor of the 
old lil^TBiy societ J of Edinburgh, vboae mild 
eplendoun wmb eelipaed by the briUiant 
achievement* of the auccee^ng generation 
with whom he minoled during the latter pe- 
riod of bis life. He was amon^ the last of 
the Scotch gentlemen who combined in their 
manners dignity and grace with a homely 
simplicitT now for erer lost, and could make 
UM of the mphio and strong Tamacolar 
Scotch in the pure and beautifbl fram in 
which, for many years after the union, it con- 
tinued to be t^ enrrent speech of the Scotch 
upper dassea. 

[Kay*! Series of Original Portraits and Csri- 
cstore Etchings, editioo of ISTT> ii. 870-71; 
Quit Uag. Ifew Series, i. lOf.] T. F. H. 

Scottish poetical writeTfjiublished at E!din- 
burgh in 1800 a Htnall volume of ' Poems,' 
which was followed in ISOSW 'Tales of Su- 
perftit^onand ChiTsIry.' In December 1608 
•he lost her mother, and about the same time 
her only brother died in Jamaica. She was 
thna left without relatives, and in a Htat« of 
destitution. Dr. Kobert Andereon, writing 
to Bishop Percy IGSept. leOifSaTs; 'Ihsve 
•ometimee tbought that a small portion of 
the pnblio bounty might be very properly 
bestowed cm this elegantly accompliahed 
woman. I mentioned ber case to Professor 
Bichardaon, the confidential friend and ad- 
Tiser of the Dnke of Hontrose, a cabinet 
minister, who readily undertook to co-operate 
in any application that might be made to 
aoremment. The duke is now at Buchanan 
House, and other channels are open, but no 
step has yet been taken in the business. . . . 
Perfaani an edition of her poems by snb- 
aeription might be brought forward at this 
time with euecen.' The latter suggestion 
was acted upon, and about 360 subscribers 
of a guinea were obtained for the new edi- 
tion of the ' Poem^ inclufng the ' Tales of 
Superstition and Oiivalry,' much was pub- 
lished at Edinburgh in 1807, 4to, with a dedi- 

aa governess to Lady Fruicee Beresfbrd's 

daughter, Shediedat Portobello.nearEdin- 
burgh, on SO Sept. 1829 (OJoiyow Owner). 
[Nichols's IllnstratioDi of Xjtsmry Historr, 
*ii. 87. 112, isa, 139, US, ISA. 13S, 104, 181, 
18S; Cat. of Printed Books in Brit Hus.; Bog. 
Diet ofliving Authors (ISIS), IS.] T. C. 

BANNISLMAir, JAHES, D.D. (1807- 
1868), theologian, son of Bav. Jamw Patrick 
Bannerman, minister of GarnU, Ferthshin, 

bomat the manse of Car^,9Ainil 1607, 
afteradistingv' ' ' - .• . ' 

aity of Edinburgh, 

and aftw a distingniabed career at the ui 

_, . " "' " oigh,eapedaIlyi 
Sir John Leslie ana Professor Wilson, be- 

in the classes of 

of Ormiston, in Midlothian 
in 1633, left the EsMblisbed for the Free 
church in 1843, and in 1 849 was appointed 
professor of apologetics and pastoral theology 
in the New ColIege(Free church), Edinbnr^, 
which office he hela till bis deaUi, 27 Much 
1868. In 1850 he received the denee of 
D J), from Princet«n CoU^e, New Jersey. 
He took a leading part in various pubho 
movements, especially in that which led in 
1S48 to the separation of the Free church 
from the state, and subsequently in the ue^ 
tiationa for union between the nonconformist 

Csbyt^ian churches of England and Scot* 
d. His chief publications were : 1. 'Let- 
ter to the Harquis of Tweeddale on the 
ChuToh Questionl* 1840. 2. 'The Prevalent 
Forme of Unbeliel^' 1849. 8. ' Apologetical 
Theoloffv,' 1861. 4. 'Inspiration: the In- 
fallible IVuth and Divine Authority of tiie 
Holy Scriptures,' 1866. 6. ' The Ohuroh : a 
Treatise on the Nature, Powers, Ordinances, 
Discipline, and Qovemment of the Christian 
Church,' S vols. Svo ; published after his 
death in 1866, and edited t^ his son. 6. A 
volume of sermons (also posthumous) pub- 
lished in 1669. In 1839 he married a daugh- 
ter of the Hon. Lord Beaton, one of the 
senators of the College of Justice. 

[Pre&ee to The Church, by his son ; Omoad 
in SisniptiDn Wortbis^ ISTSj ScoU'i Fasti 
BobL Soot. pt. L SdS.] W. O. B. 

1766), engraver, was boni in Cambricbe 
about 1730. He engraved some plates Kr 
Alderman' Boydell, ' Joseph interpretinK 
Pharaoh's Dream, Kfler Riben ; the 'Death 
of St. Joseph, an«r Velasques ; and ' Danc- 
ing Childroi, after LeHaire. For Walpole'a 
'Anecdotes of Painters' he also engraved 
•everal portaits. In 1766 he was a member 
of the Incorporated Society of Artists ; in 
1770 he is known to liave been living in 
Cambridge. In Nailer's dictionary (ed. 1878) 
is a long list of his works ; there are good 
■pecimens in the print room of the British 




[RMlgnra'a Diet, of AttUU of Eog. School ; 
Strutt'n KeL of EoKnTsn; Nsgler*! Ailgt 
miiiDea EDanlei-Lexikoii ; H«iiielMii'* Diction- 
DwndMAitdne*.] E- R. 

1804), ftcbor and Toc*list, whoee feme U 
eclipsed br that of liia son Jolin ^q. v.], wu 
bom in GloucettenluTe, according- t« the 
"TheBpian Dictionary," no vary trustworthy 
authorit7,ij]17d8. 9eTen7ean after his birtn 
hiB father obtained a post in the Tictualling 
office at Deptford, to which place the family 
lemoTed. mjiniatarappearsfromanearljage 
to have had the run of the Deptford theatre, 
in which, before he was eighteen, he playad 
aa an amateur Richard III, Romeo, and 
probably some other characters. An appU- 
cation to Qarrick for employment being un- 
BUCcoBsfal, he Joined the Norwich circuit. 
His d6but in London wb« made in 1762 at 
the Haymarket, then under the management 
ef Foote. The piece was the ' Orators,' a 
species of comic lecture on oratory, written 
BJid spoken b^ Poote, supported ^ various 
pupils placed in the boxes, as thongh they 
belonged to the audience. The character 
assigned to Bannister waa WiU Tirehack, an 
(>iford student. Palmer, subsequently his 
close friend, is said, m the ' Liib of John 
Bannister' by Adolphus, to have made his 
d^but as H^ry Scamper in the same play. 
The statement is, however, inaccurate, the 
dSbut of Palmer having talien place a few 
months earlier at Drury Xiane. Bannister's 
imitations of singen like Tenducci and 
Champney* were succeasfitl, and led t« his 
appearance as a vocalist at Ranelagh and 
elsewhere. Oarriek's attention waa now 
drawn to the young actor, who made his 
d«but at Drury Lane in 1767, it is said, as 
Merlin in Oarriek's play of ' Oymon.' This 
is possible. Beneley, however, 'created' 
that character S Jan. 1767, and the name of 
Bannister daee not <>ppear in Qenest till the 
following season, 1767-8, when he is found, 
33 Oct., playing the Frompter in ' A Peep 
behind the Curtain, or the New Reheaisal,' a 
farce attributed to Qarrick. During many 
years Bannister acted or sang at the Hay- 
market, the Royalty, Covent Garden, and 
Drury Lane. His death took place 26 Oct. 
lB04mSu5blk Street. An excellent vocalist, 
with a deep bass voice and a serviceable 
falsetto, a &ir actor, a clever mimic, smart 
in rejoinder, good-natured, easy-going, and 
thoroughly careless in money matters, he 
obtained remarkable social success, was popu- 
larly known as honest Charles Bannister, and 
was the hero of many anecdotes of question- 
able authority. In one or two characteie he 

was unrivalled. Of these, Steady, in th« 
' Quaker,' was probahly best known. It has 
been said that no adequate representative of 
Shakeepeare's Caliban has been seen sine* 
Bannister's death. 

BANHI8TER, JOHN (1760-1886), co- 
median, bom at Deptford 13 May 1760, was 
the son of Charles Bannister [q. v.]. A 
taste for painting which he displayed while 
a schoolboy led to his becoming a student 
at the Royal Academy, where ne had for 
associate and friend Rowlandaon, the cari- 
caturist. His theatrical bent, shown at time* 
to the interruption of his tellow students, 
and, according to Nollekens, to the great 
disturbuice of Moeer, the Keeper of the 
Academy, led to his abandoning the pumit 
of painting, and adopting the staee as a 
pnilession. Before quitting the Academy he 
called upon David Garrick, who, two yean 
previonuy, in 1776, had retired from the 
stage. Bannisters account of an interview 
which, though formidable, was not wholly 
discouraging, is preserved in the diary used 
by his bit^rapher, Adolphus. Garrick mani- 
fested some interest in the young aspirant, 
and appears to have afibrdedhim instruction 
in the character of Zaphna, a role ' created ' 
by Qarrick in a version by the Rev. James 
Hillerofthe'Mahomet' of Voltaire. Banni»- 
ter's first appearance took place at the Hay- 
market, for nis father s benefit, on ^ Aug. 
1778, as Dick m Murphy's farce, the ' Appren- 
tice.' The character, a favourite with Wood- 
ward, who had died in the April of the pre- 
vious year, su^eeted formidable comparisons, 
which Bannister seems to have stood fairly 
well. He recited on this occasion a prologue 
by Qarrick, which Woodward waa also in the 
habit of delivering, and wound np his share 
in the entertainment by exercising a strong 
power of mimicry which be possessed, and 
giving imitations of well-lmown actors. 
The following season, 1778-9, saw Banniitar 
engaged with his father as a stock actor at 
Drury Lane, the d^hutbeingmada on 11 Nov. 
1778 in the character of Zaphna (Seid iu the 
original), commended to him by Qarrick, with 
whomitwasafavourito. Palmira wss played 
by Mrs. Robinson, better hnown ae Perdita, 
AlcanorbyBensley, and Mahomet by Palmsr. 
On 19 Jan.following, according to Adolphus, 
but more probably, according to Qenest, 
19 Dec., he appeared, again in Toltaire, a* 
Dorislas in a version by Aaron HiQ of ' M6- 
rope.' Covent GatdenbepUyed 





Achmet in Dr. Brown's trasedj of ' Barba- 
Toms.' His tnnsfeience to &me boards was 
ftttribntable to s speciss of coalitioD be- 
tween the two great nouses then in practice. 
His only other appeacanc« this season was 
for his henefit at Coyent Qarden 00 24 April 
1779, when he acted the Prince of Wales in 
the 'First Part of Henry IV,' and Shift in 
Foote's Gomedv, the ' Mirror,' and gave his 
imitations. While Drury Lane was sbut, 
Buuaister joined Mattochg's company at Bir- 
tningham jilayinff such characters as Macduff, 
(Mando, Ednr Lothario, Oeorge Barnwell, 
and Simon Pure. His first ' creation ' of im- 
portADCe anpearn to have been Don Ferolo 
Whiskerandos in the ' Critic,' which was pro- 
duced at Drory Lane on 29 Oct. 1779. An 
ajipeemice in ' Hamlet' followed, and is not 
TOnaricable, except for the fact that Bannister 
had influence enough to induce the manatfe- 
ment to ranore the alterations in the pu.y 
made by Garrick. Whatever capacity Ban' 
nister poneesed in tragedy that was not 
eclipsed hy the established reputation of 
Henderson had shortly to yield to the grow- 
ing fame of Kemble. Lamb, who in a noted 
puallel between him and Suett speaks of the 
two as ' more of personal favourites with the 
town than any acton before or after,' says 
Bannister was ' beloved for his sweet good- 
natured moral pretensions,' and adds that 
'your whole conscience was stirred' with 
his Walter in 'The Children in the Wood.' 
Leigh Hunt speaks of him as ' the iiTst low 
comedian on the stage.' So late as 1787 we 
find him still easaying GeoTve Barnwell, and 
during previous vears such characters as Pos- 
thumus, OroonoHO, Chamont in the ' Orphui,' 
and Juba in ' Cato,' divide attention with hap~ 

Set efforts as Charles Snr&ce and Parolles. 
y the year 1787 Bannister's social and pio- 
fessional position was eetablished. Inkle in 
' Inkle and Yarico ' was created by him, and 
Almaviva in 'Follies of a Day' (La Folle 
Jourrtie) and Scout in the ' Village Lawyer ' 
(L'Avocat Patelin) added to his repertory. 
Brisk in the 'Double Dealer' of Congreye, 
Sir David Dnnder in Colman's ' Ways and 
Means, Ben in ' Lore for Love, Brass in the 
' Confederacy,' Scrub in the ' Beaux' Strata- 

rt,' Trappanti in Cibber's ' She would and 
would not, Speed in the ' Two Gentlemen 
of Verona,' areamong the parts that prepared 
the way for his conspicuous success as Sir 
Anthony Absolute and Tony Lumpkin, ehs- 
lacters in which he was receive] with pleasure 
to the end of his career. In 1792 the wife 
of Batwister, whom he had married at Hen- 
don on 26 Jan. 1783, and who, under her 
maiden name of Harper, had acquired some 
reputation, retired from the stage, the reason 

being her increasing family. Bannister still 
retained, in the height of his succew, his taste 
for painting, and Eowlondson, Morland, and 
Gainsborough were his close friends. From 
this time forward his career was an unbroken 
triumph. Hie principal comic parts in the 
old drama fell by right into his hands, and 
his acceptance of a role in a new piece was of 
favourable augury. Bob Acres, Job Thoro- 
bury in ' John BuU,' Marplot, Caleb Quotem, 
Colonel Feignwell in 'A Bold Stroke for a 
Wife,' Dr. OUapod, Young Philpot in the 
' Citizen,' and Dr. Pangloss, are among his 
greatest performances ; Mercutio being the 
only comic character of importance that 
seemed outside his range. In 1602-3 ha was 
acting manager at Druir Lane. At one pe- 
riod, commencing 1807, he gave a monoli^ue 
entertainment, with songs, entitled 'Ban- 
nister's Budget.' On 1 June 1816 Bannister 
retired &om the stage, playing in Kenney's 
comedy, the ' World,' Echo, a character 
created by him, and affording room for a 
display of his mimetic gifts, and Walter in 
' Cbiloren in the Wood. He also spoke a 
farewell address. He died in Gower Street 
on 7 Nov. 1836, at 2 a.m., and was buried 
on the 14th in the church of St. Martin's- 
in-the-Fields in a vault with bis father. The 
stage can point to few men of more solid 
virtue or unblemished character. His acting 
obtained the high praise of the acut«st judges. 
Of the galaiy of comic actors which marked 
the close of the last and the beginning of the 
present century he was one of the brightest 
stars. A portrait of him, by Russell, R.A., 
in the Gamck Club, shows him with a bright 
and intellectual fiwM, and a very well-shaped 

[Adolphns's Memoirs of John Bannistsr, two 
vols. I83B; Qenest's Account of the Eaglish 
Stags from ths Besbirali on in leeo to 1830, Bath, 
1832. 10 vuls. ; Reminiscences of Michael Kelly, 
S vols., 2nd adit. Load. 1826; Thespian Dic- 

vaDts,2voU.I86i; Leigh Hnnt's Critical Essays 
on the Psrrormera of the London TheaCmi, 1807 ; 
Lamb's Essays of EUa, WoAs, vol. iii. ed. 1876.] 
1873 J .philologist, son of David Bannister, by 
his wife Elisabeth Qreensidea, was bom at 
York on 26 Feb. 1816, and educated at Trinity 
OoUege, Dublin (B.A., 1844; M.A., 1863; 
LL.B. and LL.D., 1866). He was curate of 
Longford. Derbyshire, 1844-6, and perpetual 
curate of Bridsehill, Buflield, Derbyshire, 
from 1846 till 1867, when he was appointed 
perpetual curate of St. Day, Cornwall, where 
he died on 30 Aug. 167S. 




He is tlie author ot: 1. 'J«ws in Com- 
-wkU,' Tmro, 1867, 8to, Tepnnted from tlie 
' Joumal of the Boyal loBtitution of Com- 
■wdl.' 2. 'A QlomuT of Comuk NamM, 
ancient and modem, locaL &mil^, penooal, 
Ac. : 20,000 Celtic and other nunee now or 
formerl J in use in Cornwall ; with dariva- 
tioiu and tignificatioiu, far the moat part 
cxitnectuTal, lu^estiTe and tentatiye of many, 
and liits of unexplained oamea about which 
informstion U wUciWd,' 1/ondon, 1869-71, 
8to. This woric was brought out in Beven 
parts. The aupplement, woich was to have 
formed three additional parte, was never 

Sublished, owing to the decease of the author. 
. ' Qarlever Cwnonak, a Tocabulan of the 
ancient Cornish Uiwnase,' Egerton M3. 2838. 
4. * Englisb-ConiiM iSetiouary,' a copy of 
Johnson's Dictionary, interleaTed, with Corn- 
ish and other equivalent^ Egerton H8. 2S29. 
6. ' Cornish Vocabuluy, being copions ad- 
ditions br Bannister to his printed work, 
Egerton Ma 2330. 6. Btatenab for a Oloe- 
•ary of Cornish Names, Egerton US. 2331. 

[Bosm and Coottnsir'i BiU. Comnbiansii, 
i. S, 10, iii. 104T ; Athonanm, 37 Sept. 1873, 
p. 3S7 ; Oat. of Egmton HSS. in Brit, Mns. ; Gat. 
of Printed Books in Brit. Uus.] T. C. 

BAHBTBTER, 8AXE (1790-1877), mi*- 
eetlaueous writer, was bom at Bidhurton 
House, StA^ning, Sussu, 27 June 1790. 
After a prelimiDarj training in the gmnmar 
•ehool olLaweeha spent some jeara at ^u- 
bridge school under the oelehtatedDr. Enos. 
He was then sent to Queen's College, Oxford, 
where he graduated B.A. in 1813 and M.A. 
in 1815. Although a great reader, he did 
not distinguish himself at college. In fact, 
he himself admitted that had it not been tor 
the lucky circumstance of the examinere 
selecting the subject of Socrates, which he 
happened to have studied thoroughly, he 
wo^nndoubt«dlyhaTebeenpluck^ After 
leaving the univerwty he lived at his Cither's 
kr some time doing nothing. He joined the 
militia as an amusement, and on N^xdeon's 
return finm Elba, when the whole country 
was in a ferment. Bannister at once rused 
a company and Tolnnteered for the army. 
He received a captain's eommisuon, and was 
on the eve of stMiins for Belgium when the 
news of the battle of Waterloo brought peace 
to the conDtTy,«nd he retired from the army 
on balf-p«y. 

After this he studied regulariy for the bar, 
and was called in the ordinary course at Lin- 
coln's Inn. Owing to some interest he ob- 
tained the appointment of attorney-general 
of New South Wales in 1823, the remunervr- 
tiou being set experimentally at 1,200JL He 

took a lively interest in the welfare of t^ 
coloured races, and was one of the founders 
of the Aborigines' Protection SoeieW. In 
Australia he did not work very well with 
several of the leading members of the govern- 
ment ; he considered their treatment of th« 
natives too haish. Indeed, his condemnation 
of the masters' power of flogging their 
servants ultimately involved him in a duel, 
which happily was not attended by &tal oon- 

Xmcea. He left tiie colony under eome- 
myst«rionB circumstanoes, havinp' been 
removeafrran office in April 1626. ^Mown 
account of the matter was that hh sent home 
a despatch, saying that nnlnnshis salary were 
increased be should have to resign, and that 
the government, wanting to get rid of him 
and to put a friend of theirs into the position, 
at once appointed his successor, to whom 
the increased salary vrai awarded. Probably 
the government, owing to his strained rela- 
tions with the other offiuals, were glad to re- 
move him. To his dying day Baimister had 
this grievsnce against every suooessive go- 
vernment. The petitions he presented were 
leoion, and he printed in IBNt a statement 
of his 'Claims? But his efforts to obtain 
compensation were fr^tless, althousfa he was 
suOTiorted by manv old friends M poeitjon 
aiKl influenoe, such as Vic»«taanceIlor Sir 
John Stuart, Lord Chief Baron Kelly, Loid 
Chief Justice Bonll, Sir Thomas Duffus 
Hardy, and Sir CSiarlea EasthUce. 

About 1848 Dr. Paris, preeident of the 
Royal OoUe^ of Physidans, gave Bannister 
the appointment of gentleman bedel of the 
college, which was a great boon at the time, 
the salary being lOOL and the fees about 601. 
The closing years of his life he spent at 
Thornton Lodee, Thornton Heath, the resi- 
dence of his only child, Mrs. Wyndham, the 
wife of Mr, Henrv Wyndham, dvil engineer. 
There he died 16'SepL 1877. 

In addition to manv pamphlets on colonial 
and miscellaneous suNeets be wrote : 1. 'Es- 
says on the Proper Use and the BJsform of 
Free Giammai Schools,' London, 1819, 8vo, 
2. 'HieJudgmentaofSirOrlandoBridgman, 
Chief Justice of the Common Pleas in 1607,' 
London, 182S, 8vo, edited from the Hargrave 
USS. 3. 'A Brief Descriptbn of the Hap 
of the Ancient World, preserved in the Ca- 
thedral Church of Hereford,' Hereford, 1849, 
4ta 4, ' Records of British Enterprise be- 
ycmd Sea,' vol L (all published), 1849. 
6. ' The PatareoQ Public Library of Pinance, 
Banking, and Coinage; agriculture and trade, 
flsheries, navigation, and engineering; geo- 
grwhy, colomsation, and travel; statistics 
and political economy; founded in West- 
minster in 1703, and proposed to be revived 




in 1863,' London, 1853; 6. 'WiUum Pa- 
tenon, the Merchant StatMman and Founder 
of the Banl of EusUnd: hit Ufa and triali,' 
Edinburgh, 1868, 8to. 7. "The Writings of 
William Patenon, with biographic*! noticee 
of the author,' 8 toIi., 1869. 8. * A Journal 
of the Pint Fi«nch Embaaay to China, 1698- 
1700 : translated frtmi ui unpubUihed nuutiL* 
•eript, irith an enaf on the frituullr diipo- 
aitiou of the Chinese goyemmant ana people 
to foreigners,' London, 1869. 9. ' Olanieal 
and pre-Historic Influences upon British 
History/ Becond edition, 1871. 

[PrivaU lufomi^on; Banniitci'i Claims, 
land. ISaa ; Cat. of Advoeatas' Librarj-, Bdin- 
bugh, pt ii. p. 311 i Cat of Osfiwd OnuinatM.] 
T. C. 

BASBLEY, CHARLES (JL 1648), poet, 
dearlj wrote in the time of Henry vlll 
and Edward VI, but the dates of his birth 
and death are unknown. He is remarkable 
fbr a rbjminr satire on the Iotb of dress in 
women, whiw condudee with a benediction 
on the latter monarch, and coDunenoee with 

the ITnft 

Bo p«p< what have I tp7«d ! 
There can be no doubt of Banaley's re- 
ligious o^iuioos. Speaking in his poem of 
the feminine love for light raiment, he says — 
Fntm Some, tiom Borne, th^t oarkerad prjde. 

From Boma it aaaa donbtlea : 
Away for slums wyth «o«b filthy baggage. 

As smeU of fupery and derelyshaei 1 
He also complains very eeiiously that foolish 
motheTB made ' Roman monsters ' of their 
children. Periiapa, it has been said, he was 
an unworthy and therefore justly rejected 
■uitor.and rerenged himself by this whcdesale 
attack on the sex. But the attack is not 
wholesale, as he «zprsssly excepts right 
worthy, sad, and pltun women who walk in 
godly wise. Indeed the whole satire is 
mainly directed agtunst extnTBgant attire. 
Uitsoa says it was printed about 1640, but 
he erred by at least ten years ^Oollibb, 
BibUogr. and Crit. Aeeount, i. ixxiv). The 
title of his work, as it appears in a reprint 
frnm a unique copy in the British Museum, 
edited by J. P. Oollier in the year 1841, is aa 
follows : ' A Treatyse shewing and declaring 
the pryde and abuse of women now a dayee ; 
bla^ letter, London (without date), prohai- 
bly about 1640, 4to. 

[Lowndw's Bibliog. Han. i. 110 ; Brit Hns. 
Cat. ; WbU's Bibl, BriL ; Tannwr^ Bibl. Brit.- 
Hibsm. p. 73.] }. U. 

BAlTTINa, WILLIAM (1797-1878), 
writer on corpulence, was an undertaker and 
fomisber of funeisla in St. James's Street, 

London. He was somewhat short inatature 
(S feet 6 inchea), and with advancing years 
suffered greatpeesonalinoonTeaiencelnm his 
incressingfotneas. Before sixty yearsof age he 
found himself unable to stoop to tie his shoe, 
.ttend to the little offices which humanity 
ires, without considerable pain and diiE- 
y.' Be was oompeiled to go downstairi 
dowly backwards, to avoid Wie jar of in- 
creased weiffht on the ankle^oints, and with 
every exertion ' puffed and bloved in a way 
that was very unseemly and disagreMble.' 
He took counsel with the medical fkculty, and 
was advised to engage in actiTe bodily exel^ 
eise. He walked long distances, rowed in a 
boat fbr hours tcurether, and performed othM 
athlutio feats. But all this served but to 
improve hie appetite and add to the weight 
of his body. On 26 Ans. 1863 he, being in 
sixty-sixth year of his age, weighed 
202 pounds, or fourteen stone ux pounds, 
an amoont which he found unbearable. 
After trying fifty Turkish baths and ' gallons 
of phvsic ' without the sli|^teet benefit, he 
consulted Mr. William Hurey for deafueae. 
Mr. Harvey, believing that obesity was the 
source of the mischief, cut off the supply of 
bread, butter, milk, sugar, beer, soup, potatoes, 
and beans, and in their place ordered a diet, 
the details of which, mainly flesh mea^fish, 
and dn- toast, are given in Tanner's ' Prac- 
tice of Medicine' 0- 1*8). The remit of 
this treatment was a gradual reduction of 
forty-six DDunds in weight, with better 
health at tite end of sever^ weeks than had 
been enjoyed for the previous twenty years. 
The delight at being so mnoh relieved by 
means so simple induced Banting to write 
and publish a pamphlet entitled ' A Letter 
on Corpulence, addressed to the PubUc,' 1863. 
Written in plain, sensible language, tl^ tract 
on the 'parasit« oorpuleuce' at once gained 
the attention of the public. Edition foUowed 
edition in quick succasaion. 'To buit' be- 
came • household phrase, and thousands of 
people adopted the course which the word 
mvolvea. The Germans have recognised the 
impression made by the pamphkt in the 
word' 'Bantingeur,' which appear^, in the 
' Conversations-Lexikon.' 

Bantingdied at his house on the Terrace, 
Kensington, 10 March 1B78. 

[Blackwood's Hag. xevi. SOT ; "Smnu't Pra^ 
tion of Msdieilis; OonTarB.-Lfaikon.] & B. 

1BANTSIB, HENBT (;■: 1739), medical 
writer, studied at St. Thomas's Hospital, and 
practised as a physician at Wiabeach, He 
was admitted extraordinary licentiate of the . 
College of Surgeons on 30 July 1736. His 
works are ' Methodical Introduction to the 



1 44 


Art of Surgery,' 1717, and ' PbannMopteia 
Paupemm, or the Hospital Diapenaarj, COB- 
tainiDg the chief Medicinee now used in the 
HoqiitAlB of London,' 1721, 4th ed. 1739. 
[Mnok-B Coll. of Pbj». (1878), ii. 131 ; Brit 

portnut Mid tapestry punter, was bom at 
Antwerp, and waa a pupil of Bosasert. His 
ri^ht name appears to have been Jean-Baptiste 
Oa«para. He was known in England u 
' Lely's ' Baptist, and would seem to hare 
also worked for Sir OodfW Eneller. There 
ia a portrait of Charles II by this artist in 
the nail of Bt. BculJiolomew'B Hospital 

[ffiog. Hat. de Balgiqna ; Pilkington's Dirt, of 
Paintcri; Nagler'a AU^emeinea KiiDEtler-Lcxi- 
koD; BedgiaTe's IKet. of Puntan of Engltih 
School.] K &. 

BABBAB, THOMAS 0*- IM?), divine, 
was admitted scholar of St. John's College, 
Cambridge, 8 Not. 1600, proceeded B.A. 
1563-4, MjL 1667, and B.D. 1676, and was 
elected fellow 11 April 1665. He subscribed 
in 1670 a teatimomol requesting that Cart- 
wright might be allowed to resume his leo- 
tures. He became preacher at St. Marv-le- 
Bow, London, about 1676, and in June 1684 
he was suspended on refusing to take the 
ex-officio oath. The parishioners petitioned 
the court of aldermen for his restoration. In 
December 1687 Archbishop Whitgift offered 
to remove his suspension if he would sign a 
pledge to conform to the taw of the church 
and abstain irom conveuticles. He declined 
to pledge himself. His name is attached to 
the '^ok of Discipline,' and he belonged 
to the presbyterian church at Wandsworth, 
formed as early as 1573. In 1691 he was 
examined in the Star Chamber with other 
puritan divines for having taken part with 
Cartwright and others in a synod held at 
St. Johi?sCollege,C&mhridge, in 1689, when 
it was aneed to correct and subscribe the 
' Book o? Discipline.' He is probably the 
author of a translation of Fr. du Jou's ' £)ipo- 
sition ofthe Apoca1ypse'(Cambridge, I6W), 
and of a ' Dialogue between the Penitent 
Sinner and Sathan' (London, without date). 

[Cooper's ^.thenie Cantab, ii. 236 ; Neal's 
Hist, of Fnritans, 1T9S, i. 3S7 ; Baker's HieL of 
8t John's, ed. Uayor, 601 ; Stiype's Annals 
(Svo), II. i. 2, ii, 417 ; Strype'e Whilgift, Bvo, i, 
50i, iii. 271, 282 ; Brook's Parit«», i. 429 ; Ful- 
lar's Church Hist., ed. Brewer, ir. 889, v. 183^.] 

1636), poet and miscellaneous writ«r, was 
the only daughter and eldest child of John 
Aikiu, S.D., and his wife Jane Jennings, 

and waa bom in 1743 at Kibwortb, Ldcester- 
ahire. When she was fifteen years old, 
her father became one of the tutors of the 
newly eatafaliahed academy at Warrington. 
There she passed the next fifteen years of 
her life, and formed intimate and lasting 
friendships with several of her fadter'e co£ 
leafpies and their &nuliee, in irtiose cultivated 
society she had every encouragement to tunk 
to account her early, not to say precocious, 
education. It is related of her that she could 
read with ease before she was three years old, 
and that when quite a child she had an ac- 
quaintance with many of the best English 
authors. When she had mastered French and 
Italian, her industry compelled her father,Tery 
reluctanUy, to supplement these with a know- 
ledge of Latin and Greek also, accomplish- 
ments rarely found in young women of that 
period. Learned as she waa, even in her 
youth, she was so modest and unassuming, 
and had so little eoofidence in her powers, 
that no one but her brother was able to 
induce her to appear before the world as 
an author. It was at his instigation that 
she published, in 1773, her first volume of 
poems, including ' Corsica,' ' The Invitation,* 
' The Mouse's Petition,' and ' An Address to 
the Dei^.' Ilie book had an immediate aiic- 
cess, ana went through four editions in the 
first year. The celebrated Mis. Montagu 
wrote that she greatly admired the poem on 
Corsica, and had preaented a copy to her 

friend Faoli. In the sa 

she, or rather 

her brother, published ' Miacellaneo us Pieces 
in Prose,' hj J. and A. L. Aikin. These also 
have been several times reprinted. The 
authors did not sign their respective contri- 
butions, and some of the pieces have in con- 
sequence been generally miaappropriated, but 
in Mrs. Barbaidd's share of the work we find 
several of her best essays, and notably those 
on ' Inconsistency in our Eipectations,' and 
' On Bomancea.' The former of theae pos- 
sesses every quality of good English prose ; 
the latttiT is avowedly an imitation of Dr. 
Johnson's style and method of reasoning. Of 
this essay Johnson observes ; ' The imitators 
: of my style have not hit it. Miss Aikin has 
done it the best, for she has imitat«d the 
sentiment as well as the diction.' Croker 
refers this remark to the wrong essay. In 
the year following theae literarysuccessea, in 
1774, Mrs. Barbauld married. Her husband, 
the Rev. Rochemont Barbauld, came of a 
French protestant family settled in England 
since the persecutions of I/juis XTV. His 
father, a clergyman of the church of England, 
sent him, rather injudiciously, to the dis- 
senting academy at Warrington, where he 
naturally imbibed presbyterian opinions. Ha 




iriB on exceUent nun, but htd & tendeDc; to 
iiiBBiut]t, wbiclt beoune more and more pro- 
Bounced toward* the olow of hi« life. Soon 
after their marriage dio Bariiaulds lemored 
to Falgrave in SuSilk, where Hr. Barbauld 
had chanre of a diMenting congregatjon, and 
jwooeedea to Mtablioh a hoja' Hchool. The^ 
nad no children, but adopted a nnihew, 
Charlea Rochemont Ailrin |V<^.], the 'little 
Charles' of the well-known 'Early Leaeona.' 
At Palgnre were written the 'Hymna in 
Pioee AnChildren,' Hre. Barbauld's beat work, 
>rhi<A,beBidespa<Bing through many editiona, 
has been tranal&ted into Boreral Buropeanlan- 
ffiuwea. The school, chieflj owinr to Hn. 
Barbauld'a eiertioua, waa extremelj prospe- 
loui dtiring the eleven yean of ita existence. 
AmonfT thepupilB were the first Lord Den- 
man, Sir WiUiam Oell, Dr. Sayers, and 
William Tajlor of Norwich. The bolidars 
were mostly spent in LoodoD, where at the 
houaee of Mra. Montagu and Mr. Joseph 
Johnson, her pablisher, she made the ac- 

Snaintance of many of the celebrities of the 
■y. The echool-work prOTing somewhat 
ezceaaive, the nndertaking, though succeuf ul 
and remunerative, was given up in 1785, and 
after travelling on the continent for about a 
year the Barbeulds returned to England and 
Mttled at the then rural villago of Hamp- 
etead. Mr. Barbauld ofBciatea at a smul 

society and literature. At Hampetead Jo- 
anna Baillie and her sister were among her 
more intimat« friends. Here she wrot« eeveral 
easaya, and contributed fifteen papers — her 
■hare of the work is generaUv thought to be 
much larger — to her brothers popular book 
' Evenings at Home.' In 1602, at the earnest 
request of her brother, in whose society she 
hoped to end her days, she and her husband 
left Hampetead tor Stoke Nowington. For 
a short time Mr. Barbauld afaio undertook 
pastoral work, but hie mentafhealth utterly 
mve wa^ and he died insane in London in 
1606. This, the one great sorrow of Mrs. 
Barbauld'a fife, deeply affected her, but left 
her free, for the first tune unce her marriage, 
fbr serious literary work. Shortly after her 
husband's death Mis. Barbauld undertook an 
edition, in fifty volumes, of the best English 
novelists. Prefijedtotheeditioniesn essay, 
written at some leurth, on the ' Origin and 
Progress of Novel Writing,' and the works 
of each author are introduced by short, but 
complete, biographical notices. The novels 
thus edited include ' Clarissa,' ' Sir Charles 
Oiandison,' ■ The Castle of Ot.ranto,' < The 
Bomance of the Forest,' ' The Mysteries 
«f Udolpho,' 'Zduco,' 'EveUna,' 'Cecilia,' 


' Tom Jones,* ' Joseph Andrews,' ' Bdinda,' 
' The Vicar of Wakefield,' and many others. 
In 1811 she prepared for the use ci young 
ladies a selection, formerly well known and 
popular, of the best passages from English 
poets and prose writers. This appeared in 
one volume, and was called 'The Female 
Speaker.' InthesameyearBhewrotethemost 
considerable of her poems, entitled 'E^jgh- 
teen Hundred and Eleven,' a work which, 
at a time of the deepest national gloom, was 
written in eloquent but too despondent strains. 
Of this poem Mr. Chabb Bobinaon says : ' Dear 
Mrs. ^fbauld this year incurred great re- 
TOoach In' writing a poem entitled " Eighteen 
Hundred and Eleven." It prophesies that on 
some future day a traveller from the anti- 

Eides win, from a broken arch of Blackfriaia 
ridge,contempIatetheruin of St. Paul's (this 
is the original aC Macaulay's New-Zealander). 
This was written more in sorrow than in 
anger, but there was a dishaaiteninff and 
even gloomy tone which I, even with ^ my 
love lor her, could not quite excuse. It pro- 
voked a very coarse review in the"Quarterly,'' 
which many years after Murray told me ha 
was more ashamed of than any other article 

of this article. This naa the last of Mrs. 
Barbsuld's published works, but to the day 
of her death, some yeara later, she constantly 
wrote letters and minor pieces which did not 
see the light till lone afterwards, and were 
not, indeed, intended for putJication. The 
remainder of her life was passed tianquillr 
at Steke Newingten, where she died in l82o. 
Her epitaph justly aays of her that she was 
'endowed by the Giver of all good with wit, 
genius, poetic telent, and a vigorous under- 
standing 1 ' and the readers of her works will 
readily allow the eosj g^ace of her style and 
her lofty but not puritanical printdptea. Her 
letters, some few of which nave oeen pub- 
lished unce her death, show that tiiongh her 
life was habitnally retired she greatly en- 
joyed eodety. ^ley record friendsaipe formed 
or casual aoqusintanoe made with (among 
others) Hn, Montagu, Hannah More, Dr. 
Priestley, Miss Edgeworth, Howard the 
philanthropist, Mrs. Chapone, Gilbert Wake- 
field, Dugald Stevrart, Walter Scott, Joanna 
Bullie, H. Crabb Bobinaon, Willism Roecoe, 
Wordsworth, Montgomery, Dr. W, E. Chan- 
ning, Samuel Utters, and Sir Jamea Mackin- 
tosh. Her writings in proae and poetry are 
both numerous and miscellaneoua, and many 
ofthem werenotprintedinherlifetime. Her 
more important works include: 1. 'Poems' 
(1778). 2. ' Miscellaneous Pieces in Prone.' 
S. 'Hymna in Prose for Children.' 4. 'Early 

3y Google 

Barber u 

LewoM.' 6. ' Poetiod Eni»tle to William 
WillMTforoe.' 6, 'An Edition, with E«»f 
ttsd LivM, of the BritiBh Noveliati.' 7. ' The 
FamftleSpeiJEeT.' 8. 'Sateen Haudnd and 

rWwka of A. L. Barbanld, ■with a mMUoir by 
Loot AiKn, I82i ; Le Breton'i MsnKni of M". 
Bai^nld, 1ST4; EUJB'i IJfaaniiLettanof Anna 
LMitia Barbanid, 1874.] A. A B. 

BABBEB, CHARLES (i. 1854), land- 
■cape painter, waa a native of Binoiughani, 
and mored to LtTwpool in early life on 
being appointed teacher of drawing in the 
Royal Institution. Ho was intimately con- 
nected with the Tarione aaaociations eata- 
bli^ied in LiTerpool in hia lifetime. He waa 
among the earliett membera and most fre- 
qnent oontribotors of the Literary and Philo- 
Mphical Sodety, and aaaisted to found the 
Aroliitectnnl and Arohseological Awowation. 
^Thomas Kc&man found much inpport and 
eneonragement from him in his eaily studies 
of Gothic architecture, and for years hia 
houae was the centre of the intellectual 
■odety of liTerpooL Amouj his nearest 
friend he numbered Traill and Roscoe. Aa 
ft Undac^ft painter he waa a close obaerrer 
of native, tad endearouied to reproduce 
efibets of miat and sunshine with accuracy. 
He exhilHted three timea in the Royal 
Aoademy, and waa a regular contributor to 
local exiuUtione. In spite of a severe 
attack of pualyna, he continued to practiae 
his art to the end, and his two betO-lmown 
pietnree, 'Evening after Rain,' and 'Tha 
liawn of Day,' were exhibited in Trafalgar 
Square in 1849. He was elected pieudsnt 
^the Liyerpool Academy some yoaia before 
hii death, wluch oocurred in 1854. 

riiTopool Cosrier, 1894; Bsdgrave's Die- 
ticMaiy of English Artiste.] C. E. D. 

1889), banister, waa educated at St. John's 
Colleoc^ Cambridge, where he graduated ninth 
wrangler in 1833. In the same year he was 
eaUedto the bai at IJnooln's Inn. He was a 
wpil ^ Mr. Dnval, an eminent ctmreyanMr. 
He acquired a high reputation as an equity 
dtaflMnan and Mnveyancer, and, thou^ he 
never took ulk,had fbr nearly half a centiOT 
an extensiTO practice at the junior bar. Ho 
was one of the eommieuoners appointed to 
nfohn the procedure of the Court of Chan- 
eny in ISfiS, his large experience of chanoeiy 
buaineat rendering his snggeetJons of the 
higbwit Talus in the work (rf finming the 
roiM of practice issued under the CbancerT 
Amendment Acta. In the efaancery pro- 
eee^i^ by which, in 1667, tha celebrated 


Orton or Castro first sought to establish bis 
claim to the Tichbome baronetcy and estates, 
Barber held a brief for the defendants, as he 
did again in the first of the two actions of 
ejectment which were subseqaently brought 

lurt of common plea 
purposej in the well-known ci 

for the SI 

I of Tichbome 

J. I^uehlogion, decided in 1872 after a trial 

which la^:«d 103 days. He also acted as 

of the counsel for the crown in the pro- 

ition for penury which followed, and 

which occupied in the hearing from wat to 

last 188 days. In 1S74 he was appointed 

i udge of county oourts for (dreuit No. 6 

(Hull and the Eut Ridiiu;), but remgned 

the post almost inunediate^, and resumed 

practice at the bar. He died at his residence 

(71 ComwaU Gardens) on 6 Feb. 1682. 

[Solicitor'i Joomal, zxri. 333.] I'.ILH, 

1810), miniature punter, was boni in 1736, 
and ezhibitod in the Royal Academy in 1770. 
He worked in crayons as well as oil, and con- 
tinued to be an occasional exhibitor, chiefly 
of portraits and half-lengths, in the Royal 
Academy until 1792. His portraita were 
celebrated for peculiar brilliancy, in conse- 
quence of the eepedal attention he devoted 
to the preparation of nugilp. An enthusi- 
astJc lovar of music, he was distinguished 
for a particular acquaintance with the worka 
of Huidel and Pnioell, while hia social (^fta 
gathered a lai^ and warm circle of acquamt- 
ance round tiim. He was for s(»na time a 
member of the Incorporated Society of Ar- 
tisU, but hie exhibiting with the opposing 
sodety, which wss iucorporalod as the Royal 
Academy in 1768, led to his forced with- 
drawal m 1766. He was long reaident in 
St. Martin's Lane, but afterwards removed 
to Great Maiylebone Street, where he died, 
in 1810. 

[Chut. Hag. I8I0; Boyal Academy Oata> 
logiua 17T0-17B2; Bedgravs's DietJonnTy el 
E^gli^ Artists.] C. K P. 

BABBEB, EDWARD (d. ie74P),bntist 
minister, was orimnally a clei^jyman of tha 
established church, but long before the be* 
ginning of the civil wars ho adopted the 

Srindpes of the baptists. He bad numerous 
ollowers, who assembled for worship in the 
Spital in Bishopsgate Street, London, and 
appear to have bmn the first congregation 
among the baptists that practised the lay* 
ing on of hands on baptised belierera st 
tkdr reception into the ehunch. This eua- 
torn was introdnoed among them about 1646 
by Mr. Comwell (lyAKTras, TreatiM ^ 
' Lafiiitmn^amdi,S6i T. Edwum, Om* 


Barber i< 

grtena, Snd odit. 186, 187). PreTiotwlj to 
thsTMi 1641 Bnrber wm ka|it deven months 
in Newgftte ft^ denying the bB^iam of in- 
fimta Mid Uikt the payment of tithea to ths 
dem was Ood'i orain&nce under the gospel 
(Pr^aoe to hia Treatue qfSaptum ; snd his 
petition to the king snd psnisment). He 
preached his doctrines in seston snd out of 
season, snd he hss himself left an sccount of 
the distuibance he csused in 164S in the 
parish church of St. Benet Fink. The date 
of his death is unknomi.bat in 1674 he was 
succeeded in the csre of the baptist church 
in BishopMSto br Jonathan Jennings. 

He is the suthcn of: 1. 'To the Ein^^s 
most Excellent MueetyvUid the Honounble 
Gomt of Parliament. The humble Petition 
of manj his Hsieeties loyall snd &ithfull 
eubiects, some of which lisving beene mise- 
rablj persecuted bj the Prelates and their 
Adherents, bj sll rigorous connee, for their 
Consciences, practising nothing but whst 
was instituted by the Loid Jesus Christ,' 
ftc, London, 1641, i.$k. fiiL This petition, 
which prays for liberty of worship for the 
baptists, is signed 'Edward Barber, some- 
times Prisoner in Newgate (brthe Gospel of 
Christ.' 3. 'A small Treatise of Baptisme, 
or, Dippine^ wherein is cleerely shewed that 
the Lord Christ ordained Dipping for those 
only that prtrfesse repentance and faith. 
(1) Prored by Scriptuiesi (S) By Argu- 
ments ; (3) A paraldl betwixt circumcision 
and dipping; ^) An answer to some objec- 
tions bj P[rM«[od] B[aTebone],' London, 
1641, 4to. 8. 'A declaration and Tindica- 
tion of the carriage of Edward Barber, at tbe 
parish meeting hoose of Benetfinck, London, 
Frydaj the 14 (^ Inly 1648, after the morning 
exercise of Hr. OsUamy wss ended, wherein 
the pride of the Hinistara, and Babylonish 
or eonfiised carriage of the hearers is laid 
down,' London, 1618, 4to. 4. ' An Answer 
to the Essex Watehmens Watchword, being 
68 of them in number. Or a discovery of 
their Ign(»ance,in denying liberty to tender 

tI9, iii. S ; Ivimey's Hist, of the English Bap^ 
tiMS,ii. 890;H.Brook'sPnritBiu,iti. 330; Adam 
Taylor's Hist, of the English Oeaeral Baptists, 
i. lie, IM, 3«l; CW. ofPrintad Books in Brit. 
Moa] T. C, 

BABBER, JOHN, D.C.L. (d. 1649), 
dWRymao and ciTilian, of All Souls CoUq^a, 
Oxl^d, graduated doctor of civil law and 
beoMne a member of the College of Advo- 
cates in 1(132. He was ore of Arehbiahop 
Cmmar's diap k ins, and otGcial of hia cooit 

7 Barber 

at Canterbury, but hie special Tooation was 
to advise the archbishop on civil-law matters. 
In 1637 he was consulted by Cranmer on be- 
half of Henry Vm, on a subtle point of law 
touching the dower of the Duchess of Bich- 
mond, widow of the king's natural son ; and 
in 1538 the archbishop, in a letter to Ciom- 
welL requests that Dr. Barbor, 'his cha^ 
loin (wuo Jenkyns says is probably John 
Barber), may be one of a royal commissioR 
to try and examine whether the blood of St. 
Thomas of Canterbury was not ' a feigned 
thing snd madeof aorne red ochre, or of such 
like matter.' Li tbe same year Oianmer used 
with Cromwell to obtain for 

Church, Oxford. Bnt he does 
not appear to have bean suocessfiiL fitr Dr. 
Borbai's name is not mentioned by Wood in 
his acoount of Christ Church. In this lett^ 
to Cromwell the archbishop speaks of Crom- 
well's knowledge of the ' qualities and learn- 
ing' of Barber, and he himself calls Mm 'an 
honest and meet man.' Barber is probably 
I identical, too, with the John Barbour who 
appeared as proctor for Anne Boleyn on the 
occasion of ner divorce. In 1541 Cranmer 
appointed him to visit, as his deputv, for die 
second time, the college of All Souls, whose 
'compotstions, iugurgitations. and enannom 
commessations ' hod excited toe ardibishop's 
indignstion (Stbttb, I^fi of Cranmer,!. 181). 
Heis sudby Boee to have assisted in the pr»- 
pantion of the famous ' King's Book,' arevised 
and enloi^ed edition of the ' Bishops' Book,' 
■v.„i I,:. ^„g, „(^ appear upon the list 

consulted in the matteT^ for his signature is 
appended to ' a declaration made of the func- 
tions and divine institution of priests,' and 
to a Latin judgment on the rite of oonflrma- 
tion, both documents framed to suit the 
demands of the time. Barber made a poor 
return to Cranmer for all his kindness by 
joining, in 1643, a plot for his ruin. Poxe, 
on the authority of Ralph Horice, Crsnmer'a 
secretary, tells us that the archbishop elicited 
from Barber and the sufiragan of Dover a con- 
demnatitm of a hypothetical case of treachery, 
and then by prodncin^; their letters showed 
that they were the guilty persons, sad mag> 
nanimoiisly fbigave them. Stirpe says, how- 
ever, that Cratuser 'thought nt no more to 
trust them, and so dischaiged them of hia 
•errice.' Barber died in 1549, and was boried 

at Wrotham in Kent, of which living tt 

' peculiar ' in the patronage of t^ Archbidtop 
ci Canterbury — he was probaUy ineombent. 
Hasted in his list of the reeton andvicaraof 
Wrotham leaves ablank for the period likdy 
to cover Bubw'e incnndmiey. 


but his n 





[NiehoVi Nsristivea of the ReforniatioD, 
Cimdco Society ; Cmuner's Bamains, JbdWds ; 
Todd'a Lifeof Cnumur; BoTaet'i Hi(t,of tha 
Baformation ; Pocoek, it. S40 ; Strjpe'i Ecdaai- 
MtiaJ MamoTMi*. roL L pt. ii. p. 8S0 ; Bt^pa*! 
Hamomla of Cnnmar, i. S4, 131, 17S; Foxa'i 
Acta and HoaiimenU ; TowsaeBd, Tiii. 29 ; 
Vood'i FMti OxoD. (BIim), l S3 ; Coota'a LiTcs 
«f EngliA Giviliana. J P. B.-A. 

SABBEB, JOSEPH (1757-1811), Uud- 
He Mttled at Binningluuii, when after 
sereral jtan of difficultj be snooeaded in 
MUbliBhingk drawing BohooL He conducted 
tiUa -with unremitting indiutiy, vtA {(ained 
in additions otmndenbla local repntatum u 
ft Undacape punter. But hia work waa 
vaknowa in tondou. and ha never exhibited 
in tiw Bajil Academr. He attained to 
MBT eircnmitaneea in bia later jaara, and 
dtM in Knningham in 1811, leaving' a «od, 
Jomr VoronrT Bixxhk, who followed hia 
btber'a proftaaion. John Vincent Barber 
nhilMtea landscuiM at the Bojal Acadamj 
in 1812, 1821, 1629, and 1880, and ^reiMTed 
■oma of the drawings for the 'Graphio Dlus- 
tra^ona of WarwicliaMre ' pnbliahed in 1629. 
He died at Borne. 

eaa and friend of Swift, waa bom 
1600, probably in Ireland, where she became 
the wife of one Barber, a wool clothier or 
tulor, living in Oapel Street, DubliiL Seve- 
ral children were bom to Hn. Barber (among 
them a aon, Conatantine, bom in 1714), 
and ahe, being ' poetically given, and, for a 
wonuw, having a sort of*^ genius that way ' 
(Swift to Pope, Soott'b Su^t, jviL 888), be- 
gan writing poetry for the purpose of enliven- 
ing her ehudren's leaaona. Sne taught them 
ftt first herself, aa thej eat round her tiled 
fireplace (her own Faem* on Seeeral Occa- 
•wni, p. 8) ; and at the same time ' no woman 
waa ever more useful to her husband in the 
vray of his busineas ' (Swift to Lord Orren, 
SO(MT^Aoi^xviilI63). About 1724, whUe 
Tiekell, the poet, was secretary to the lords 
jnaUcM of Ireland, Mrs. Barber wrote >poem 
to exdte diaritf on behalf of an officer's 
widow left pennilaas and with a blind child 
(FotMt, Ice. supra, p. 2, ■ The Widow Gordon's 
Petition *), ana she sent the composition to 
^ckellanonymonaly, with a request that he 
wotjd can the attention of Lord Oarteret, 
thanvieeroyito it. Tiekell anceeeded; Lady 
CbrteretsncGonred thewidowand soughtout 
her benefiHttreaa, Mrs. Barber. The poeteaa 
waa thua bronght under Swift's notice, and 

a friendahip apiang up between them. Swift 
visited her at her snop (Swift to Pope, supra) ; 

E ted her to Lady Suffolk at HarUe Hill 
:'b StoM, xvii. 480) ; raenved her at the 
7, and for a while took charae of one 
of her BOna, eccentrically aent Mm as a 
birthday present, tof^ther with some of hia 
mother^ versea echoing the oaneut enthu- 
siasm roused by 'Wood's Hal^nce' and 
othen of Swift ■ Irish patriotic pamphleta. 
Sapphira was the poetic name given to Hrsb 
Barber at the deanery ; and there her poems 
ware read, and convoaaed, and corrected. 
' Mighty Thomas, a aolemn Senatus I calL 
To consult for Sapphira; so cmne, one and all, 
are the opening Imes of 'An Invitation by Dr. 
Delany, m the Name of Dr. Swift,' and they 
indicate the friendly and ivmpathetic treat- 
ment sheenJOTed at tite handscn Swift and his 
Mends. In 1730 Swift provided Mrs. Barber 
with introductions to nis most indnential 
friends on her first visit to England u 

endeavour to publish her poema by sube ^ 

tion. Her husoand took indiscreet advantage 
of his wife's position, and whKi Lady Betty 
Qermoine had coaxed the Duke of Dorset to 
order liveriee from him, he asked ' a greater 
price than anybody else * {ibid. xvii. 410) ; at 
the same time the gout attacked her incea- 
santly, and she was one of Dr. Head's 
patients ; bu^ in reaponse, mainly, to Swift's 
recommendatiMis, Arbuthnot, Oay, Mrs. 
Onsar, Barber the tninter (then lord mayor), 
the Boylea, the Temples, Pope, Ambrose 
Philips, Wolpole, Tonson, Banks, and a host 
of the nolnlity, either visited her or became 
Bubacribera for her book ; and after posoing 
to and fro between Timbrid^ Wella, Bath, 
and Dublin, for a long penod, she finally 
abandoned tier Irish home, and settled in 
: En^and. In June 1731, when Mrs. Barber 
was busily seeking subscribers, the * Three 
Letters to the Queen on the Distresses of 
Ireland' were pabUshed, with Swift's forged 

perhaps of any age,' and it w 
that they had been ooncocted by her to in- 
jure bar patron and to serve her jiersonal 
advantage. All evidence goes ogunst thia 
Eupposition, and Swift himself never entar- 
taiued it. His opinion of Mrs. Barber, on 
the contnry, waa as hi^ aa ever, and Lady 
Suffolk bantered him on the 'violent passion' 
he had for her {ibid. xvii. 41G); in ^733 he 
wrote to Alderman Barber that he had 'not 
known a more bashful, modest person than 
she, nor one lee* likely to ply ner friends, 

Ktrons, and protectors' (Aid, xviiL 164). 
1786 he invited her bade to Ireland, pn> 
miaing to o»tribut« to her support (iMif. 


Barber i- 

zix. 6). In bis ' List of Friends Orat«fi)l, 
Ungi^riiil, ludifierent, and Doubtful,' he 
deactibea her with the beet u ■ Q,' Le. ' gr*i«- 
ful i ' and in his will, d&ted 1740, nine jemt 
after the ' Letter*,' he makee a beqaeet to 
bsrof' the medal of Qneen Anne ana Frinoe 
Qeorge which she formerlr gnve me ' (SsB- 
BIDAT, Sw(fl, p. G66). lie false suspicion 
•a to her auuonbip of the unfortunate 
* Letters ' did Mrs. Barber little injury with 
otbeiBof herfrienda. In 1734, hei 'Poema on 
Several Occauons ' (4to, Kvingtons) were at 
last published, and were prefaced hy a letter 
from Swift to Lord (Srery. But many 
tronblM now befell their authoress j a few 
■erere critics said that the work was not 
poetic, and a few fine ladies complained that 
It was dull {ibid. xTiii. 310). At the time 
Urs. Barber was a victim to a three montha' 
attack of gout! and she fell 'under the hands 
of the law,' in company inth Hotte, the 
printer, although she was diacharged the 
sane dar with him (HlwXBBWOBIB, xiii. 
106). Her condition excited pity in Tsry 
many quarters, and the Duchess of Qoaens- 
herry told Swift : ' Mrs. Barber has met 
with a good deal of trouble ... we shall 
leave our gninoaa for her with Mr. Pope ' 
(Sooni'b A^zriii. 198). In 1735 appe^ed 
a aeeond ecutum of Mn. Barber's 'Poems' 
(8ro), and in 17S6 there followed a third. 
In Norember of the same year, at Bath, again 
lud np with gout, and having her husband 
and doubters to support, Mrs. Barber entcF. 
toined a scheme fiir selling Irish linena. She 
could not let lodgings because of her ill-health 
i&id. xtx. 6) ; and, to support her meanwhile, 
ahe b^ged Swift to give her his ' Polite Con~ 
versations,' etiU in manuscript, though writ- 
ten thirty yeara before. Everybody, she said, 
would subscribe for a work of his, and the 
■ale of it would put her in easy ciretim- 
■tanoea. In 1737 the manuscript was hers, 
conveyed to her by Lord Orrery (Soon^ 
Ani/t, ziz. 98) ; in 1738 it was published, 
and it met with so much favour that it was 
preaented as a play at the theatre m Aungier 
Street, Dublin, with greatapplause (Hawkbb- 
WOXTE, xiv. 6d2). It thus secured for Mrs. 
Barber all the benefits that Swift, in his 
continiions kindness to her, desired. In 1765 
■ selection from her 'Poems' was published 
in two volumes of ' Poems by Eminent 
Ladies,' including Aphra Behn, Eliaabeth 
Carter, Lady Maiy Wortley Hootogu, and 
others, and Mrs. Barber's verse was give* 
the first place. In 1767 she died. 

Of her two *<ms, Rupert was well known 
OS a miniature painter and euffraver, and Con- 
alantine became president of the College of 
I^hysicians at DuUin. 

9 Barber 

[BaUatd'sBiitiahlA(UeB.ed. 1713, 481 st s«q.; 
Monthly Berisw, voL viii., 17(3.] J. H. 

BABBEB, SAMUEL (17S8 F-181I), 
Irish preehytvian minister, a native of oonnty 
Antrim, was the younger son of John Bar- 
bw, a farmer near Killead. He entered Glas- 
gow Collwe in 1757, was licensed 1761 (on 
second tritus 28 Aug. at Lame) by Temple- 
patrick preebyteiy, and ordained by Dromore 
piesbytory, 3 May 1768, at Bathfriland, 
CO. Down, where he ministered till his death. 
He was a good Latinist, Todtus being his 
favourite author j his Greek was thin; he 
was somewhst given to rabbinical studies, 
having collected a small store of learned books 
on this subject. He is best known for the 
public spirit with which he threw himself 
mto the political and ecclesiastical struggles 
of his time. Teeling conuders him ' one of 
the first and boldest advocates of the emanci- 
pation of his countiT and the union of all her 
sons.' When LordGlerawlej disarmed the 
Bathfriland reciment of volunteers in 1782, 
the officers and men chose Barber as their 
colonel in bis stead. In this double capacity 
he preached (in regimentals) a sermon to toe 
volunteers, in the Third Presbrteriau Coime- 
gation, Belfaat. He aat in the three volun- 
teer conventions of 1762, 1783, and 1793, aa 
a strong advocate of parliomentaiy reform, 
catholic emandpatioB, and a reviuon of the 
tithe system, the revenue laws, and the bish 
pension list. Lord Kilwarlin, being asked to 
contribute to tbe rebuilding of his meeting- 
houae, said he would rather pay to pull it 
down (broadsheet of August 1783). In 1786 
Richard Woodward, hiahop of Cloyne, pub- 
lished his ' Present State of the Oiurcn of 
Ireland,' to prove that none but episcopa- 
lians could be lo^ to the constitution. Bar- 
ber's 'Remarim ' m replv showed him a master 
of satire, and embodied the most t 

lad yet put forth (' Must seven-eighths of 
the nation for ever crouch to the mghth P '). 
Woodward made no response. In 1790 Bar- 
ber was moderator of the general synod. Ha 
took a leading part in the Down election <^ 
that year, which retnmed the Hon. Robert 
Stewart (afterwards Lord Caatlereagh) in the 
presbyterion interest, after a contest of tfair- 
teen weeks, In 1798 the authorities regarded 
Iiith as a dangerous man. Be was seiied by 
a body of troopa at his residence in the town- 
land of TuSyquiUy, and lodoed in Down- 
ratrick gaol on a charge of high treason. On 
i and 10 July he was tried by conrt^nartial, 
but nothing was proved agunat him; he was 
never a TJnit«d Irishman. However, lie was 
detained in durance, and his third daughter, 
Mai^aiet, a girl of sixteen, vdluatarily dared 


Barbon i; 

hia unpriaomnsDt. On hia relcue, after a 
long GonfinenMot, lie could obtain no redmi. 
lit t«ligioti,a8 in politica, he was a pronoonced 
Ubetal, though no conttorenialiat. Hiamuiu- 
Ktbpt ivmona an nnmiatakablr Aritn, and 
in tJie original draft of bia ' Remarks ' he 
Mya, 'Su^toM now any legislator should so 
&r fiffgnt common sense aa to decree three 
one, and one three, Ac.' He wm fond of 
quoting- the Greek Testament in hia sermons, 
and (marvellous to say) his draft of a pett> 
o parliament from liis preebytery con- 
'—- -'■-■■— s from Theodoret in the 

peneuoe, turning on the difficulties 
then Irish marriage law, aee Mem. of Cathe- 
riueCappe,1822,p.268. MtrntgomeryaesisiiB 
to him ' a singularly vigorous mind, a culti- 
Tated taate, a ready wit, m fluent elocution, a 
film purpose, ao unsullied character, and a 
most coiirt«ouB demeanour.' He died 5 Sept. 
1811, in his aerentv-fourth year. In 1771 
ho married Elisabeth, eldest dau^ter of the 
SsT. Andrew Kennedy, of Uoume, and had 
•even children, but do son snr ' 
His dangfater Hargaret, above 
Cf. 12 Ang. 178S, £31 Hav 187S), married 
John Oalt SmitJi, of Belatt, whose eon, 
George Kenitedj Smith, pnasaaws Barber's 
ponnit and UMBuacripte. He puhli^ied: 
1. Fontral Sermon fi)rtheRev.Qe<nveIUchey 
[Job n»T. 16], Newry, 1773. 2. Volunteer 
Sermon [2 Sam. liii. 28], 1782 {» very 
spirited piece, under apprehension of foreign 
invamon). S. ■' Semarks on a Pamphlet . . . 
by Richard, Lord Bishop of Cloyne/ Dublin, 
1787. 4. 'Synodical Sermon at Lurgan' 
[Rev. XTiu. ^], 1791 (rackona tlie Nicene 
council sstheb^inningof the reign of Anti- 
christ, and the french revolution aa the omen 
of its fall). No*. 2 and 4 appear to bare been 
puhUahed, but were alao cucnlotedin manu- 

[Baitar's HSS^ including his oth luxonnt ot 
hia TitbI, 17S8i Olaisow Hatricnlation Book ; 
Kgumdy pedigree, US. ; Bal&H Navs-Letter, 
10 Sept 1811; TMling'a Sequel to Permnal 
Nairativeof IzishlUbeUion, 1832,p. SI ; Irish 
Unitsnan Mag. 1847. pf. 269, Mi ; Cbi. Uni- 
tuian, ISee, p. IfiB ; Witheroir'i HiA. and IJt. 
Hem. of PresMeriBiiinn in InUod, 2 Mr. ISSO ; 
PoTtei'B In Uemonam . . . Mar^nt Smith, 
1876.] A. G. 

BAIUBON, NICHOLAS, M.D.(<£ 1608), 
• writer of two treatises oa monef , and the 
originator of flrb insurance in this country, 
was bom ID Lcndon, and entered as a student 
IWII. Ha was probably the son of Praisego^ 
Barbon [sea Baksox, PriisbsodI. In Octo- 
ber 1061 be grwluated M.P. W Ltrecht, and 


honorary Edlow of the Col- 
lege oi x-njaicians in December 1684. He 
reprteented Brembei in the parliamenta of 
law and 1606. After the great fire of 1666, 
Barbon was one of the first and moA eoa- 
siderable builders of the city ot London, and 
first instituted fire insunuce in this country. 
He ' hath sett up an office for it,' writes 
Lnttrell in his 'Brief Relation,' under data 
30 Oct. 1681 (i. 136), 'and is likely to gett 
vastly by it.' While engaged in rebuil£ng 
Londcm, he purchased 't£elted Lyon feild% 
near Oraie* Inn Walln^ to build on,' and 
11 June 1684 a serious riot took place be- 
tween his workmen and ' the genUeman of 
Oraieslnn.' As late as 1603 he was engaged 
in improving Chaneeiy Iaub and li^oln's 
Inn. A square neAr Gerrard Strec^ New- 
pmt Market, is said to have been called 
Barbon Square in the reign of George IL 
Reynolds's 'Wells Oathedral' (piel p. 67) 
gives the fbllowiur from Chyle's (unpub- 
lished) history of the church of Wells. Ex- 
eter House, belonging to the see of Exeter, 
firstwcot to Lord Puet, then to R.Dndley, 
ead of Lwcester, and Uien to th» Eari of 
Ensex, and was called Essex House, ' which 
ever since has kept the name, till last year, 
when one Dr. Barbone, the eon, I am toldi 
of honest prays Ood, bought it of the ex- 
•cntois of the late Duchess of Somerset, d. 
of the eud Robert (£. of Essex), not to re- 
sUre it to tin right owner, the Bp. of Exeter; 
hut converted into houses and tenements foi 
tsvemes, ale boueea, cooks-eboppes, and 
vaulting aehooles, and the gardoi adjoinina 
the river into wharfee for brewera and woo£ 
mcmgers.' Barbon was the author of 'A 
Kscoone of Trade ' (13mo, London, 1690), 
and a ' Discourse concerning coining' the 
new money lighter, in answer to Mr. Lo^'a 
coDNderationB about nuBing the value of 
mon<7 ' (ISmo, London, 1696). This latter 
woili was one of the numerous pemphlets 
which issued from the presses of London on 
the subject of the great oontroveny which 
raged at that time, when there was such 
urgent demand for a renewal of tbe currency 
—a controversy in which, as Flamsteed, the 
astrCHiomer royal, is reported to have said, 
the real point at issue was, whether five waa 
six or only five. 

Barbtm ranged hwnilf under die banner 
of William Lowndee, whose ' Essay for the 
' of Silver Coins* bad become 

allyh . 
them, and partly of shrewd men who were 
perfectly willing to be autborised by law to 
pay a bundredpounds with eighty (Maciu- 
ui, Hitt. o/A^. It. 6S3). 



the pnfkce to his aeoond 
traktiM, DUkkM aUiuion to hsviiig, in the 
' DiMoime on Tnde,' defined money diSer- 
eatly frma Hf. Locke ; uid begin* hii ugn- 
meat b^ diapnting Locke'a fimdunental 
prapoHtioii th^ nlver hu ui intrinaio relue, 
anertiBK that there ia no intiiuaic value in 
ailTeT, ' out thM it ia moneg that men give 
and take and craitmct wit^ haTuig ngtird 
moie la the atamp and cunenej of the 
money than to the qaantitj of fine silver in 
eaidi piece.* With this aa one of tua pre- 
miaea, he aiguee in favour of debeaing the 
cmrency, or, aa he euphemiaticoUy terme it, 
r^ttngtoevalne of money. Mr. Cunningham 
{Eng^ ItUkutrn and Oommave, p. 368) 
qaotea a paaaage from the second diacourae 
iat a lucid aq^ument againat the balance <^ 
tmda. Berbon took pert in the land-bank 
q«cnlationa of the time. He fbnnded one, 
-which ia stated by Luttrell, under date 
Ih Ang. 1695, to ' goe on Terr anGceeafally,' 
and under date 4 Feb. 1695-6 to bare hean 
noited with anothet land-bank conducted 
tiy one Mr. Briaco, and to hare o&ted to 
aoranoe two millions of mimey. He died in 
16B8. EQa fiiend Aanll [see Amill, Jomr] 
wae the executot at hia will, which directed 
thatnoneofhiadebta should be paid. A^ill 
waa alao aoon aft^warda his auc co eaor as 
member for Bnunber. 

rBarbon's Diacomae on Trade, and '^aatiaa on 
Oatahg; Lnttnll'a Brief Belation of State 
AllUra, i. lOfl, ii. iOt, iii. 672, iv. II, it* ; Notes 
and (lQeri«r (Ibst nries), ri. 3 ; Haeanlav's 
fiiB^Bd, chape, sxi. xzii. ; 'Watford's Encycio- 
wub of InsuaiKe ; Hist, of Fin InaoraDOe ; 
Mnak's College of IliyaieiaBa ; KTamta <tf Hanbsm 
of Parliamant, i. AM.] K. H. 

BOSSk PRAISEGOD (lGd6P-1679), an»- 
baptiat, ieathaF«eller, and politician, haa an 

' (edited by Dr. Gioaart, 1877), 
one of the objects of his bounty (x') was 
'a John Barixn).' The following data oon- 
nming him are drawn &am. Th, filoxam'a 
'Blister at Hagdalea CoIImb, Oxford' — 
' John Borebone, of Magdsien, 1667, aged 16 ; 
of the county of Oloucestsr ; B.A. S3 Oct. 
I670j probably Fellow 1571-78; M.A.9 July 
1674; Vice-Ptincipell, 1578;' described in 
1674 aa ' a noted and zealous Romanist ' (iv. 
ITO-l, and /^eitdiiiff,vt tuprm, pp. SOS, 206). 
Another waa a prominent puritan in North- 
amptonahire from 1587 onwards (Stbtpe's 
AmaU, m. i. 691, ii. 479; Stbtpb'b WMt- 
gift, a. 7). Probably the same Barbon took 
part in a di^utation upon nonconfoimity 

;i Barbon 

held about 1606 at the house of Sir William 
Bowaa, at CoTentry (SnTB, ParalUU, Otw 
turtt and Obtervatioiu, be, p. 128; Bboox, 
jnintefu, u. 196). 

In notes of a trial in an ecdeuastical case 
wher^ Dr. William Batea waa a party, Bar- 
bon in giving eridence incidentally mentioaed 
that be was eighty yeara of age. This was 
in 1676, so that be waa bom about 1696 
(Maloolm, Zofufmwon Btdivivum, m. 463). 
While young he became a leather, s o ll cr m 
Fleet Street ; he was admitted freeman of the 
Leathersellers' Company SO Jan. 1633, elected 
a warder of the yeomanry 6 July 1630, a 
liveryman 13 Oct. 16S4, and thiid ward» 
16 June 1648 (Note* and Qutriet, 8id aeiiea, 
i.311; cf. pp. 363, 896). 

Probably ahortl^ after 1630 Fraiaegod Bar- 
bon waa chosen minister br half the memboa 
of ab^pliat CMigregation whichhad baennnder 
the paatwal oaie M Stephen More, but whidi 
had on Hore's death dinded by' mntnaloiMi- 
eant ' into two partiea. Hie one half duws 
Heniy Jeasey, and the other half Fraisegod 
Barbon. Those who fixed on Barbon wen 
Hsdobaptiats, ma'rU'"'"g that the baptinu of 
infanta was scriptural, while the other part of 
the congregation comprised baptists proper. 
Some even of the latter must, however, have 
adhered to Barbon as well i tor in the 'De- 
claration' of the batiste iasued in 1664 
'twenty-two' namee sign it aa' of the church 
that walks with Hr. Barebone.' In 16^ 
Fraiaegod Barbon published a defence of 
peedob^tiam in 'A Diacourse tending to 
prove ^ptisnfe in or under the Defection of 
Anti-Ghnst, to be the Ordinauco of Jeana 
Christ. Aa alao that the Baptism of Inhnta 
or OhOdren ia warrantable and agreeable to 
theWerdfrfOod. Whete ... sundry otbee 
particular thinga are controverted and di»- 
cnssed.' In Edward Barber'a' Small Tieatia* 
of fiuitism or Dipping.'alao published in 1642 
[see BtXBBB, Edwaxii], we reed : ' Beloved^ 
ainee part of this trestisa waa in preaae, there 
come to my hand a boc^ set forth by F. Bar- 
boon, which could I have gotten sooner, I 
should have answered more nilly ; ' and then 
he quotaa a number of objectiona to the bap* 
tilt viewuiged by Barbon, which he in bnef 
anaweis. Barbon replied to Barber in another 
booh, published in 1643 ; 'A Beply to the 
Frivolous and Impertinent Answer of £. B. 
to the DiMionrae (^ P. B. . . .' 

From oontempoiary leferaneea, it appeaia 
that thoae who had clioaen Barbon aasembled 
as a church in their pastor's own 'great 
house,' called the ' Lock and Key,' in Fleet 
Street, near Fetter Lane. As a preacher he 
speedily made hia mark. The libellerB of the 
puritans called his pleaching' long h a r a n guei^' 


Barbon »; 

but he lidd tiw aUe^aoce trf ■ lugs consre- 
gatiML Hsoambiiwdtus'tnde'af Iwt^er- 
seller with his prMohiag, ind be mtut pretty 
eaily h»ve jmned to huoMlf in his pHtontD 
oneQTeene,K'(elt-iiuker' — the two'tndw' 
exdUng the urcunu of adverMiiee of non- 
eonibrmitj. In a contemporaij scurriloiu 
pamphlet entitled ' New Proachen, New/ we 
tuve mention of 'the last tumult in Fleet 
Street, nised by the ditorderlT preachment, 

prmtinn, tnd prstlinn <A Hr. Bmbonet, the 

fertheM*" '" " - ' 

ylMt,19Dec.'[1641]. 1 

30 penona' 
are all^fed to have i»een present; out the 
■ tumult,' eo br trma originating in the ' dis- 
orderiy preachment,' eeitainly originated in 
violent mtruaion upon the worthippers. An- 
other pamphlet on the same diBturbance ia 
entitled ' The Diacorerf of a Swarme of Sepa- 
ratiata, or a Iieather Seller'fl Sermon. Beutg 
a nunt true and exact relation of the tomul- 
tnoua combustion in Fleet Street la«t Sabbath 
day, being 29 of Decemb. [10 in t«xt1; truly 
describing how Burfaoon, a leather seller, had 
a conventicle of Browniata met at hia house 
that day, about tike numbra of an hundred 
and fifty, who pleached there himself about 
five hours in the afternoon. Showing like- 
wise how they were discovered and by what 
meuis, as also how the conitabi* soattend 
their nart, and of the jgieat tumult in the 
street. . . . London : Printed for John Qtero- 
amith, 1641.' In this publication we read 
concerning the persecutors' treatment of the 
wonhippeis : ' At length they cateht one of 
them alone, but they kickt him eo vehemently 
as if the^ meant to beate him into a ielly. 
It is ambiguous whether they have Idl'a him 
or no, but for a certainty they did knock him 
BB if thej[ meant to pull him to pieoea. I 
eonfesie it had been no matter if they had 
beaten the whole tribe in the like manner* 

Batbon'a meition commercially was a 
stable one. In 1660 he was surety with Sir 
Fulk Qreville, John Harvey, and Thomas 
Bamardiaton, each in 600^, for Dr. Aaron 
Guerdon, master of the mint, ' for the per- 
fonnaace of hia oovenanta and indents ' (Cb- 
itndar ^ State Paper*, 36 July, 1649^2, 
p. 248). On 6 June 1663 Oliver Cromwell 
sammoued Barbon ' to appear,' as the writ 
runs, ' at the council chamber, Whitehall, on 
4 JiJy,Bnd taka upon you the trust of mem- 
ber for the city of Honioa^ (Oaiendar <^ 
State R^>ert,l65%-S,f. 386). The assembly, 
which met on 4 July, was christened by its 
•oemies ' Barabone's,' or the ' little ' parlia~ 
ment. In the house Barbon does not seem 
to have spoken at aXL But we read that on 

1 Barbon 

Tuesday, 2 Aug., ' the house being infimned 

that there were dIvMS petitimen at the door 

out of the city of Lonoon, V 

Captain Sttmew 

acquaint '' ' 

behalf of 

(BUBIolt's Gmynxlliim Diary, ed. Bntt, L 

p. V, Introduction). 

The 'little parliament' had only five 
months' lease; and Barbon did not again 
accept the dignity of H.P. He continued to 
preaek as the ■ leather-seller of Fleet Street.' 
In 1668-60 he was again the objectof assaults. 
Samuel Pepya writes : ' February 12th .... 
So to my father's, where Charles Glasoocke 
was overjoyed to see how things are now ; 
who tola me the boys had last night broke 
Barabone's windows (p. 46). 'Febniar732nd, 
1669-60—1 observed this day how abomi- 
nably Barebone's windows are broke again last 
ni^t ' (Pbftb'b Diary, ed. Bright, i. p. 68). 

Barbon did all in Ms power to hinder the 
restoration of Charles IT. Harchmont Need- 
ham confided to Prais^od the manuscript of 
his book, ' News from Brussels in a Letter 
from a near Attendant on his Haiesty's 
Person to a Person of Honour here. "Dated 
10 March 1669r-60].' TheoUeotoftheworic 
was to expose the evil life of Charles in Hol- 
land, and Barbon hadit printed and ciicuUtod 
l»oadoaat. Nordid he se^ to conceal his re- 
sponulality ('WooD's.lAI«)us(Bli8s),iii. 1187). 
But Bacboo did more in the cause of the Onn- 
mtmwealth. On llarsday, Feb. 1669-60; 
he preeented the fiunous ' Petition of Hr. 
Praise-God Barebone and several others to 
the Parliament' against any kind of recon- 
ciliation with the Stuarta or the monarchv. 
It proposed that all officials should solemnly 
abjure the Stuarts, and that any one publicly 
proposiuff a restoration should be deemed 
guilty of hi^ treason. 

Tlie Toyafista republished the petiti(»,and 
ill we of their attacks on it — the 'Picture of 
the Good Old C^naa drawn to the Life. In 
the Effigies of Master Prais-Ood Barebone. 
With several examples of God's Judnnent 
on some Eminent Engagers a^^nst Kingly 
Government' — introduced a vividly engraved 
portrait of its author. Another tract vitu- 
perating Barbon's latest act was entitled : 
'That wicked and blaaphemoua petititm of 
Praisegod Barbone and his sectarian crew, 
presented to tbatso.called the Parliament of 
the Commonwealth of England, Feb. 0, 1660, 
for which theyhad the thanks of that House, 
anatomised. Worthily (tiled hr his Exoel- 
lenoy the Lord Oenenll HoncV, Bold, of 
dangerous consequences, and venomous. By 
a txiver of Christ and his Ordinances, MinJe- 
ters and tiigia Calling, I^riiamenU and their 



•nd nv^eritj, CSvill uid EooleaiM^cftU: 

tiMiiyniiMititw n.ii TiihatiitAiit thara. Fljntwl 

l7^ilo-Hoiun:luras[4ApnllW0y Bu- 
Mn u heio proBomwed 'woithT en *U d^ 
dignatifm, indi^aation, uid ftboraiiutioii.' 
Another broadside txavMtiea the petition 
aftec this &ahion : 'To the Kght Honorable 
the Hi^h Oourt of Parliameat sitting at 
Westminiter. The lU^^ and Immoaest 
Petition of Praise-God Barbono, Anabaptist 
and Leather SeUer of London : most impu- 
dently showBth that joui Petitioner hath 
known a greet whilo, and indeed loog enough 
to hare had man wit and mora honeatj,' Sco, 
(4 Jnly 1660). 

Aluiough Barbon took advantage of the 
tenporiain^ ' general pardon ' of loSo, he did 
not Ibnake his frienda aft«r the accession of 
Charlean. On fiSepC. 1661 HumphrejLee 
writes to Katharine Hnrleaton that Pruso- 
Ood Banbonea conataatly rasorts to Major 
Bremen and Vavasour Powell, priaoaera in 
the Fleet (Cbtendar of State Faptn, p. 
63). On 26 Not. 1661 Barbon, alon^ with 
Major John Wildman and James Harrington, 
was arrested and sent to the Tower (Kbn- 
XBT, as before, p. C67). On 81 Dec 1661, 
iDlenogations were drawn up bv Secretary 
Nieholoa to be administered to Mary Ellis, 
as to what she knew of Piaia^od Barebones 
and others; their meeting* at one Porter's 
bouse, where she had been aerrant; the 
weekly dining thera of the postK>ffice clerks 
(Hid. p. 197). We get a gUmpte of Barbon 
in prison on 27 July 1662, when an order in 
council on petition of Samh Banbonea re- 
leased her husband on bail from the Tower, 
where he had been close prisoner ■ many 
months, and so ill that he must periui 
unless released ' (^Oitatdar, p. 447V But 
under S Not. 1662 we discover that W et«pe 
were still do^ed : ' Elxamination of Lieur- 
tenant Slingsley as to his acquuntance with 
Jeiae [Heniy JesseyP], whom he appre- 
hended two years before, . . . and Praise- 
Ood Barebones ' {ibid. p. 541). 

After his release &om prison Barbon reap- 
pears, in 1676, as a witness on house-rente, 
whilst he was resident in St. Dunetan's 
pariah, and, as already noted, he was then 
aged eighty years. He died at the close of 
1679. His burial is Metered in the parish 
wtpBter of St. Andrew, Holbom, under date 
'6 Jan. l67^-SO], at ye ground near ye 
Artillery ' (Nittt and Quma, 4th series, 
iii. 216). 

It bu been stated that Barbon had two 
brothers, racpeotively named *Glirist-came- 
iRto-tlie-woTld-t»«Bve Barebone* and 'If- 
Christ - had - not • died - thou - hadst - been - 


damned Barebona,' abbreTiated in 
Barebone ' (OsuraBB, Bioffr. Sitt. qf Enf 
latid, iii. 68) ; but there is no proof of this. 
The only other Barbon known at this period 
was Dr. Nicholas Baihon, probably Praise 
god's son [see BiSBOK, Niohoub]. 

[In addition to the anthorities dted, «m Qtr- 
lyls'i Cromwell; Picton's Cromwell ; WhiUlocka's 
Memorials: CrasbA Historr of Baptista, ii. 40; 
Ivimay's History of Baptists, i. lH-7 ; Fanatics, 
Puritans, and SectoriM, 1821, in Brit. Mob.; 
repriat of Haw Pnachsn New, with a modsm 
lutrodnetion ; eommnnicadoni from R«t. S. A. 
Swaine, H.A., London, and BeT. O. F. Goald. 
MA., Bristol; tvo tractates refsrredio in Notca 
and Qaeiin, Stii sarin, i. SflS, seem to shcnr 
tbat BaiboD, in bis despair of mooorchj and m-o- 
taetorship alike, fell ia for a time with the 'filth 
nooarehT' aDthiuriann ; in BriL Has. (Harletao 
MS. 7833, f. 40) U a collection of varss ' written 
(i.e. t(anBeribad)byFfaare-^ Barbon (of Daven- 
trj), who, being st tnanj times idle and waatjn^ 
emplc^msDb, wrote out eertaie songs and epi- 
grams, with the idea of msnding hie hand in 
writing.' Cf. ITotes and doeries, 1st ssr., L 
286.] A. B. a. 

BABBOUB, JOHN (1316 P-ISBS), Soot- 
tish poet, the earliest and one of the beat of 
the ancient Scottish poets, a contemporary 
of Chaucer, was archdeacon of Aberdeen. 
The dat« of his birth is coujecttual, but hia 
death, on 18 March 1896, is proved by an 
entry in the obit book of the cathedral, 
the cessation in that year of a pension con- 
ferred on li'Tii by Robert II, and other docu- 
mentary evidence. In 1367 he appears aa 
archdeacon of Aberdeen in a safe-conduct by 
Edward IH to him and three scholars going 
to study at Oxford ; and in the same year he 
was named one of the proxies of the Bishop 
of Aberdeen in the conncil which met at 
Edinburgh to TffOvide for the ransom of 
David IL Nothing is known of his earlier 
history, and his name derived frmu a eouunoa 
trade rondera the oonjecttnee hssardouB which 

servers have even detected peculiarities of 
that dialect in his poems. Similar safe-con- 
ducts in 1864 (when he was accompanied by 
four horsemen on hia way to Oxfora or else- 
where, aa he might think proper), in 136G 
(when he had lea ve to travel uirou^ England 
to St. Denis with six horsemen), and in 196S 
(with two valets and two horses to the other 
dominions of the king in the direction tiS 
France), show that in all probability he pur- 
sued his studies and superintended those of 
others, both at Oxford and Paris. In 1872 
he was one of the auditors of exchec|uer, and 


Barbour t 

in tha fidlowing year derii for Uia mudit of 
tbs bouaeliold <tf the king. In 1S76, sa be 
himadf raooiida, lie oompOMd the poem of the 
'BrvB,' by which he ie beet faunm, u it at 
mce beeeine » national epc, oebbnting in 
•hort and pithjr linee, eeay to nmember, the 
■tOTT of wa ym ot independence and the 
deed* of 

King Bobut of Scotlaod 
TbM beidj «ai of hart and haad 
And Scbir Jamaa of Donglu 
That in hia tjma aa iroTthj *aa. 
In 1877 he receiTed from Bobert n a enin 
of ten pounda, and next jeai a peimtual pen- 
non oi twenty ehillinirs, to be paid from the 
' king fermea' or nnt of Aberdeen, with power 
to aaaign it in mortmiun, wliich ia atated in 
one of the eicbequBT accounts to have been 
a reward for Ilia poem. He waa again aur 
ditor of exchequer in 1882 and 1884, and in 
1888 be received afiirtberpenaionforlibof 
ten pounda from the euatoma of Aberdeen. 
It has been conjectured that thia maj baTe 
been a letum for a poem, now lost, on the 
geneali^ of the Stuarts, to which Wyntonn 

ntt StewartiB eiTginale 

Thi Arebdskjn* lua tretad bale 

In awtTT &7i«. 

{Ckratj/iU, tm. r, Hi.) 
Another passasa of the aame author mantiona 
that the gene&logy waa traced &om 
Sanlans, Lord da Fijgja, 

SI Bobert our eacound kjing 
■t Sootland had in goTerDjiig. (ii. 1, ISO.) 
Wyntonn also esya that Barbour made a 
genealog; of Brutua (iii. S, 189), and aoma 
editora nave supposed tJiia to be the eame 
woA as that on the Stuarts, and bars eren 
given it the name of the ' Brute.' But it ap- 
pears more probable that the reference here 
la to the l^nd of Troy, which Barbour, like 
other writera of hia age, ia believed to have 
treated in a poem, two fragments of which 
have been recently discovered at Cambridge, 
and printed by the Eariy Engliah Text Society. 
A more impoTtant dieoovery, due like the 
fixmer to Mr. Henry Bradsiuiw, is the long 
poem on the ' Legenda of the Sainta,' which, 
though without author's name, is proved with 
reasonable certainty to be Barbour'e by the 
aimilarity of its metre with that of the * Brua,' 
of the dialect with the Scottish of bis time, 
and by the inclusion in the saints whose livaa 
are toldofNinian, the primary saint of Scot- 
land, and Hachar, a aisciple of Coliunba, 
the patrai saint of Aberdeen. Thia poem, 
which has now been published by Horstmaun 
ut hia ' AJtengliache Legenden, contains an 

4 Barbour 

inteiMting notice of its author and allnuou 
to another hithesto unknown work which, 
isiuming it to be qfpwyntionita length with 
the ' Ijetfenda ot rt^ Sainta,' would mue him 
emoat piolifio poetaof thetniddla 


Tbarfbi aaDB I ma nooht Ttok 

As miniitsr of baly Eiiks 

for gnt aide and fablenes 

Yat for to eacbew idlaaa^ 

I bafs UiMlatit cymply 

Sum part aa I faed in story 

OtMtj and hir Son Jtan. 
From the outline (tf the oontenta of thia 
work which followa,it appeaia to have eom- 
priaed the whole gospel niatory with the le- 

Cd of the Virgm Mary's subsequent life. 
. ' Legenda ofthe Sainta ' contalna 83,688 
versee and lives of fifty eaints, commencing 
with those of the apostlea and erangeliata, 
which are followed oy variona martyn and 
oonfbaatff*, both of the eaatem and western 
church, taken for the moat part bom the 
' Lwenda Aurea.' No Engliah sainta are in- 
elu&d, and only the tiro Seottiah above 
mentioned — that of Bt Hachar, probably 
taken Gram the Latin life which waa one ot 
the lecturee or leeaona in the breviary of 
Abeideen ; and that of St Niniau, tram hia 
life by Ailred of Rievanlx, with the addition 
of a few mirades wrought in the author'a 
time at Ninian's ahrine at Whithorn. One 
of theee, whoee subject was John Bolmny, 
'a gudeman in Murrefe (i.e. Moray), bom in 
£^^,'ofwhom the author eaye,'Ikendhym 
wwIl roony day,' confinna the attribution cf 
the poem to Barbour. But the style of verse 
and tone of the poem so well agree with the 
' Brua ' that few persona will doubt the au- 
thorship whidi Its Qerman editor, as well 
as Mr. Bradahaw, aasumss aa cartun. Fnxn 
the expreesions as to his age and infirmity a 
date between 1380 and 1390 has been as- 
aigned to it. There are frequent notices of 
Barbour aa a witness to deeds m the 'Register 
of Aberdeen ' down to 1392. The payment 
of his life pension ceased in 1396, and in 
1898 he ia referred to aa deceased in an in- 
queet aa to certain lands, the ward of which 
had been conferred on him by Robert II. 
This document confirms the date of his death 
as being in 1395 by the statement that the 
ward bad been held by Alexander Aber- 
cromby for rather more than two yeara and 
a half since the date of the anuideacon's 

In 1860, fifteen years before bis own deadi, 
Barbour mortified hia penaion of twenty shO- 
lings in favour of the cathedral for a mass 
to he said <m hia anniveraary en behalf of 
hia aoul and those ot his parmit*. 

3y Google 

Barbour i] 

8ueh an the beta known to u* of the life 
fd BMbour, lew in nmnber, but sufficient to 
itgtmeat the career of a le«rn«d and biujr, 
poiu and pro«pero>u ecclesiaatic Hia poenu 
add acarcely any penonal details except thoae 
»li«adj noted, but tlieir spirit rereala a cba- 
nctar in keeping wiUi hu eztenul cireunt- 
atancee. The/ aie bank and simple ezprea- 
oiona of the eazlf style of nanatiTe poetiy, 
&ee from all effort of laboured art, aometimaB 
tedioui from their miaulaneaa of detail, bnt 
at odwr timea j*l**rming from theiT natural- 
Deaa,and occa^onallysbikinr ade^note of 
national or human feeliof. The airemwhicli 
thej wera written, and t£e effect of the' Brua' 
upon the character of the Scottiah nation, 
give their author a place in literature beyond 
c merit of hia vorka, either aa 

poetr^r or hiatorv. The ' Brua ' waa in great 
part copied bj wyntoun, and the main ncta, 
which Barboormaj eaailj have derived from 
eje-witneeaee, one of whom, Sir Alan Cath- 
car^ he namaa, mav be relied on; although, 
bj an inex^icaUe mnnder, he baa confounded 
hiB hero with hia grandfather, the competitor 
of Baliol for the erown btfoie Edward I at 
IfDiham. The aim of true hiat«ry and the 
pleasure it givee have eeldom been Wter de- 
aciibed than in the prologue of this poem ; — 
Storyii to red ar dalitabill, 
Sappoa that tba be noeht bat &biIL 
Than aald MoiTiB that nitli&st war 
And tha war aaid on gad mamr 
Haf donbill |iliiiwiiii in heiTing ; 
Tba ^rat plsaana b the carping, 
And tba tothir tfas SDthiastnea 
That achawia tha thing lycht aa it me. 

The praiae of the national virtue of inde- 
pendence, which ia the moral of hia poem, 
waa the natural voice of a time when Scot- 
land waa rejoicing at ita escape from the im- 
perial schemea of the Flantagenetkinga; but 
It deaervea note that Barbour bases it on the 
value of personal freedom — 

His aalr coodidoon of a threll. 
In other pasawea he shows a gentleness 
which recalls c£aucer, aa in the anecdote of 
the lung stopping hia hoat to provide for the 
delivery of a poor woman. Biit his humour 
is far inferior. As a compensation he never 
trenchea on the coarsenesa to be found not 
only in the EngUsb, but in a worse form in | 

15 Barbour 

aome of tha later Scottish poets. Hia range 
and depth of observation ate alaomnohmor* 
limited Instead of the oonedv <d human 
nature in the ' Oant«rbury Tales,' na haa given 
us onlj a drama of war with a aingle hero. 
His other poems are almost literal transit 
tiona: the 'Legends of the Saints* from tha 
'Legenda Aurea,' and the Troy book from 
Quido da Oolonna's ' Hiatoria Destnictionia 
TroisB.' His imagination required facta «T 
legenda to stimulate it. He ia not a oeativa 
poet. It is only on ran ooeaaioiiB that he 
mdulgiaa even in the graces of compoaitioa 
aometimea thought inseparable from ^poetry. 
To one of theee, nie description of spnng, the 
reader is referred aa rapreaeuting his verse at 
its beat j but to compare it, as has been done, 
with the melodioua ease of Chancer'a rhythm 
is too severe a trial. 

The German edition of the ' Ijegenda at 
the Sunta * claima for that poem a superiority 
over the ' Brus ' in form and skill in compo- 
sition, but this aeems the partialit; of an 
editor. There ie little in this respect to 
chooae between them, and the interest of 
the historical surpassee that of the legendary 

moat part unknown, and which exiat only in 
fragmentary form, cannot displace him from 
the unique position of being the father both 
of vemaeolar Scottiah poetry and Scottiah 
history. Blind Hsn/a 'Wallace' ia a 
century later ; Wyntoun waa a contemporary, 
but of a younger generation. In virtue of 
this poaition Barbour did much to fix the 
dialect which sprang from the Northumbrian 
or northern English, and waa preserved by 
the vrriters vho succeeded him in the form 
known as broad Scotch, though it ia still 
called by Barbour and even later Scottish 
poets ' Iiiglis,' or by one of them ' Inglis of 
the northern leid.' His works hav» there- 
fore a special linguistie interest which ha> 
attracted the notice of modem philologists. 
The chief manuampts of tha 'Brua ' ar» 
thoae in the Advocates' Library, Edinbn^i, 
and in St John's College, Cambridge, both 
of which are transcripts by John Ramsay 
towards the end of the fifteenth century. 
The oldeat printed edition extant ia that 
'imprentit at Edinburgh by Bobert lik- 

K'ak at the erpensis of Henrie Charteris, 
1LX£I,' of wnich a copy, probablv unique, 
was sold at the sale of Or. I>. Laing's library 
for 142;. 10«. This was followed by tha 
edition of Hart in 1616, and there have been 
many since, of which the best ate those of Dr. 
Jamieson, Mr. Cosmo Innes, and the Early 
English Text Society (edited by Skeat). 



lite only nuwuMnipU of the fragmentt on 
tlie Trojan war nn appended to two mann- 
ecripta of Lrdgate'e poem on the same lab- 
MCt, (me in Uie Bodleum and the other in the 
Uambridge UniTeraitT library. They have 
been printed W the Earlv English Text So- 
ciety. The ' Legsnda or the Saint* ' ezLita 

Maehar' was printed from it by Hontnumn 
in hit ■ Altetiffliache Legenden, nena Folge,' 
Heilbronn, 1881, and tta remainder, alcmg 
with the fragmrats of the poem on the TKijan 
war, wen published by uie msat editor at 
Heilbronn m 1683. 

[EzGhaqner Boll* of Seotlaad, roll. ii. and lii. ; 
ResiKrum Epiacopuns AbardoDnwii, Scalding 
Bo^aty ; Rymcr's Fmdara. Btirf memoin bm 
pnflzrd to the Tarion* editiona of ths Bruce, and 
hia position «■ a po«t is eaiimsUd in WarMn'i 
HiKoTT of English Poetry, Irring'* Hialory of 
Scottish PosCry, and Mitaner'a Altaoglisehe 
Sprachpro^D.] X- U. 

MAITLAND, Lord (1803-1870), Scottish 
judge. [See under KUitund, Tboius, 
LoBD DimtBBinrAN.] 

BAROBAM, JOHN (1672 P-1642), an- 
tiquary and historian. [See Babzhax .] 

1662), poet, acholar, and divine, was bom 
about the year 147C. The question whether 
he waa by birth a Scotchman or an English- 
nuui haa been abundantly disputed, but 
there is no evidence to support the latter 
contention. Fits considered that Barclay'" 



having been expelled from hie native MUUtiy 
for the lake <k religion ; vrhich statement, 
hovrevar, cannot be correct, if Baiday wH 
settled in England by 1608 or earlier, up to 
which time no relmous duput«s had o<^ 
curred in Scotland (Rmoir). Little impor- 
tance attachea to tbe cavil that, had Barclay 
been a Scot, he would have taken nuffa 
frequent opportunities of singinff the praisea 
of nis native land. This would not hav« 
added to his comfort in England ; moreover, 
one of his chief patrons, as will be seen, was 
the victor of Ftodden Field. Inthe'Shipof 
Fools,' however (sea. ' Of the myne, ke. of the 
holy fayth ') occurs, subjoined to ' a specyaD 
exhortacion and lawde ' of Henrv Vlll, a 
wann tribute to James IV of Scouand, con- 
sistingf at several stansss, one of them an 
acrostic, and including a recommendation 
of a close alliance between the lion and th« 
unicorn. At the time of their pubUcation, 
hardly any one but a Scot^^hman vrould have 
indited these stanias. Lastly, the argument 
in &V0UI of Barclay's Scottish nationally 
is still furliier strengthened l^the SoottiA 
element in his vocabulary. The words in 
question are not numerous, but it is difficult 
otherwise to account for their prasence 
(JuiiBsoii, i. xzix-zxx). 

Possibly Barclay may have first crossed 
the border with the view of obtaining a uni- 
versity education in England, accoraing to 
a practice not unusual among his county 
men even in his day (iBvms, 336). He is 
conjectured to have been a member of Oriel 
Golle^, as it would seem solely on the 
ground that he afterwards dedicated hie 
chief litdiary work to Dr. Ooniish, bishop of 

e district was probably Devonshire, ap- Tyne (suftagan bishop of Bath and WeOs), 

Crently on no other ground than (hat of his who waa provost of Oriel from 1493 to 1607. 
ving held preferment there. Wood adds | As a matt«r of course, we have a auffgeation 
a DB to his name (for which the occurrence that Cambridge and not Oxfbid, anda third 
«f the same prefix in the Prologe of James! that Cambridge aa well as Oxford, may have 
Locker, ' Ship of Fools,' ed. Jamieeon, i. 9, is been Barclay's university. ■"'-—— -■■ 

hardly a sufficient voucher), and idly 
poses him to have been bom at Berkeley 
ScmieTBetshire, for which should be read 
Olouceatershire. On the otber hand, ~~" 
only do his baptismal name and the spe 
of his surname primd/aeie suggest a S< 
origin, but there remains the distinct state- 
men t of a contamporaiT, Dr. William B ulleyn , 
who lived many yean in the northemcounties 
of Engl and, that ' Bartley ' was ' borne bey onde 
tfaecoldeKJverof Twede.' Inhis'Scriptorum 
Summarium' Bale introduces Barclay simply 
as ' Scotusj ' and Holinshed, cited by Ritaon, 
likewise calU him a Scot. The'Scotehman 
Dempster also claims him as his countryman 
(Huioria BDcUa'a*tKa Gmtit Scotnrum, i. 
106), adding that he lived in England, 

-. - -J. Warton cites a 

line from ' Eclogue I,' which at all event* 
shows that Barclay once visited Cambridge ; 
to this it may be added that in the same 
Eclogue 'Trompyngton' and 'good Man- 
chester ' (query Qodmanchester, though the 
referenoe may be to Manche8t«T, with which 
James Stanley, bishop of Ely, 1606-16, was 
closelv connected) are mentioned among the 
well-known places of the world. But so 
much fiuniliarity with Cambridge and it* 
neighbourhood might well be acquired by. 
an Ely monk. At the one or the other n 
the English universities, if not at both, he 
may be assumed to have studied and to have 
taken his degrees, la his will he cells him- 
self doctor of divinity, but where and when 
he took this d^pee i- ■-' c;.!.-- 



Barclay t; 

before or after his univeni^ CBreer, while 
be waa atill ' in TOuth,' he lended M (>0f don 
in Simejr, of wDich plaoa npeatad mention 
ia nude m ' Eclogue I.' 

BaicUj** stndent litb Iiad, aecoiding to 
hie own tMtimoBjr in the ' Ship of Fools ' 
(lec ' Of nnprofrUble Stod? '), bees full of 
'foljj' and itnas been enppoied that this 
nuj DSTe induced him to travel abroad be- 
fore hie enbnuce into tiol70Tden(JufiBBOK). 
The akepberd Corniz, by whom in hu 
' Edognea ' Barclay evidently, aa a rule, 
devgnatea himself, apeaka of Bome, Pari^ 
lijoaa, and Florence aa towua which be 
Twted among many others, when he saw 
the world in his youth. We know of no 
anthority for MackeniJa'a assertion that he 
also trarelled in the Netlualands and in 

the continental Henascenoe^ when English- 
nien were fieely gathering m the learning 
'which tb^ were to acclimatiee M home. lb 
ia impoaaible to cletermine bow mnch of his 
eeholarahqi Berc^y acquired in England. 
He seenia to have had but a slight acquaint- 
ance with Oreelc. Of his Imowledga of 
Latin poets his ' Eeloguea ' were to furnish 
ample evidence ; of other writers he specially 
qnotea Seneca. But the mouument proper 
of his Latin acholarship is his tiauslation of 
SalloBt'a ' BeUnm Jugurthinunt,' which he 
published at some date unknown in obedi- 
oice to the wiah of theDuke of Norfolk. It 
is prefaced by a dedication to this nobleman, 
in which the author speaks of ' the under- 
itandyng of latyn ' as Deing ' at this tin 
almoet contemned by gentylmen,' and bv 
Latin latter, dated mim [King's] Hatfield i 
Hertfordshire, to John VejHv, bishop of 
Exeter. His &miliarity with French he 
showed by composing for publication in 
ISSl, (gain at the command of the Soke of 
Norfolk, a tractate ' Zntrodnctory to write 
and to pronounce Frenche,' which ia men- 
tioned Vj Palsgrave in ' L'EscIaircissement 
de la lounie Fronfoiw,' printed in IfiSO. A 
copy of Barelay'a treatise, probably unique, 
oxieta in the Bodleian. 

In the early yean of the sixteenth century 
the nnion between churchnuuuhip and learn- 
ing waa still hardly leu close in E^land than 
it woa in that group of continental scholars, 
•raon^ whom Sebastian Brant was already a 
prominent figure. Boon after Barclav's return 
to England he miut have been oraained by 
Bishop Comish, through whom he waa ap- 

Kinted a^est in the coll^ of Otteiy St. 
■ry, in DeTcmshire, of which the plnnlist 
t»diopheld the wardenahip from 1490 to 1511, 
The college of wcnlar pneate^ <d which Bar- 

7 Barclay 

clay waa a member, waa founded in J837 
by John Orandisson, bishop of Exeter; the 
manor and hundred had been obtained by 
him in exchange £rom the dean and chapter 
of Ronen, to whom they had been granted 
by Edward the ConfesBor. It waa hue that 
Barclay, in 1508, accomplished the worii to 
which he owes his chief fame, the Engliah 
verge translation of the^' Ship of Fools,' first 

Subluhed bvPynsoum December 1509, with a 
edication by the author to Bishop Cornish 
on the back of the first leaf. In this dedi- 
cation he speaks of the work aa ' meomm 
primitus laborum qnn in lucem eruperuut,' 
but he had previously, in 1506, put forth 
without his name a book coUed the ' CaateU 
of Laboure,' a tranalation from the French 
poet, best known as a dramatist, Pierre 
Oringoire's ' Le Chateau de labour ' (1499), 
a moral allegory which, though of no novel 
kind, waa speedily reprinted by a second 

During his residence at Ottery St. Uary 
Bardaymade some otherfnends and enemies. 
Among the former was a priest,John'Biahop 
by name,' his ohligatior- *■- — *• — '•- 

to whom 

deacripcion of a wyse mon •), gravely 
playing on nis name aa that of ' the first 
[sear of thia warke.' A certain ' mays- 
Eyrkl^m,' to whose munificence and 
oondeKension he ofiers a tribute in the 
same poem (sec. 'Of the extorcion of 
Euyghtia '), professing himself, doubtless in 
a figurative tense only, ' bis chaplavne and 
bedeman whyle my lyfe ahall endnie,' ia 
with much probability supposed to be Sir 
John Eirkham, high ahenff of Devonshire 
in the years 1507 and 1628 (see the an- 
thoritiea cited by Jakiebod i. ixxvii, and 
cf. aa to the family of Kirkham Lison, 
Magna Britannia, part i. ccii-cciii). In tha 
same section of the poem he departs from hia 
general practice of abstaining from personal 
attacks, m order to inveigh against a fat officer 
of the law, ' Monsell of Otery, for powlynn 
of the pore ; ' elsewhere (sec. ' Ltprofytable 
bokes '^ the parsons of ' Honyngton ' (Honiton ) 
and Clyst ore glanced at obUquely ss time- 
serving and sporting clergymen ; and to 
another section (' Of nym tnat nought can 
and nought wyll lerne') an 'addicion' ia 
made for the benefit of eight neighbonra of 
the translator's, secondaries (pnest-vicars) 
of Ottery St. Mary, without whoee preoence 
the ' ship ' would be incomplete. 

Barclay's residence in Devonshire mar 
have come to an end with Bishop Cornish i 
resignation of the wardenship of Ottery 
St.Haryin 1511, which was followed two 
years later by th« bishop's death. Bemi- 




nigcQiicefl of the West occur even in hit later 
poema (' BriatoirB ' in Eel. rv., ' the Serem ' 
\a Ri. ii.){ but in the dedicstioa of' The 
Hyrrour of Gtood Honeis, trsnaUited ' at the 
Aesjn of Syr Qjlea Aiyntfton, Knyg-ht,' and 
printed without a date by PyMon ' at the 
utatanee and request' of Richatd, eari. of 
Kent, Barcla; calls himself ' prest : and 
mooke of Ely. This ' Hjrraur ' is a tnnsl»- 
tion from iKiminic Hancini'B elegiac poem 
•De quatuor Virtutibus' (1516) ; and the 
•ddreii prefixed to it couteins the interest- 
ing statement that Sir QUee Alington had 
leqaested Barclay to abridge or adaptOower's 
* (>>n£easio Amantis,' but that Barclay had 
declined the undertaking as unsuitable to 
his age, infln]iitiea,andprDfiMsion(WAKioiT, 
iii. 195). The ' Eclogues,' the early editions 
of which are again undated, were manifestly 
also wriltai at Ely (see in Eel. ui. the 
passage on Bishop Alcocli, ' now dead and 
gone i Alcoclc, the founder of Jeaus College, 
Cambridge, who ia also lamented in Bel. i., 
died inldOO ; and see in Ed. v. the reference 
to 'Cornyx whiche dwelled in the &n,' and 
the detailed descripUon of a mnral painting 
in Ely Cathedral). In the introductory linen 
he states that he was thirty-eight yMis of 
age whra he resumed a subject at which he 
had already worked in his youth ; and inaa- 
much as it is clear that at least one event 
mentioned in the ' EcliwoeB,' the deat& of 
Sir Edward Howard {Eel. iv.) in 161S, could 
not hare occurred long before the all^;ory 
concerning it was composed, the abore-men- 
tiooed statement fixes his birth about the year 
1475 (see the argument in Jawwor, i. Iv- 
Iziii, but here the death of Howard is roi»- 
dated 1614; see Lord HitpiiB T of Cher- 
boiy's Lift and Seign of Hemy VIII, 81). 
"While, then, still in the prime of life, Barclay 
had t^ien the vowa as a Benedictine monk, 
and thus enrolled himself in the most con- 
•emtiTe and aristocratic of the orders (it is 
enrions that in Sd. t. he should rather con- 
temptuously introduce 'a gentell Clunsr,' 
Le. Glnniac monk, as a purreyor of charms 
to womenV At Ely he also translated from 
Baptist Butntnan the 'Life of St. Oeorge,' 
which he dedicated to Nicholas West, bishop 
of Ely (Fmsbolt) ; from this traoalation 
Uackensie (ii. 291) quotes some lines in the 
old fonrteeu-syllable metre, which are with- 
out any striking merit. When certain Urea 
of other Bunte, aaid to have been written by 
Barclay, but all non-eitant, were compoeed, 
can only be conjectured ; the ' Life of St. 
Thomas of Canterbury ' is thought by Jamie- 
•on to have been written wh«n its anthor 
had become a Franciscan at Canterbury ; of 
the- ' Li?«8 at St. Catharine, St. Mai^aret, 

and St. Ethelreda,' the last^^tamed, of course, 
directly connecte itself with Ely. 

Under Henry VH, for whom Barelrr 
cherished, or professed to cheri^, a deep »- 
gard (sea Ed. L^, learning and lettera were 
already ooming mto fashion, and the «arly 
years of Henry Vm were the heydvy of tba 

English Renascence. 

I therefon not 

b«^an towards the cfaiae of the fiiM 
Tudor reign, and achiered a conspienous soo- 
oeea at the end of the seeond, Mioold havA 
had a liberal experience of patrons and pa- 
tronage. He aeems to hare enjoyed tbe 
goodwill of Henry VITs tmated adviser, 
Cardinal Horton, a prelate of literary tastes 
(see Eebifiiet iiL and iv.); hut this mnst 
nsTe been in the earlier part of his life, aa 
Horton died in 1500. Farhaps^ aa Arehbiahop 
of Canterbury, he bad come mto some con- 
tact with B^lay at Croydon. He was be- 
friended in hie maturiw far Thomaa, duke of 
Norfolk, the victor of Flodden Field and 
lord treasurer of England — to whom, as haa 
been seen, he dedicated bis tnnslatioa of tite 
' Jugnrtha,' and the memory of wboM Beamd 
son. Sir Edward Howard, ha, after tbe death 
ofthelatt«rofi'BTeat, 26 April 1613, ashird 
high admiral in the war with France, aaog 
in the graceful eclogue of the ' Towre <tt 
Vertue and Honour,' introduced into his ' Eel. 
iv.' Other patrons of his, as has been seen, 
were Richard, earl of Itent, who died in 
1623, and Sir Oilea Alington. To anothw 
contemporary, of tastes and tendencies simi- 
lar to his own, he paya in passing a tribute 
which to its object, Dean Colet, must hare 
seemed tbe highest that could be received bv 
bim , 'This man,'we read in'Ed. iT.,"hath 
won some soules.' Little is known aa to his 
relatione to Cardinal Wolaey, an allusion to 
whom haa been very tmreasonably sou^t in 
the mention of ' bntehers dogges irood '?niad) 
in the eulc^ of Bishop iJcock in ' EcL i.' 
On the other hand, Jamieson has directed 
attention to a letter from Sir Nicholas Vaax 
to Cardinal Wolaey, dated 10 April 1620, 
and b^^ng the cardinal to ' aena to them 
. . . Mtiistre Barkleye, the black nunke and 
poete, to devise bistoiree and oonvienieDt 
__■ "florrishe the buildings and banqn«* 

0^ State Fapert, Foreign anil Domeetic, 
Henry VHI, vol. iii. pt. i. 259). It would 
probaUy not have interfered with Barclay's 
execution of his task had he been the author 
of a tract against the French king's (quarr 
Lewis 3UIP) oppresaifHt of tbe ehvMh, which 
has been ascribed to him. bthesa 

D it may be added that a 





Uiimst«d Barcl&y agKUUt a prominent con- 
temporftTf inaa oi letters. A^init Skelton, 
•s K wtmton and vicioiu writer, B&relfty in- 
Tsighsd with little or no pretence ot disgiii»- 
iag his Rittack. At the clou of the ' Ship of 
Fooli ' (aee. ' A brefe addlcion of the lyn^- 
IftTfte <k tome newe Folyi ') he aJludeB with 
loflj contonpt to the author and theme of 
the ' Boke of Phyllyp Sparowe,' a hit vary 
ffOOd-hunHHuedly retnmed, at it seems, bv 
Skslton in his ' Qarlaude of Lanrell ' (Dtcb'b 
SkfUm, i. 411-12). Very probably. alM>, it 
is in alluBion to Skelton that, in hie ' £cl. iv.,' 
Barclay upbraids a 'p^ete laoreat' who is 
a graduate of 'stinking Thais' (ct DiOB, 
xzzv-sxxTi). But tbou^ Skelton pua- 
phissed and presented to Wolsay three por- 
tions of Locher's Latin version of the ' Ship of 
Fools ' under the title of the ' Boke of Three 
Foolee' (see DrOB, i. 19fr-206, and cf. ii. 227), 
neither jealousy nor partisanship, nor even 
profeMional feelinff is needed in order to ez- 
plaJQ Barclay's abDorrence of the Bohemian 
Ticar of Diss, with whose motley the sober 
hue of his own more sedate literary and sati- 
lieal gifts had to little in oommon. Bale 
nunUons (&n»torum Brytannia Centuria, 
ix.) a book by BaiclaT, > Contra Skeltoniom/ 
wluch, according to llitMn, ' wa« probably in 
■letzv, but ^ipears neither to nave been 
printed, nor to m extant in manuscript,' 

How Barclay lared at the time of tha 
dissolution of tti« monasteries we do not 
know. Some time before this he had left 
Ely, where he had become a laudator t«m- 
fvru aeti, and deprecated the violence which, 
m contrast with nis piedeceeaora, the ' dred»> 
full Dtomo' need towards his flock (see Eel. 
iii. One would be tempted to identify this 
personage with Thomas Qoodrich, bishop of 
Ely, 1K(4-M, who 'reformed' his see, but 
that the ' Eclogue ' most have been writtMi 
ttx earlier). At some date unknown he as- 
sumed the habit of the more rigorous Fran- 
ciscan order at Ganterbivy (Balb, MS. iSbon, 
cited by Jamieson; cf. Dempster). It is 
probably a mare coincidence that an Alex- 
ander Barclay is mentioned in 1638 as a 
Tehement promoter of the Lutheran reforma- 
tioa and refugee in Oermaoy (see Arber** 
taprint of Rot and Bablows jUde m* and 
fo (Miff vroUc, Introduction, 13). Thereac- 
tion of tha last years of Henry VTirs reign 
was cleariy not disadrantageoua to Barclay, 
who was presented, 7 Feb. 1646, by Mr. John 
Faacal with the vicarage of Great Baddow, 
in Esisz, and 80 March of the same year with 
the vicarage of Wokey, in Somenetshire. 

During the reign of Edward VI, through 
the greater part of which be snrrived, he 
BiiMt liATe ao^atescod in the religious changes 

that seemed good to those in authority j for 
not only did he hold Oreat fiaddow till hia 
death, but be was in 1562 presented by th* 
dean and chapter of Canterbury to the rectory 
of All Hallows, Lombard Street, in the dty 
of London. Jamieson has pointed ont that 
Wadding (ScruntorM Ordmit JUiWrum), who 
TOomotes Barclay to a sufliagan-bishoprie of 
Bath and Wells, probably conioimds him with 
Gilbert Berkeley, who was actually eonse* 
crated to that see in J669,aiid that the same 
mistake may be at the bottom of a scsndalooa 
anecdote agunst Barclay related by Bale and 
repeated w Wood, of which the scene ia 
laid at Wells, ' before he was Queen MaTy's 
ohaplain.' Queen Mary did not ascend tne 
throne till more than a year after Barclay's 
death. One is altogether inclined to regud 
as resting on no better foundation Bale's cha- 
racteristic assertion that Barclay thioiwhout 
remained not only 'ueritatie osor,' i.e. a luman 
catholic at heart, but also 'sub ccetibatusfuco 
fcedus adulter.' 

he had spent some of his yoonger days. Ha 
was buned in the church there on 10 Jnns 
1562. Since, as has been seen, he was bom 
about 1475, he had attained to a good old 
age. In his will, which is extan^ he leave* 
bequests to the poor of Badew and of ' Owk- 
ley' (Wokey). The other bequests are no- 
merou8,bnt have little signiflcance for post^ 
rity ; a liberal lency of SOL to the poor and 
other gifts are ospendent on the payment 
of debts owing by one Cutbeard Croke, c^ 
Winchester (aeeJAKiBBOK, i. Ixzxvi-lsxzix). 
Prefixed to Pynson's editions of Buclay'a 
'Mirror of Gldod Manners 'and 'Sallust ia 
a representation of the author in monastio 
habit presenting a copy of his work to hia 
patron. The face is (at least in the Cam- 
bridge ' Sallnst ') intvesting ; but Jamieaoa 
points out that the picture is used lor ■ 
similar purpose in othw puhlications, so that 
its chi^ figure cannot oe identified witE 

Even considering the length of his life, 
Barclay was a very productive writer. No 
intrinsic importance, however, belong* to any 
of his minor writings, incidentally mentioned 
above ; in addition to which there has also 
been attributed to him, on no very satisfa»< 
tory evidence, theEnglish translation printed 
by Fynson, as is sup^ued, between 1^0 and 
1630, of the travels of Eavton, a Pnamon- 
Btreteusian friar, in the Holy Land uid Ar- 
menia, originally written in French, and then 
rendered into Latin by command cd Fop» 
element V. Walton farther mentions, aa 
by Barclay, ' Orationes nri» ' and a tnctata. 




' De fide or^todoxft.' Hii literary &me tmU 
on hi* 'Ship of FooIb,' and in a lesa d^rse 
on hia ' Ecldgtua.' The former of theae vorks 
temune enenUallj a tramUtioa, though 
Buelay truly Btetes hunsetf to have' added 
and ^TOn sn English colouring to his work. 
It IB in any case tha moat noteworthy trans- 
lation into a living tongue of a production of 
very high literary aignifieance. The 'Nar- 
renachin' of Sebaatian Brant waa publiihed 
at Basel in 1494, and its immediate popula- 
rity i« attested fay the appearance of three 
unauthoriaed reprints ia the course of the 
same year. A Low-Qerman tranalation waa 
puUiahed probably as earlv as 1497, and in 
(he same year Jacob Locner produced hia 
celebrated Latin version, the 'Stultifera 
Nana.' On this Barclay's translation wu 
founded. He profesaea, indeed, to have 
'oueraene the fyiait inuention in Doche, and 
after diat the two translationB in Laten and 
Ft«nehe ' (see the Frologe of Jamet Lacker 
in JAHIBSOir, i. 9; the French translation 
waa probably that of Fiene Rivi^ of Poi- 
tiers, whose original was Locher, and whom, 
in 1496, Jehan Droyn paraphrased inte prose). 
But at the conoluston of tha argument 
(JucmoiTfi, 18) Barclay directly refers te cer- 
tain verses by Locher as those of his ' Actonr,' 
or original ; and the order of the sections, as 
well as the additions made M the original 
German text, generally correepond to those 
in Lecher's Liktin version of 1497. Even the 
preliminary staiizaB, headed ' Alexander Bar- 
clay BKCu^^nge the rudenes of his translacion,' 
Gorrespmid to the ' Eicusatio Jacobi Locher,' 
whereas Brant's ' Entschuldiffung ' occurs 
near the end of the German book. Curiously 
enoDgh, however, the poem of Robert Oaguin, 
of wuiui Barclay inserted a version near the 
end of hia work, had made ite appearance, 
not in Locher's Lstin translation, but in that 
of Jodocus BadiuB Ascensius (1506). On 
the other hand, the woodcuts of Barclay's 
translation are copied from the original 
Baaal edition, for wnieh it has been supposed 
that these illustrations, that contributed not 
a little to the popularity of the satire, were 
invented by Sebastian Brant himself (see 
Zabitokb, 234 seq.) 

Barclay's ' additions ' are mostly of a per- 
sonal or patriotic nature; but he also in- 
dnlgee in an outburst against French &shionB 
in £eas (sec. ' Of newe fassions and disgised 
garmentes '), indites a prolonged lament, the 
refrain of which suggesta a French origin, 
on the vanity of human greatness (sec. 'Of 
the ende of worldly honour and power,' &c.), 
and makes a noteworthy onslauf^t upon the 
fiilfle reliaionB (this is the substance of his 
'brafe addioion of the ^ngularite of eome 

newe Folys*). The ballad in honour of tha 
Blessed Virgin, which ooncludee his work, 
eeenu also te be his own. As to hia giperal 
execution of hia task, he on the whole mabogee 
his seven-line stansa not unskilfully, and 
thus invests his translation with a degree of 
dignity wanting to the original. Like Brant, 
he never forgets his ohsracter as a plain 
moral teacher. He is loyal and orthodox, 
and follows his original in lamenting both 
the decay of the holy faith catholic and the 
diminution of the empire, and in denouncing 
the Bohemian heretics, together with the 
Jews and the Turks. The English < Ship of 
Fools ' exercised an important direct influence 
upon our literature, pre-eminently helping to 
bury medieval all^ry in the nave wQch 
hod long yawned before it, and to direct 
English authoiship into this drama, eaeay, 
and novel of character. 

Barclay's ' Ecli^es ' (or ' Egloges^' as they 
were first called in deference to a ndieuloua 
etymology) were the first poetical efibrto of 
the kind that appeared in English proper ; 
in Scotland, as Sihbald poinU ont, they nad 
been preceded by Henryeon's charming ' Bo* 
bene and Makyne ' (dated abont 1406 by H. 
Morley). The oarlieBt modem bucolics were 
Petrarch's, composed about 1360, but these 
are in Latin. Barclay's more immediate 
predecessor, and one of nig chief models, was 
Baptist Hantuan, whose eclogues appeared 
aboutl400; and before the close of toe cen- 
tury the'Bucolics'of Virgil had been trann- 
lated into Italian by several poets. The 
first three of Barclay's ' Eclt^ues ' ore, how- 
ever, adaptations from the verv popular 
' Miseriie Ourialium ' of iEneas Sylvius (Pic- 
colomini, 1406-64). The theme was one 
familiar enough to the Renascence age, and 
ita echoes are still heard in our own literature 
in the poetry of Spenser, Though Barclay's 
execution is as rude as hia manner ia prosy, his 
very realiatie complsJnts fiimish a very lively 
picture of contemporary manners; thus. 
Eel. iii., which was probably known to 
Spenser, and periiaps to Milton, introduces 
an excellent description of an inn: but a 
more famous passage in this 'pastoral 'is the 
eulogy of Bishop Alcock, Ecloguss iv. 
and V. are imitations of the fifth and sixth of 
Hantuan. Into Eel. iv,, which treats of 
the neglect of poeta by rich men, is intro- 
duced the allegory already mentioned in 
honour of Sir Edward Howard ; the Duke 
of Norfolk, the Earl of Shrewsbury, and 
King Henry Vlil appear among the inhabi- 
tants of the Tower of Virtue and Honour. 
The effort is as well sustained as any that 
remains from Barclays hand. The whole 
poem has ft touch of bitterness losem- 

3y Google 




Uing thai in the October eclogiie of the 
■Shepherd'a Oslend&r,' Eel. tl., onder the 
title of the ' Cytefen and UpWdTdunui,' 
tresta tke femilm r theme of the rel&tiTe ad- 
TantagM and diaadvantages of town and 
cotmtrj, heie discuHed bj two ahepherda 
wanning themaelvee in the atraw at night. 
After .^nyntaa hat related the curious and 
pathetic tale of 'Comii ' concerning the un- 
equal diatributton amons Ere'a children of 
the hoDOun and the bnnuiu ttf life, Fanstna 

the entrataining colloquy which followa, tha 
town hM deciitodly the wone of the dispute, 
though the author it man of the world 
enough to mingle a little satire in hia praiae 
ot ruetio HmjOicity. 

The following list of Buclaj's extant 
worka ia abridged from Jamieeon, i. xerii-cix. 
Hie doubtful worka are queried. Bale'a liat 
ia incomplete, aa ia that of Pita. Bempater'a 
and Warton's include Beveral works, alrnadj' 
mentioned, which have been attributed to 
BarcUj, bnt are not extant. 1. 'The Ca»- 
t^ of Uboure,' Wrnkpi de Worde, 1606 ; 
Fnuon, n. d. 3. ' The Shyp of Folya of the 
Worlde,' Pynaon, 1509 ; Cawood, 1570, Ac. 
fte. 3. ' llie %1(^ of Alexander Burclaj, 
Frest,'n.d.{ JonnHerforde,n.d. ; Hnm&ey 
PoweU, n. d. ; Ed- iw. Pynaon, n. d. ; Eel. \. 
Wjnkyn de "Words, n. d., &c. ; Powell's 
edition ia in the Cambridge Univeraity Li- 
brary. 4. * The IntroductoiT to write and to 
itronoancBF^nche,'Ooplande,16Sl. 6, 'The 
Hyrrour of Good Maners,' Pynson, n. d. ; 
Cawood, 1670. e. ' Cronyde compUed in 
Latyn, by the renowned Salluat,' Pynaon, 
n. d. ; WalBy, 1557 ; Fynaon'a edition is in the 
Cunbridge Univeraity Library. 7. f ' Alex. 
BuoW, his f%ijTe of onr Mother Holy 
Ohnrcn opprewed by the Frenche King,' 
^naon, n. d. 6. 'The Lyie of the Glorioua 
Martyr aaynt George, tranalated by Alex- 
mnder Barclay, while he was a monk of Ely,' 
Fniaon, n. d. 9. ? ' The Lyfe of aaynt« 
Tfaomaa,' Pvnson, n. d, 10. t ' H&yth< ' 
Oronycle,' ^naon, u. d. 

B bwt sceonnt of Barclar and faia -vork* 
1 be found prefixed to T. H. Jamieson's bx- 
eellant edition of the 8hi^ of Fools, 3 Tol*. 
EdinboTgh, 1874. Erray kind of iDformation 
•a to SaMatian Brant'a Narrenaebiff. with a »> 
view of its rapiodnetioDB, ia nipplied in Zamoka'i 
MM>i»t<id edition, LeipsK. 18H. Of the Eo 
lognw than ia no eompM« modem edition . 
bnt Eel. V. ia TspTint«d in Sibbald'i Chronicle of 
Scotish Foeti7, li. 3e3^2i, and in ml. ixii. of 
Uie PsT^ Bociety's Pablicationi, with a valuable 
iatmdiietJoii, oontaioing extracta from EcL it, 
a^ Botea 1:? F. W. Fairboli. Sea al«o Bale' 
Tou in. 

rue b 

will be f< 

SoriptoTum Brytannin CantnriB, 72S, Baial, 
16S9; Pita'a BdaUonae Hittorica derebnaAn- 
glid^ i. 74JS, Paria, 161S i Th. Dampster'i Hia- 
toria EocU^aatJea Gentia Smtonun, Sad rd. 
(EMDatyne Clnb), i. 106, EdinbilTgh. 182fl; 
Wood'a Athenn OxoDienMe, ed. Bliea, i. 20i-S ; 
" jton'a HiBtory of English Poet^, ed, Hulitt, 
189-303, London, IS71 ; Sibbald'i Chronicle 
of Scotjsh Poetry, ii. 31)0-7; ItitKin'B Biblio- 
erapMa Poelica, 44-46* ; D. Irring'a Hiatoiy of 
Seottiih PtMrj, ed. J. A. Carlyle, Edinbn^, . 
ISei. The article on Barclay in Maekenne^ 
lirea and Charactare of Scottiib Vritera, iL 
287-6G, is diaeniMTe and inttnrect.] 

A, W. W. 

(1817-1B84), phyaician, was bom «t Dysart, 
N.B., and educated at the High School ofEdin- 
burph. He studied mediuDe at Edinbuqifa 
Univendty, and aft«r TiNtJngBerlin aodlvis 
took the H.I). degree in 1839. He afterwaida 
entered at Gaiua CoQc^, Cambridge, and |m>- 
ceeded to the HJ). d^[ree in 1862, He was 
elected aaaistant physician to St. 000^8*8 

Eital inl867,anddeTotedninchatt«nti(«i 
] intereeta of the medical achool^ lectur- 
)o inediciiw,uid serving as phyucian from 
!tol882. At the College of :niy«ciaiia be 
examiner in medicine, eounoillor,cenaOT, 
Lnmleian lecturer, and Harreian orator (for 
18S1), being elected treasurer in 1884. He 
was president of the Royal Hadieal and Ohi< 
TorgTcal Society for the year 1881, and oon- 
tribntdd to the traoaactions of th&t society two 
paperson heart disease, Hewasshrewdand 
cautiona a« a physician, concise and polished 
as a writer. He wrote the following worka : 
1. ' A Manual of Medical Diagnosis.'^ 3. ' On 
Medical Errors.' 3. ' On Gout and Rheum*- 
tiflm in relation to Diaeaaea of the Heart.' 
[Brit. Med. JoDF. May 1SS4.] H. E. T. 

BAKOLAT, DAVH) (181 0-1688), Bcot- 
tiah soldier and politician. [See under Bak- 
OLit, ROBMBT, 1848-^1890.] 

BARtJIiAT, 8iB GEORGE (jf. 1896), 
the principal agent in the aaaaaeinstion plot 
against William III in 1696, was of Scotch 
deecent, and at ths time of the plot kbout 
sixty years of age. He ia characterised as ' a 
man equally intriguing, daring, and cautious.' 
He appearato have been afaTourite officer of 
Viscount Dundee, and at the battle of Kil- 
ILecrankie was joint commander of the regi- 
ment of Sir Donald M'Donald of Sle«t, 
along with that baronet's son (Mao?hb»- 
BOS, Origami Paper*, i. 870). Aft«r the 
death of Dundee he paaaed over into Ireland, 
landing there from MuR with the Pink, 19 
March 1690 (Micfheesov, i. 17S) Bww 
held by the Highbtndert ' in hi^ Mteo^ 



a 1691 to Scot 

• Kiiw JameB's „ 

with the Hi^iluid cltuu ' (GABffusB8> State 
ibjMtv, 140). Asan opportunity fort riaing 
dia not present itself, ne returned again to 
f^ttitra ; but though he held the appoiatmeut 
of lieutenAnt in the ex-ldn^s raiment of 
horee guards, commtnded by the Duke of 
Berwiu, ha wu also frequeutlj employed 
along with Captain Williarnson in n^otisr- 
tioni with the adherents of Jamea in F 
land. In 1696 he arrived in England i 
a commission from Jomss ' requiring 
loving anbjecta to rise in arms and make 
npon the Prince of Orange, the usurper of 
onr throne.' According to the Duke of Ber- 
wick, 2,000 hone were to be raised to Join 
the kinc on hia arnTal from France, Sir John 
Fenwi(£ to be major-general, and Sir G^rge 
Barclay brigadier (Memoirt of Mtf Ihikt of 
Btrtaiek, i. 184). Barclay, howerer, inter- 
preted hia commission as allowing him a 
certain discretion in the methods to be em- 
ployed affainst 'the nsurper.' Making the 
piaiza of Oovent Oarden his headqtiartera, 
be gathered around him a body of conapi- 
ntora — forty men in all, well mounted—who 
were to pounce on William as he was return- 
ing from Richmraid to Loudon, the spot 
■efected being a narrow lane between Brent- 
ford and Tumham Green, where hia coach 
and aiz could not turn. The time fixed was 
16 Feb., but the plot havijig been revealed, 
the king remained at home both on that day 
and on the 22nd. The principal aubordi- 
nat«B were captured, with the exception of 
Barclay, who made his ^^^V* to France. 
In a narrative published in Clarke's 'Life 
of Jamea II,' Barclay exonerate* his master 
from all knowledge of the plot ; but that he 
did not stTonglT reprobate it, is sufficiently 
proved by the oot that he received Barclay 
again into his service. During the negoda- 
tiona with France in 1698. the Earl of Fort- 
land demanded that Barclay should be deli- 
vered up ; hut Louia replied that the regiment 
he commanded had beendisbanded, and that 
he did not know what had become of him. 

rCLuka'a Ufa of Jamea 11 ; Howell'a State 
Trials, vol. xiii. ; Helvilla and LevcB Papar* ; 
Hacphanoo'i Ongioal Papers; CantaiWs State 
Papers ; Mrminn of the Bake of Barwiek; 
Dalrnnpla'sSamoiri; Bomet's Hiitory of his 
own nm«a; Wilson's Jamea II and tha Doka of 
Barwiek ; the Hirtorias of Maeanlay, Banke, and 
Klapp.] I. F. H. 

BABOLAT, HUGH (iro&-1864), ■ 
Scottish lawyer and sheriff substitute of 
Pertbahin, was descended from the old Bar- 
day family of Fde^iire, and was bom on 


18 Jan. 1799 in Glasgow, where his &ther 
was a merchant. Alter serving his appreo- 
ticeahip as a law agent he was admitted ■ 
member of the Gla^VW faculty in 1831. In 
1839 he was appointed sheriff substitute of 
the weatent district of Perttishire, and in 
1333 sheriff substitute of the county. He 
died at his residence at Early-bAok, Craigie^ 
near Perth, on 1 Feb. 1884, having for sevwal 

Saan been the oldest judge in Scotland. 
heriff Barclay was the auuorof ' A Digest 
of the Law of Scotland, with special re- 
ference to the Office and Duties of tne Justice 
of the Peace,' 1862-3, a work whioh hoa 
passed into several editions, and has proved of 
mvaluable service to the class of magistrate* 
for which it was intended. Beaides editiona 
of various other legal works, he also putK 
lishad 'Law of Highways," 1847; 'Publio 
House Statutes,' 1862 : ' Judicial Procedure 
in Presbyterian Church Oourta,' 1876 ; and 
other mmor tractates, such as 'Hints to 
L««tl Students,' 'The Local Courts of Eng- 
land and Scotland compared, and 'The Out- 
line of the Law of Scotland agamst Sabbath 
Pro&nation.' He was a frequent contributor 
to the ' Journal of Jurisprudenca * and other 
le^ periodicals, and his papers on the ' Ouri- 
osities of the Game Laws and 'Gnrioaitiea 
of Legislation ' were also published by him 
in a collected form. For many yaara he waa 
a prominent jnember of the general assemUy 
of the church of Scotland, and, taking an 
active interest in eccleeiaatical' and nhilon- 
thropio matters, he publiahed 'Thoughts on 
Sabbath Scht^,' 1866; "The Sinaitic In- 

criptions,'1866, anda fbw other small wotte 

f a similar kind. 
[Scotsman, 3 Fab. I8S4.] 

T. F.H. 

BAI10U.T, JOHN (1683-1621), antiw 
of the ' Aigenis,' was bom 28 Jan. 1682 at 
Pontri-Mousson, where his father, WiUiam 
Barclay [q.v.], was professor of civil law in 
thecolkge then recently founded in that town 
by the Duke of Lorraine. Hia mother, Anna 
de Malleviller, was a F^nch lady of dis- 
tinguished birth ; but Barclay always con- 
sidered himself a Scotsman and a subject 
of James I, and the attempt to i^liate nim 
Co Franco, of which his native town at that 
period formed no part, has been renounced 
even by the FVench critics who have d late 
done so much to elucidate the circumstances 
of his life. He is said to have been educated 
by the Jesuits, and this ma^ partiallv hav* 
been the case; but his father u little likely to 
have reaigned the mun charge of hia educM 
tion to other hands, and his writings show 
no traoe of the bise toata whicbhad already 
begun to infect the jar'" "" — '""" 





Pope's, hi* foatbM fsucj wu ctptivated 
l^Statim, and his first ^«rforniuice wu a 
mge at nineteen. The Jesuits maj well have 
deaiml to enlist 80 prominng a recruit in 
their order j but the usual atory that his father 
carried him off t« England to aToid their per- 
•ecutiona is rendered douht^I b^ the diner- 
ent account of the motive of his visit assigned 
bvhimself inoceof hispoenu. The accession 
of a Scottish king to the Elnglish throne would 
■eem quite sufGcient inducement to draw a 
ffifted and enterprising joim^ Scotsmtm to 
London ; at the same time his antipathy to 
the Jesuits, tram whatever cause it may hare 
arisen, was unquestionably TeiyTenuine, snd 
found VBDt in his nest work. 'Die fliBt part 
rfthe'Satyricon,' published under the name 
of Euphormio Lusininus, is said to have bih 
peared in London io 1603, but no copy of the 
edition has ever been found. A second edition 
was printed at Paris in 1606. Barclay's stay 
in England was but short ; he lepaii^ first 
to Angers, and in 1606 to Paris, where he 
married Louise Deboonoire, daughter of an 
army paymaster, and herself a Latin scholar 
and poetess, llie married pair removed in 
1606 to London, where, in the same year, 
Barclay published bis Latin poems under the 
title or '8ylv»,' but the second part of the 
' Satyiicon ' was publialied at Paris in 1607, 
an edition entirely unknown until recently 
farou^t to light by H.Jules Dukas. Barclay 
emtinned to reside in London for nearly ten 
year^ enjoying, as the statement of his friend 
nioneand the intemalevidenceof his works 
attest, the favour of Jamea I as a countryman 
and a scholar ; but the assertions c^ some of 
his biographen &il to convince us that he 
was entrusted with state secrets or employed 
in foreign missions. The obloquy occasioned 
by the attacks made in the ' Satyrieon ' on the 

Emits and the Duke of Lorraine compelled 
m in 1611 to vindicate himself by the pub- 
lication of an 'Apologia,' nsually but im- 
jBt>pBrly regarded as a third pajl of the 
work. This has been usually stated to have 
been designed as a reply to a particular at- 
tack of which the autnor has remained un- 
known, but M, Dukae demonstrates that this 
latter cannot have been written before 1616 
or 1617. In 1606 Barclay lost his father, and 
in 1609 he edited the tatter's posthumous 
treatise, ' De Potestate Papn,' a work boldly 
attacking the usurpations of the medinvol 
popes, wnich involved htm in a controreray 
with BelUrmine. By other Jesuit adversaries 
he was accused of having dissembled or for- 
saken bis religion to gratify James I, a chor^ 
which could have been easily established if it 
had been well founded. In 1614 he published 

tiie ' Icon Animorum,' generally reckoned as 
the fourth part of the ' Satyricon,' an animated 
and accurate sketch of tne character of the 
chief European nations. In 1616 he quitted 
England for Home, a step imputed by 
himself to penitence for having published 
and defended the errors of his father on the 
extent of the papal authority; but which the 
internal evidence of his Latin poems shows 
to have been rather occasioned by the dis- 
appointment of his hopes of reward and ad- 
vancement at the English court. Thoughhis 
works continued to be prohibited at Rome, he 
was pensioned by Paul V and well received 
by his old antagonist Bellsrmine ; he repaid 
their protection, ' meliore voluntate quom 
Bucceean,' says one of his biographers, Dy a 
controversiM work against protestantism, the 
' Pamnesis ad Sectarios,' printed at Coloa;ne 
in 1617. It was ^probably discovered vM 
theology was not his forte ; at all events, his 
services were not again put into requisition, 
and he spent his bst years in retirement, 
indulging the innate Scottish taste for gar- 
dening h^ cultivating tulips, and his special 
literary gift by the composition of his master- 
piece, the ' Argenis.' According to a manu- 
script note in a copy belonging to H. Dukas, 
founded on information derived &om Bar- 
clay's eon, this memorable work was com- 
pleted on 38 July 1621 ; on 1 Aug. the 
author was stricken with a violent fever, 
and he expired on the 16th, Balph Thorie, 
in his anonymons elegy on Barclay's death 
(London, 1^1), more than insinuates that 
he was poisoned, and the suddenness of his 
decease is certainly suspicious. His romance 
was printed the same jeor at Paris, under the 
supervision of his friend Peireecius, whose 
letters to him remain unedited in the public 
library at Carpentraa. Barclay, by his own 
direction, was interred in the church of St. 
Onofrio, which also holds the remains of 
Tasso, A monument erected to him in an- 
other church was subsequently removed, 
either fixim the revival of suspidons respect- 
ing his orthodoxy ; or, occonfmg to another 
account, £rom his widow's displeasure at a 
t»py having been made for Cardinal Bar- 
braini as a monument to a tutor in his own 
family. Barclay left a sou, who became an 
abb£. His widow returned to France, and 
died at Orleans in 1652. 

Barclay is a writer of the highest merit, who 
has adapted the style of Petronius, elevated 
by the assiduous study of more dignified 
models, with signal success to the require- 
ments of his own day. His 'Satyricon 'snows 
how completely at on earlv age he had ap- 
propriated the fascinating elegance of Petro- 
I nius, while good taste or good morals kept hia 



of youthful vi^ur in the ' Sat^eon/ more 
weight and finish in the 'Argenu,' which en- 
jojs the further advuitigefl of an int«fMting 
plot and a Mrious purpose. The ' Satjricon 
IB partly autohiognphical, partly based on 
his Other's adventuras, and one main otject 
is the ridicule of parsons individuallr ob- 
noxious to him, such as the Doke of Lor- 
raine, who figures under the name of Callion. 
The jesnita are attacked under the ooUective 
designation of Acifnii ; and the puritans, 
whom Elarclay hardly liked better, are im- 
personated under the figure of Catharinus, 
Id the ' ArsBnis,' though moat of the chuac- 
tara are real personages, the merely personal 
element is leas consplcnous j the author's pur- 
pose ia graver, and his scope wider. He de- 
ugnad to admonish princes and politicians, 
and above all to denounce political faction 
and conspiracy, aj>d show how they might 
be repressed. The League and the Gtunpow- 
der plot had evidently made a strong im- 
pression on his youthful mind. The valour 
and conduct of Archombrotus uid Foliarchua 
(both repteeenting Henry IV), the regal 
' J end feminine weakness of Hyaniabe 

ElHth), the preeumptuouB arrogance of 
3bane« (Philip 11), are powerfully de- 
picted. As a story, the work occasionally 
flus, but the style and the thoughts mun- 
taiD the reader's interest. Finelon's ' Tel»- 
machus' is considerably indebted to it, and it 
ia an indispensable link in the chain which 
unites clusical with modem fiction. It has 

like Bicheliea and Leibniti m» be asao- 1 
ciat«d the entbuaiastic verdiot of Coleridge, 
who pronounces the style concise as Tacitu* 
«nd peiapicuoua aa liTj, and regrets that the 
romance was not moulded by some English 
contemporary into the octave atania or epic 
blank verse. Barclay's own I^tin Terse is 
elegant and pleasing, snd rarely aspires to be 
anything mote. Vrar little is known with 
certain^ reapec''t^ Ssrcls^'s character and 
penonal traits His elecist Thorie extols 
nis personal qualities with moat Bfiectionat« 
warmth, but in very general tenns. He is 
usually said to have been gnve «nd melan- 
choly, out Thorie eelebvatea nis 'focilialepor,' 
andBugnotspeaks of his ' firons ad hilsritatem 
porrects~* He evidentlysoof^ tha&vourof 
the great, and would onnoede much to obtain 
it, but he cannot be reproached with flatte^ 
or servility. His adherence to the catholic 
religion was probably the result of a sincere 
preference, but his writings are by no means 
those of a lealot. 


l^arcUy's biography, as mnally Darralsd, ia 
di8fl|w«d by many errora, and many paswea In 
his hfs an Bnknown or oboenre. Th> notuM of 
coDtgmpoTanM and writen of the naxt comia- 
tion, iiKh as Bugnot, Fona, Onwsns, Ei;Uitbbb, 
ware condsosad, with nutni eorrrctious, into as 
utida in Bayle's Dictionary, which bu sinoe 
Barred as tb* (tandard soaive of infunnatiou, bnt 
which M. Jules Dolus, in the prefoee ta hi* 
bibl>ogn(Af of the SMyricoc (Pwis, IBSD), baa 
shown to abound with errors. M. Dnkaa has 
diseorerad numy new facts, and his essay is tba 
most vslnsble modeiti work on Biuclay. There 
is a good Latin disiertiitioD on tha Aisenis far 
Lten Boucher (Psris. 187*). 8«» alwDopond, 
L'Arginis de Bsrclai (PariB, 1878). There is ne 
eollsctsd edition oF BsrcUy's works, fmd M. Da- 
kas's eihanstJTe bitliiigwphj of the Satjricon 
is the only importAnt ocmtxibntioD to their lite- 
rary history. His separate poenis •ppear in tha 
Delitic PneCaram Scotomio. A dflh part ins 
added tc the Satyiieoa by Claude HDrisot,ander 
ths pseudonym of ALeChophilus, and has -tn- 
qu^ntlj brto pnblished aioog viLh it. A tnns- 
UtioDof tbs Argents by Ban Jodsod was entered 
atStationsn'Hntlon 3 Oct. lS28,bat wunarer 
published. Two olJteT tranelatioBs appeired 
shortly atlarwards. Tbs Icon Animomm was 
trauiUted by Tbomas Hay in 1 83*.] B^ <i. 

of the church of Scotland and the founder 
of the sect of the Bereans, otherwise called 
Barclayites ix Barclayans, iws bom in 17U 
at Muthill, in Perthsniie, where Ida &ther, 
Ludovic Barclay, was a hrmer and miller. 
From an early age he was destined for the 
church. He entered the university of St, 
Andrews, and took the degree at M.A., 
afterwards passing through tbeordinary theo- 
logical cnrnculum. He becamft an ardent 
supporter of the views of Dr. Archibald 
OuupbeU, then profeesor of church history. 
On 27 Sept. 1769 Baralay received license 
to preach tha goepel ftt)m the presbytery t^ 
Auchtovrder, and soon after became assist- 
ant to the Bev. James Jobson, incumbent of 
the parish of Errol, with whom he remained 
nearly four ^eors, when he was dismis 
his inculcation of obnoxious doctrine 
June 1763 he became assistant r 
the Bev. Antony Dow, incumbent of Fette^- 
caim, in Kincardinsshire, where he Bpent 
nine years. His eloquence filled liie diurch 
to orarflowing. A change in his opiniona 
was indicated by thepnblication, in 1766, oft 
' Paraphrase of the Book of Psabms,' to which 
was prefixed a ' Dissertation on the Best Means 
of interpret!^ that Portjon of the Canon of 
Scripture.' The presbytsry of Fordoun, ia 
which Fettercairn is eituatea.snmmoned Bai>- 
cU^ to appear before them. He escaped from 
their bar without censure. The antagonina 




agminat him wm renved, however, by his rft- 
Mseitkin of doctrinM obnoziooa to the utet- 
bytaiy in a aiiull work entitled 'Rejoice 
erennore, or Ohrut All in All,' agaiiut tha 
dADgBTOUs teaching of which the prasbyterj 
draw up a. iibel, or waniing, to be read put>- 
licl; on a Bpedfled dav in the church of Fst- 
tercaira. The libel had little effect upon 
the people, whom Barclay continued to in- 
atmet in hla old methoda, pnbliahing in 1769 
one of the larseat of hia tieatisaa, entitled 
' Withont Faiu, without Ood ; or an Appeal 
to Ood conceminff Hia own Exiateuce,' which 
haa been Heyeral timea reprodueed, either 
alone or aa part of tha woraa of the author. 
He producld also in the aame year a p<^emi- 
cal letter an the ' Eternal Oeoeration of the 
Son of Ood, which waa foUowed in 1771 by 
a letter on the ' Aaeurance of Faith,' and a 
' Letter on Prayer, addresaed to a certain In< 
dependent Congregation in Scotland.' The 
death of Mr, Dow, minister of Fettercaim, 
26 Aug. 1772, left Barclay to the mercT of 
the preabytery, who not only inhibited nim 
from preaching in the church of Fettercaim, 
but mod all their influence to close hia 
mouth within their bounds, which lie in 
what ia called the Maanu. The clergy of the 
neif^bonriiic district of Angua were much 
mote friendly, and Barclay waa ^rnierally 
admitted bo their churches, in which for 
aararal months be preached to crowded eon- 
giegationa. The pariah of Fettercaini al- 
nioct onanioionaly EaTouied the claima of 
Barclay to the vacant living, and appealed 
on his behalf Co the synod of Angus and 
Haama, and then to the ^ueral aatiemblr, to 
aupport him againit his rival, the Rev.Robert 
Foote. But it was ordered that Foote should 
he inducted. The presbytery of Fordoun 
refused Barclay a cartiflcate of character. 
The refusal of the preabyteiy was sustained 

nneral i 
34 Hay : 

I May 1773. BarcUy was thus debarred 
fiom noldiiw any beneRca in the church of 
Scotland. Hereupon adheranti of his teach- 
ing farmed themselves into congregations in 
EdinbuKh and at Fettercairn, both of whom 
invited him to become their miniater. He 
preachod at Fettercaim two Sundays in July 
1778 in the open air to tboueanda of hearers, 
and the people of that and the neighbouring 
parishes erected a large building for worship 
at a place called Sauchybum ; to the paato- 
late of which, in default of Barcla/s ac- 
ceptance, Jamea H'Rae was unanimously 
called. He waa aoeordingty ' set aside as 
their pastor eariy in spring, 1774, by the as- 
UStance of Mr. Barclay, who waa present; 
and bom that period till 1779 Mr. M'Rae 

the opinii 


gather by tha industry of Mr. Barclay during 
his nine yeara' labour at Fettercaim' (Ltfa 
of Mr. John £arcictj/). Meanwhile Barclay 
himsdf bad preferred to accept the call to 
Edinbui^h, in view of which he had repaired 
to Newcastle for ordination, to which he 
was admitted 12 Oct. 177S. His fbltowen, 
sometimes called Bardayans or Barclayites, 
after their founder, designated themselvea 
Bereans (Acta ivii. 11). Barclay described 
himself aa ' miniater of the Berean assembly 
in Edinburgh.' Their doctrines are in themain 
thoaeofordinary Calvinism; taut they also hold 
. (1 J that natural religion uuder- 
'idences of christianitv ; (S) that 
oftheeHsenceof faith; (3) that 
unbelief is the unpardonable sin; and(4Hhat 
theFsalmsreferexclusivel^toChrist. 'There 
are Berean churches in £dtnbu:rgh, Qlasgow, 
CriefT, Kirkcaldy, Dundee, Arbroath, H.oq- 
troee, Brechin, Fettercaim, and a few other 
placea' in 3^>t\utd (Bioffraphtcal Dietionary 
qf Eminent Sootttnen), where, however, thay 
are described as a 'small and diminishing 
partv of religionists ' (EaDia's Societiattieal 
(^ciopadia), and there are, it is believed, a 
few oongregationa of them in America 
(MK^LINTOCX and Stboks'b Cyelopttdia, ftc. 
New YorVl. When Barclay had preached 
Ibr about turee years in £!diuburgh, he took a 
two years' leave of abeence.during which he 
proceeded to London. Here he laid the 
foundation of a church of Bereans, and also 
eetablished a debating society. Buclay had 
made ready his way as a propaffaodiat by 
the publication of a ' New Work in three 
volumes, containing, 1. The Psalms para- 
phraaed according to the New Testament. 

2. A select Collection of Spiritual Sonsa. 

3. Essays on various Subjecta,' I2mo, Edin- 
burgh, 1776; including, oesides the works 
alr^dy particularised, a treatise on the ' Sin 
against the Holy Qhoet,' Other selected 
works wara published, both before and after 
this date. 'To acme of theee an preflzed 
short nairativea of Barclay's life, as in an 
edition of the ' Assurance of Faith,' published 
at Glasgow in 1826 ; in an edition of hia 
'Esaay on the Psalms,' Ac, Edinburgh, 
1826 ; and in an edition of his ' Works,' Sto, 
Qlasgow, 1863. In 17S3 Barclay published 
a imall work for the use of uie Berean 
churches, the ' Epistle to the Hebrews para- 
phrased.' with a collection of paalma and 
songs from his other works, accompanied 
by ■ A Close Examination into tha Truth 
of aeveral received Principles.' Barclay 
died suddenly of apoplexy at Edinbui^, tm 
Sunday, 29 July 1796, whilst fc— •-— =- 



prajer at the honae of a frioad, at which he 
Ota ctdldd on finf^ing hiznsolf unwell whilst 
on his w&j to presich to hia conn^ifttioii. 
He wu intened in the Galton old boiTing- 
ind, where » momunent wu erectod to 


[Foot«'B &ny appendsd t« ■ Sennon, &o., 
'Aberdeen, 1776 : A Short Account of the Early 
Life of Ut. John Barclay, preflud to nrioni 
woiki ; Thorn*! Frefnce to Without Faith, with- 
out Ood, &0., I8S61 Biag. Diet of Eminent 
Seotonen, 1888; ScoU'i Futti EoclomE Scoti- 
euiK, pt. tL p. S67 ; H'Clintock and Strong's 
Cyelopiedia of Biblical, Theolo^csl, and EccTs- 
•iutiMl Literatnie, 8to, New Yorl^ 1887-Sl.] 
A. H. Q. 

BAKOLAY, JOHN (1741-1823), one of 
ths oldest and most distinguuhed officers 
who erer served in the nuuiDos, entered that 
corps in 1756 as a second lieutenant, and 
bei^me fint lieutenant in 1756. He serred 
throughout the seven years' ww, at first in 
the Mediterranean, then in the entedition to 
Belle Isle in 1760, uid lastly on tiie ooa«t of 
Africa ; he was promoted captain in 1762. 
He served with distinction through the Ame- 
rican war, particularly at the Bed Bank and 
in the mud forts, and was in command of 
the marinas on board the Augusta, whan that 
frigate answered the fire of the forte, and 
was deserted on beinf herself set on fire in 
the Delaware river. I^theeeservioeslkewaa 
promotal major by brevet in 1777. He was 
one of the commanding officers of marines in 
Sodney'R great action with De Orasse, and 
was after it promoted lieutonant-colonel by 
brevet in 1783. He saw no further active 
service at sea, but was for the next thirty 
years chiefly employed on the staff of the 
marinea in England. He became major in 
the marinas in 1791, and lieutenant-colonel 
in the marines, and colonel by brevet in 
1794. In 1796 he became major^eneral, 
and in 1798 second colonel commandant in 
his corps. In this capacity he had much 
to do with the organisation of the marinee, 
and effected many refornu in their uniform 
and drill. In 1803 he became lieutenant- 
general and colonel commandant of the 
marines, and in 1806 resident colonel com- 
mandant He was now practically com- 
niandei^in-chief of the whole corps under 
the admiralty, and tha universal testimony 
borne to its good character testifies to thie 
excellence 01 its organisation, and it must 
be remembered that not only in the mutinies 
of Spithead and the Nora, but in all the 
mntinous manifestations which occurred, the 
marinee proved that they could be depended 
on to diL'clf mutiny among the sailors. In 

1818 he became general, and in 1614 retired 
from the service after continuons employ- 
ment for fifty-^iine years. He went to liv« 
at Taunton, where he died in November 1833. 

liliCary and naval histories.] 

E. M. a 

BARCLAY, JOHN (1758-18S6), anato- 
mist, was bom in Farthshin 10 Dec 1768, 
his father Imng a farmer, brother of John Bar- 
clay fq. T.I, foimder of the Berean sect in Ediin- 
burgh. Obtaining a bursary in St Andrew's 
Umversity. he studied for the church, and 
became a hcensed minister^ but entering tha 
familv of Mr. C. Oampbell as a tutor, he de- 
voted his leisure to natural history, after- 
wards concentrating his attrition especially 
on human anatomjr. In 1789 he P*"Md as 
tutor into the &mily of Sir James Campbell 
of AberuchilL whose daughter Eleanoca ho 
longafterwardsmaiiied,in 1811. Theyoniw 
Campbells, bis pupils, entwed EdinMU^ 
TJnivernty in 1769, and Barclay became on 
assistant to John Bell, tbe anatomist, and 
was also aasocdatadwith his btotbaCharlaa, 
afterwards Sir Charles BelL To ^ James 
Campbell Baid^ owed tbe means of coi»- 
Dieting his me£c*l course. He beeam* 
M.D. Edin. in 1796, than went to Londtm 
for a season's study under Dr. HanhaU of 
Thavies Inn, an eminent anatomical teaeber, 
but returned to Edinburah and established 
himself as an snstomicid lecturer in 1797. 
Thenceforward until 1825 he delivered two 
complete courses of human anatomy, a morn- 
ing and an evening one, every winter sewion, 
and for several years before his death gave 
a summer course on comparative anatomy. 
His dasses gradnally grew in reputation: ii 
1804 he was formally n ' ' ' ' 

y and 

■Uy recoonised as a leotunr 
•urgerf Dy the Ediubni^^ 
College of Surgeons, ana in 1806 he becmms a 
fellow of tbe Ediubiu|^ Coll^ of Tbnimans. 
His style of lecturing was extremely <Sear,and 
illummated by a tborourii knowledge of tb» 
history of his subject. He contributed tha 
article Physiol*^ to the third edition of tli6 
' EntTCbpiedia Britannica ' ^1797), and in it 
showed good scientific parcepriou, although 
the amount of knowledge then available lor 
such an article appears extremely small to % 
modem reader. He developed lus ideal of » 
nomenclature of human anatomy based on 
scientific principles, and ridiculea many alh- 
surdities, which, however, have for tbe moat 
part persisted, in ' A New Anatomical No- 
mendaturo' (1803). In 1808 he published 
a treatise on ' Tbe Musotdar Hottons of tha 
Human Body,' arranged according to rtgiona 
and systems, and with many practical appli- 




cations to BUKtoy. Hiu wu followed in 
1812 bf liu ■ Dwcription of the Arteriw of 
the Huinui Body,' the result of much ori- 
ginal rtody end £iaeotion. A second edition 
sppeaied in lasa He wu orer on the look- 
out for apportDnitiee of diatecting rare am- 
mala, ana tooa he acquired an nnueual know- 
ledge of comjiaratiTe auatomj, b; whicbho 
illustiated hu lecturee. He fumished de- 
■criptiTe matter to a series of plates illu»- 
trating the human Bkeleton and the akeletoni 
of some of the lower animals, published bv 
Mitchell of Edinburgh in 1819-20. SeTerd 
of his lectures on anatomy were published 
poathumouil; in 1827. He died on 31 Aug. 
1826, after two years' illosM, during which 
bis classes were canied 00 by Dr. Knoz. He 
left his larce muaemn of anatomy to the Edin- 
burgh ColWe of Sorgeona, where it oonsti- 
tutea the fiaideian Muieum. One of his 
most interesting works is ' An Inquiry into 
the Omnions, Ancient and Hodem, concern- 
ing Life and Organisation,' published in 1822 
(pp. 64S). He paid consiaerable attention 
' ' Teterinary medicine, and was chiefly 
— -.-1 s-j j)ig foundation of a Teten- 

to- S 

Society of Scotland. 

(Hamoir by Sir O. Balliagall, M.D., preflxed 
to Intiod. Lcetnna to a Couse of AnaKonj W 
John BsreUy. U-C, EdiDbnicb, 1827; Memoir 
* " " " ' rafiied to Tol. viii. of Sir 

1881), bishop of Jerusalem, waa bom near 
Strabane in county Tyrone, Ireland, his 
fjuuily being of Scotch extraction. He was 
educated at Trinity College, Dublin, and 
proceeded B.A. in 1864 and U.A. in 18C7, 
but showed no particular powers <il applica- 
tion or study. In 1864 he was ordained to 
a curacy at Bagnelatown, county Carlow, 
and on taking up his residence there began 
to show »aiy great interest in the work of 
the London Society for promoting CHiria- 
tiani^ among the Jews. The question of 
Jewish convaraion was at that time agitating 
the religious world in England, and Barclay 
aopported the eause in his own neighbour- 
hood with great actiTity, till in 1B6S his 
enthuHsam resulted in nis offering himself 
to the London Society as a misiionBrr. He 
left Ireland, much r^retted by his parianioners 
and friends, and, after a few months' study in 
London, was appointed to Constantinople. 
The mission there had been established in 
183fi, but no impr««siou bad been made on 

the 60,000 Jews calculated to inhabit the 
town. Barclay Bta^ in Constantinople till 
1861, malciDg miasionaiv jouneya to the 
Danubian pTOTiiicea,Rhocle8,and oUier nearer 
districts. Heaoquiiedadioronghknowledga 
of the Spanish dialect spoken I7 the Sephar- 
dic Jews, and diligently proeecuted bis studies 
in Hebrew. In 1861 he was nimunatad in- 
cumbent of Christ ChuTch, Jerusalem, a poai- 
tion requiring energy and tact to aToid en- 
tanglement m the quarrels of the parties 
whose rivalries Barclay describes as a 'Abet- 
ting leprosy* neutralising his beet effort*. 
In 1866 he visited England and Ireland on 
private matters, received the degree of LLJ>. 
&om his university, and mamed. On bia 
return he found it impossible to continue in 
his post unless his salary was increased, and 
the refusal of the London Society to do this 
necessitated his resignation. Tnis was in 
1870; he returned again to England and 
filled for a time the curacies of Howe in Lin- 
colnshire and St. Margaret's, Weetminster, 
till in 1878 he was preeented to the living 
of Stapleford in the St. Albans diocese. The 
comparative leisure thus afforded him enabled 
hint K> publish in 1877 translations of certain 
select treatises of the Talmud with prolego- 
mena and notes. Opinion has been much 
divided as to the vidue of this work, but 
Jewish critics are unanimous in asserting 

their nstion and literature. In 1 
ceived the deoree of D.S. from Dublin Uni- 
versity. In 1879 the see of Jerusalem became 
vacant, and Dr. Barclay's experience and at- 
tainments marked him out as the oidy man 
likely to fill the post successfully. He waa 

vigour, but his sudden death after a short 
illness in October 1881 put an end to the 
hopes of those who believed that at last some 
of the olgects of the original founders of the 
bishopric were to be realised. Bishop Bar- 
clay's attainments were most extenNve. He 
preached in Spanish, French, and German; 
he was intimately acquainted with Biblical 
and Babbinical Hebrew; be was diligently 
engaged at his death in perfecting his know- 
ledge of Arabic ; and he had acquired scons 
knowledge of Turkish during bis residence 
in Constantinople. 

[An elabonta critical Incgisphy of the bishop, 

ETiDg eopions extracts from liis JDomsls mmI 
tten, waa pnbliihed BDODymonsly in 18S8J 

BABXHJlY, ROBERT (1648-1690), 
quaker apologist, was bom at Oordonstown, 
MorayBhira,^ Dec 1648. Hisfltli(r,Dnid 




Bftrclaj, the repnaentktive of in ancient 
fkmilT fonnerlf G«lled Berkeley, vu bom 
in I61O, Hid tened under Qiut&Tiu Adol- 
phiu. On the outbreak of tha dvil wu he 
■coepted « oommission in the 3ootch trrnj. 
He wu A &iend of John, afterwards Earl 
Middleton,wbo bad also served in thethiitj 
vean' war. Barclay commanded part of the 
force with which MiddlatoD repelled Hont- 
Tose before InTsmeaa in May 1646. On 
36 Jan. 1648 ha married Catharine, daughter 
of Sir R. Oordon, and bought the eatate of 
Ury, new Aberdeen. During Hamilton's 
invaaion of En^^aud in the aame year he was 
left in a command at home ; but retired, or 
WM dismiased, tratti active eerrice when 
Cramwall entered Scotland altei Praaton. 
We are told that Barclsr and Hiddleton 
were 'always on that aide which at leaat 
pretended to be in thsldng'Bintereat.' Bar- 
clay's estate was forfeited, and, in order, it 
is aaid, to regain poeaaasion, he obtained a 
aeat in the Scotch parliament after the death 
of Otarlas, and waa also one of llw thirtv 
members for Scotland returned to Cromwell a 
Mrliament of 1661 and 1666 (AcU qf iSbeteft 
TartiamtitU, iii. part ii^. He was alao a 
commissioner for the fbrfeited estates of the 
loyaliata. He was aneated after the Besto- 
ration, apparently in 1666 Isae a warrant for 
his committal to Edinburgn Castle, 28 Aug. 
1666, in Additional MS. 28133); but was 
released by the interest, it is said, of hia 
friend Hiddleton. 

He had loat his wiie in 1668, and at her 
dying request recallad hi* son Bobert, who 
had been sentforedncationtoliis ancle, then 
rector of the Scotch ooUeee at Faria. The 
fiither was afrajd of oathoho influenoes, and 
the son tells us (teeatisa on Vmvermt Lona) 
tiiat he had in faet been ' defiled l^ the pot- 
ladona ' of popery. He obeyed hi* father's 
orders, and returned at the cost of losing the 
promiaad inheritance of his noele, and for a 
time remained in an unsettled state of mind. 
His fothar was oonTerted to quokeriim, 
tlirough the influence, it is said, 01 a fellow- 
prisoner in E!dinbiirgn, James Swinton, and 
^ ' • ' " ■ the sect in 1668. 

prisoner in 
declared h 

learned Greek and Hebrew, being already a 
French and Latin scholar, and read the eany 
fatiiers, and ecdeuaatieal liistory. In Febru- 
ary 1670 be mairiedoneof his own persuasion, 
Christian, dawhtet of Gilbert HoUison, an 
Aberdeen merchant, by his wife, Hai^oret, on 
early eonvert to quakerism. Ha soon after- 
wains turned to account a degree of learning 
and logioal skill Tery pnnsnal amongit the 
early quokera in controTersy with one William 

Mitchell, a nei^bouring ptaaoher. 'Truth 
olaarad of OaliunnJee ' speared in 1670, 
and ' William Uitdiel unmaaqned ' in 1673< 
In 1678 hepublished a 'Oatecfiism and Con- 
feeaion of Faith;' and in 1676 two conbo- 
Tersiol treatises. The first of these, called 
the < Anarchy of the Ranters,' was intended 
to vindicate the quakere from the cho^e of 
sympathy with anarchy, whilst repudiating 
the claim to authivity of the catholic and 
other chuTohea. The second was the famous 
'Apology^ Barclay had already put forth 
' Iheaes Theoh^itB,' a series of fifteen propo- 
sitions referring to qnakar tenets. They were 
printed in EnySeh. Latin, French, Dutdi, and 
diyines ware mrited to discuss them. A pub- 
lic discussion took place upon them (^14 March 
1676) in Aberdeen with some diyinity stu- 
dents. It ended in oonfiiaian, and confiicting 
reports were published by the opposite par- 
ties. The < Acology ' itaeU, which is a de- 
fence of the 'Theses,' was published in I«tiQ 
atAmaterdaminl676. A copy of it was sent 
in February 1676 to each ot the ministers 
at the congress of Nim^uen ; and an Eng- 
lish yeraiou waa printed m the same year. It 
provoked many replies, and has been &«- 
quently republished. 

Meanwhile Barclay was sufibrinff perseon- 
tion at home. In 1672 he had felt it in- 
cumbent upon him to walk in sackcloth 
through the streets of Abwdeen, though at 
the cost of grievous agony of spirit (&a«M»- 
abtt Warning tathal^opUi^ Aherdeen). He 
was imprisoned at Montrose in the same year. 
In 1676 he travelled in BolUnd and Ger- 
many, and there made the ai^Tiaintancft of 
Elisabeth, Prinoes* Palatine, y^o had taken 
an intereat in qoaker prineiplaa. She wa^ it 
■eemt, distant^ related to nim thrmigh his 
mother. Ha heard during hia journey irftlie 
inmisoiiment of bis father and some thir^ 
other quakers in the Tolbooth at Aberdeen. 
He returned with a letter from the prineeaa 
to her brothor, Prince Rupert, asking him to 
use hie infiueuoe for the prisoners. Frinoe 
Rupert, however, was nnahle to speak to tho 
king on acoount of a ' sore lam. Barclay 
obtained an interview with the Duke of 
Tork, afterwards James 11, and the king gave 
him what he calls ' a kind of a reoommanda* 
tion,' referring the matt«r to the Scotch coun- 
cil. The coundl declined to release the 
prisonen unless they wonld pay the finea and 
promise not to woruip except in the common 
form. Barclay retoraed to Ury, and woe 
himself ifflpri*imed in Norembei' 1676 (see \e%- 
txn'm S eiiguim Bmvlaiaittt). Hisfeuierhad 
upaiently been leleaMd on parole (Bvax's 
iSwr«rwv> <tf tkt Quaktrt). Bobert wm 
leleased in April 1677, after ■ c 

I, Google 



letter of remoiutr&iice to Archbishop Shurp. 
After his leleMe BarcUr joined Penn uid 
Ottorgs Fox in k viut to OennAny, and the; 
bftd an interview with the Princeae Palatine, 
which has been deacribed bj Penn. In 1079 

lika Penli, was enjojing- &TOiir at court 
He frequently uw the Dulce of York during 
hia fforemment of Scotland, and wa« a 
fiiend and cousin of Jamea'i adherent, Parth. 
In 1679 he obtained a charter from the 
clOwn, in consideration of the Borrices of 
iiiwijwif uid his father, constitutiiur the lands 
of Uiy K 'free barony, with cnminal and 
dvil jurisdiction ; ' and his charter was con- 
fmiedbyan act of the Scotch parliament in 
1666. He probably hoped to uee the privi- 
lege on behalf of hia sect. Another appoint- 
ment was more useful for the same purpose. 
In 1662 a bodf of twalvs qnakan, under the 
wtapicee of his friend Penn, acquired the 
proprietorahio of EJaat New Jeraej. In 1683 
the I>ul» 01 York ^ve a patent of the 
province to the propnetors, who had added 
to their body twelve associates, including 
Perth and Buclay. Barclay was appointed 
nominal governor, with right to appoint a 
depaty at a aalary of 400^ a year, and with 
a share of S,000 acrw of land. One of his 
brothers, John, settled in the province, and 
Mwthar, David, died on his passage thither. 
The coustitutdonof the province ■-*■ — -'"-' 

to be a practical application of the quaki 
theory <» toleration, and to provide an osylui 

Us &ther died, 12 Oct. 1666. He continued 
to hare much influence with James. In a 
'Vindication,' written in 1689 {lUUqtaif 
Bantniana), he defends himself t^^nat the 
sus[Hcion, explicable by his intimacy with 
James and Perth, of being a Jesuit and a 
catholic His wife and seven children were 
a suffident proof that the first suspicion was 
groundless, and he denies that he had any 
leaning to Catholicism^ though he confessed 
U> loving many catholics. He says that ha 
never saw James till 1676 ; but he believed 
in the sincerity of James's neal for liberty of 
mnsdence, and, he adds, ' I lovs King Jamw, 
and wish him well.' Barclay admits that he 
used his influence with Jamee on behalf of 
hia friends, but denies that he had ever 
spoken of public affiurs. He had received 
no pBConiary favour, except a sum of SOOJ^ 
in payment of a dem incurred by hia father 
on behalf of Charlea I. He disowns, he 
saya, all political tus; but he held that 

every established government would be found 
to &vour the doctrine of passive obedience 
maintained by the quakers. It is said that 
Barclay visited James at the time when 
William was expected. Barclay asked 
whether no terms of accommodation oonld 
bearrangedj and Jameinmlied that he could 
consent to anything not onbeoomiuff a gentle- 
men, except the aundooment of liberty of 
cooscienoe. (This is atatad on the authority 
of his widow in the Oenealogiaal Aoeotmt, 
p. 86.) Barclay visited the seven bishops in 
the Tower, to iuati^ a statement of wbich 
they had complained, that they had bean th« 
cause (A the death of quakers, but assured 
them tliat tlie statement should not be used 

□ raise prqm^ce against them. 
In his later yeara Barclay aeei 

yeara Barclay aeems to have 
published nothing except (in 1686) an English 
version of a letter to a Eerr Pacts in deienoa 
of the quaker theory of personal inspiration, 
originaDj written in Latin in 1676. It has 
been praised as a pithy exposition of his prin- 

He died at Ury 8 Oct. 169a He left 
three sons and four dau^tera, who were all 
alive fifty yean after his death. His wife 
died 14 Dec. 1722, in the saventy-eixth year 
of her age. 

Barclay's great book, ' The Apology,' is re- 
markable as the standard exposition of the 
principtea of hie sect, and is not only the 
first defence of those principles by a man of 
trained intelligence, but in many reepecta one 
of the most impressive theological writings 
of the century. In form it is a careful ^ 
fence of each of the fifteen theses pre- 
viously publif^ed. It is impressive in style ; 
grave, uigical, and often marked by the 
eloquence of lofty moral convictions. It 

ris with a singularly dignified letter to 
kW , dated 26 Nov. 1S7&. The essential 
principk (expressed in the second proposi- 
tion) IB that all true knowledge comes from 
the divine revelation to the heart of the in- 
dividual. He infers that the authority of the 
Bcripturee gives only a 'secondary rule,' 
subordinate to that oi the inward ligbt by 
which the soul perceives the truth as tlte 
eyee perceive that the sun shinee at noondav. 
^e ught is given to every man, though oD- 
scurea by human corruption, and therefore 
the doctrine of reprobation is ' horrible and 
blasphemous.' All men, christian orheathen, 
may be saved by it. The true doctrines of 
justification, perfection, and pwseverance 
are then explained and distinguished froia 
the erroneous doctrines of catholics and pio- 
testants which, according to him, imely 
rather a change in tbeontwaid relation than 
the transformation of theaoiil which aooepta 





e qtuken in le- 
gtri to the mmistry , worship, and the ucra- 
menta from tbe Mme principle, reacting 
whftt aeema ta him to be outwud and me- 
chMiieal ; and (in the fourteendi proportion, 
on the power of the ctnl magiatrate) argues 
■gainat all ezerclM of eonadence by aecular 
Rathority. The last propoaition delenda the 
qnaker npognanoe to outward eeremoniea 
and worldly recreationB. Barclays affinity 
to the lo-called Cambridee Flatoniata and to 
the mystical writeia is oWous. He quotee 
Smiths select discourses with approru ; and 
■peaks with tererence of' Benurd and Bona- 
venture, Taulenu, Thomas k Eempis,' and 
others whohsTe 'Known and tast«d the love 
of Ood.' His recognition of a divine li^ht 
worldng in men of all creeds harmonises 
with the doctrine of toleration, which he 
advocates with great force and without the 
restrictions common in his time. For this 
resson he was accused of leaning towards 
deism, and is noticed with respect by Vol- 
taire. In &ct, if we dropped the distinction 
which with him is canlinal between the 
divine li^t and the natural resson, many 
of his argnmenta would fall in with those 
of the freethinkers, who sgreed with him in 
ptonouncing external eriofences to be insuffl- 
dent, thon^ with a vei^ different intention. 
Barclay's principal writings are as follows ; 
1. 'Truth cleared of Oalnnmiee,' 1670. 
8. 'William Hitchsl uninasqaed,' 1073. 
8. ' SeasonaUe Warning to the Inhabitants 
of Aberdeen/ IS73. 1. 'Catechism and 
Oonfassion of Faith '[1673]. 5. ' Theses Theo- 
lodn,' 167G. 6. ' The Anarchy of Rantan,' 
1676. 7. 'Apology for the true Oiristian 
DiTinity,a8tlieBameia set forth and preached 
by the people called in eoom Quakers,' 1676 ; 
ft vernon M the ' Theologin vers Ohnatiuue 
Apol^ia,' published at Amsterdam, 1676. 
8. 'I]nivenal Lore, conaidered and eata- 
bliahed upon its rifht foundation,' 1677. 
9. ' The Apology vindicated.' 1679. 10. ' The 
Possibility and NecosM^ of an Inward and 
Immediate Revelation,^ 1666: an English 
venion of a Latin lett«r to Faets, wntten 

Tbe 'Catechism 'and 'Apology 'have been 
frequently reprinted; and the 'Apol<^' 
has been tranalated into Dutch, German, 

French, Spanish, Danish, and (part of it) 
into Arabic. 

Barclay's works were collected in 1693 
into a folio volume, called 'Truth Trium- 
j^ant,' with a prefiica attributed to Penn. 
They were republished in three volumes in 
1717-18, and have also been published i: 
FuU detwla and 1 ' 

^ atill unpublished are givta 
m Smith's Oatalogua. 

[A Short Aceonut of tha Lift and Writinn of 
B. Barefsy, 1802; Qensalogical Aeeoiut of th« 
Bardsys of Urie, 1740 ; tha eatne edited bv H. 
Mill, 1812 ; Lifa bj WiSson Armiatead (adding 
liuletotbe above), lSaO;Beliqiiti " ' 

(lithographed) coUeetiou of lettos, privately 
pnnted 1870 (a coffin the Britiah Miuenni)i 
Life by Kippia, in the Biognqihia Brilaanicsi 


BABCLAT, ROBEET (1774-1811), 
lieutenant-colonel, entered the anny as an 
enaign in the 38th repnent on 28 Oct. 1769, 
and embarked with his regiment for the East 
Indiea, where he signalised himaelf in moat 
of the actions fought there in 1798. He was 
so distinguished by his talents and courage 
that he was promoted to a lieutenancy od 
81 Hay 1793, and to a company on 8 April 
1796, and on both occasions out of hia turn. 
Having been taken prisoner by the enemy, 
he aufiered much in captivity, and in the year 
following his promotion be returned to Eng- 
land, ^ough entitled to six months' leave, 
be hastened to rejoin his regiment, tban ia 
the West Indies. 

His distinguished qualities having become 
known toXJeutenant^[anenl Sir John Hoore, 
be was promoted to a majority in the GSnd 
on 17 Sept. 1808, and on 29 May 1806 to a 
lieutenant-colonelcy. In 1608 he accom- 
panied Sir John Hoore in tbe expedition to 
Sweden, and afterwards to Portugal. He 
was mentioned in deapetcbes for his distin- 
guished conduct at the battle on the Cos on 
24 June 1810. He af^rwards commanded a 
brigade, at the head of which, when charging 
the French on tbe heights of Buaaco, he re- 
ceived a wound below the left knee. For his 
conduct at Busaco he was again honourably 
mentioned in despatches. Hts wound obliged 
him to leave the service, and he died from 
the effects of it on 11 May 1811. 

[Historical Beeord of the ISZnd It«gt.p, 193; 
Daapatchea of Field-Hsrshal tbs Duke of Wsl* 
LngttHi, iv. 184-306 ; Army Lists.] A. 8. B. 

1864), pedestrian. [See Au-uoicB.] 

BAEOLAT, ROBERT (1883-1676), ee- 
clesiastieal hiatoriographer, waa bom 4 Aug. 
1833 at Croydon. He waa the younger son 
of John Barday (b. 1797, d. 1838), a lineal 
deaceDdaot of the apologist in & younger 




bnuwh, the editor of Alexander JmffikVa 
diuf (1338^ ani other 1tiiogt«plue&l worKs, 
of whom hu wn renuuka th»t ' perh&pa no 
member of the Society of Friends, excepting 
.Sewell, the historiui, ever had a more inti- 
mate acquaintance with the literature, both 
printed and manneciipt, of the early Society 
of Friend* ' (On MemberMp, p. 46). After 
MMJng through a j^eparatory school at 
Eppin^, he went to the Friends* achool at 
Hjtchin, conducted by Isaac Brown, after- 
wards head of the Flounden Inetitute^dt- 
worth. His education wb« finished at Bruce 
OroTe House, Tottenham. He attained a 
good knowledge of botany and chemistry, 
was fond of electrical experiments, and had 
skiU as a water^wlour artist. Trained 
businets at Bristol, he bought, in 1866, a 
Ixmdon manufacturipg stationery coucem 
(in Bucklerabniy , afterwards in Collie Street 
and Maiden Luie), taking into partnership 
his brother4n-law, J. D. Fry, in 1867. In 
March 1860 be patented an ' indelible writ- 
ing paper ' for tlie prevention of jbrsery, the 
pOCeas of manufacturing which he deBcribed 
m a commuiucation to the Society of Aits. 
Both at home and abroad be was interested 
ineSbrts for the evanffelisation of the masses ; 
though not ' recorded ' as a minister of the 
Society of Friends (to which bodv be b^ 
longei^, he preached in their meetmgs and 
missions. A poathumona volume gives tbirty- 
Kz of bis sermons, which were usually written, 
an uncommon thing with Friends. In 1868 
he delivered a lecture on the position of the 
Society of Friends in relation to the spread 
of the gospel during the last sixty years. He 
endoieed the view of Herbert Skeats (Sitt. 
of tie J^hM ChurcAe*, 1868) that the early 
Society of Friends was the first home mis- 
sion anociation, and was anxious to see the 
bod^ regaining ita position as an af^gresnve 
obnstian chuKh. He was strongly m favour 
of the public reeding of the Bible m Friends' 
meetii^ and thought Kichsrd Claridge's 
' Treatise of the Holy Scripturee,' 17S4, pre- 
sented a more correct view of the sentiments 
of the early Friends than their controversial 
writinga. He was as strongly opposed to 
the practice of birthright memberatiip, intro- 
duced amtoig Friends in 1737. Hi 11 opinions 
on these points led t« his undertaking the 
important series of investigations which cul- 
minated in his work on the inner life (mean- 
ing the internal constitution) of the obecurar 
commonwealth sects, whose origin, ramifi- 
cations, and practical tendencies, he traced 
with a tact and labour and a novelty of re- 
search which make his book of permanent 
value, ' not merely for theologians and stn- 
dents of eccUaiastical history, but for histo- 

rical inquiry ii 


■e' (Pi.ULi,i 

of the d 
primitive quakerism is ably oritidi 
the standpoint of an oldfaahioned I^Uend, in 
an 'Examen' (1878), by Charles Evus, 
HJ)., of Philadelphia. Too much application 
undermined his uealth, and before the latt 
proof-sbeets of his book had been finished, 
the rupture of a vessel in the brain produoed 
his death on 11 Nov. 1876. He mairied. 
14 July 1867, Sarah Matilda, eldest dangbttr 
of Francis Fry, of Bristol, the bibUcwrapher 
of the English Bible, and had nine chil<&eii, 
of whom six survive him. 

He published : 1. ' On the Truth of Chris- 
tianity, compiled bom . . .works of Archbishop 
Whately. Edited by Samuel Hinds, D.D., 
formerly Lord Bishop of Norwich,' 1861^ 
18mo (iJiree later editions). 3. ' On Mem- 
bership in the Sodety of Friends,' 6to 
[1872]. 8. 'ThelnnerLifeoftheReliffions 
Societies of the Commonwealth,' &c., 1876, 
large 8to, two platee and chart (actually 

fublished 18 Jan, 1877; since twice reissueilt 
877, 1678, fiom the stereotyped plates). 
[Smith's Cat. of Friends' Books, 1867; Sei^ 


BAKCLAT, THOMAS (Jl. 1620), pro- 
SBor at Toulouse and Poitiara, was one of 
le numerous Scotch scholara who, in the six- 
teenth and seventeenth centuries, studied in 
foreign universities, where they, in many cases, 
ultimately became profeesors. He was anativa 
of Aberdeen, but as a young man stndied 
humane letters and philosophy at Bordeaux. 
Here, we are told, his success was such as to 
' the special praise of 'that Pboeuix of 
and Latin learning,' Robert fialibur 
the Aristotelian scholar, whose edition 
leomedea' has remsined the standard 
woi^ on ^at author to alnuMt oni owndaya. 
reputation acquired by Barclay at Bor- 
deaux led to his beingcalled to preside omths 
Squillanean ' school at Toulouse, where the 
Scotch historian Dempster tells us he served 
his first literary campaign under hi* fellow- 
countryman's guidance. This &ct snppliea 
us with an approximate date, for it was atmut 
1696 that J^npster left Paris, intending to 
work his way to Toulousa (Ibvejo, Hvet tf 
ScottUk Wnttrt, i. 8fiO). At this town, the 
birthplace of Cujas, the great fonnder of the 
rstematic etud;^ of ancient and modem law, 
arday's attention was directed t* this sub- 
ject ; and finding himself unable to pursue 
this branch of learning in its native place, he 
accepted the offer of a regiu* pTofeawKahip at 


Barclay 17 « Barclay 

gow, aiged the cUinu of Dr. Barclay U> tbo 
appointment uiKm Sir Oeorge Gray, ezpnas- 
ing hu eonvictjon that the man vbo could 
praach nch a sarmon oa Sunday, and next 
day ^ hia firnmeaa and promptitode Bare a 
boat m>m being awamped, waa ons eminently 

Poitiera. Hit fame and hia eloqaenee whil« 
holding thia office aoon procured his recall to 
Toulouse, where he waa still living when 
Dempatar drew up hia ' Hiatoria EccleeiM- 
tica "^about 1620. Dempatertells us that his 
lectures on civil law were largely attended. 
Them seems to be no record of the precise 
dote of hia birth or hia death. In some bio- 
graphicjJ works they are given aa 1582-1619; 
but this is almost certainly due to a confur 
■bn ot Thomas Barclay with his njuneaake, 
John Barclay, the author of the ' A^enis.' 
For in this case he would be holding his first, 
if not hia aecond, professorship at about the 

Sof fburteeo, and would at the same time, 
ugh a younger man, be the instructor of 
aueh a prodigy of leammg as Dempster. 

BatOlay's chief works are said to have been 
oommratariee on Aristotle, and diasertationa 
on oertatn titles of the Pandects. The last 
wobably implies, a confiiaion with William 
Barclay [q.v.] 

[D«in[atar's HiBt«na Eeclanaatita.] 

T.A. A. 

1678), principal of Olaagow UniTersity, was 
bom m June 1792, at Unst, in Shetland, of 
which pariah hia father, the Rev. James l^kP- 
day, waa miuiatar, He waa entered of King's 
CofieKe, Aberdeen, in 1806. Here he at- 
tainMoonaiderabledistincUon. He took the 
degTM of H.A. 38 March 1613, and subee- 

Juently proaecuted his theotc^ical studies for 
inr veara, dnringwhich ha taught elocution 
atAberdeen. LatarheprooeededtoLondon, 
where for four years, 1618-32, he acted aa one 
of the parliamantary and ganeral reporters of 
the ' Timea.' He received license to preach 
the gospel &om the presbytery of Lerwick 
87 fvnis 1821, and quitted the ' TinjM' in 
the following year, when he waa presented 
by Lord Dundaa, and ordained 13 Sept. 1832, 
to the pariah of Dunroasness, in SnetUnd. 
Hen he remained until his pnwentatjon by 
the same patron to the parish of Lerwick 
in October 1837, to which he was admitted 
18 Dec following. He was elected clerk of 
the miod of Shetland 37 AprU 1831. In 
1840 Sir Henry Holland heard 'an admirable 
■•nnon ' ttfoa Hr. Barclay, whom he ao- 
eompanind the next day on a boating ex* 
curticn to the Isle of Noss. A sudden and 
furious squall arose. Hr. Barclay vras the 
only ons who retained hia prwence of mind i 
but he, ' deemed,' as Sir Henry Holland says, 
to be ' one of the best boatmen in Scotland, 
■eised the tiller, and by hia firmness and skill 
brought us into safety.' Sir Henry Holland 
in 1668, on the occurrence of a vacancy in 
th« prindpalship of the university of ffla*- 

buted to it I know not ; but Dr. Buclay 
received the appointment, which he has ever 
since held with high honour and usefulness' 
(Sir H. Holland's SeoolUcHoni of Past Life, 
1673). Barclay had removed, September 
1843, to Feterculter, in Aberdeenshire, and 
in July of the following year accepted a call 
to Cume, in Mid-Lothian, on the preaenta- 
tion of Sir James Oibsoa-Craig, oart., of 
Ricoartou. On 10 Feb. 1849 the university 
of Aberdeen conferred on Barclay the degree 
of D.D. Dr. Barclay took a somewhat promi- 
nent part,along with thelate Dr. Sobeit Lee, 
in ' waging in the church eourta the battle 
of religious liberalism ' (^Sootaman, 26 Feb. 
1873). Barclay supported Dr. Lee in the li- 
turgical innovations mtroduced by the latter 
into the Scottish system of worship. From 
the time of his appointment, however, to the 
principslship <rf the university of Ola^ow, 
m succession to Dr. Duncan Macfarlane, to 
which he was admitted 13 Feb. 1863, he de- 
voted himself exclusively to the duties of that 
office. IdLtterty his energy waa impaired by 
delicate health and advanced age. For over 
twenty years, indeed, he waa a sufferer f^om 
asthmatic bronchitis, and he found it neces- 
sary to spend a portion of each winter in 
Egypt, on the climate of which he wrote a 
long and valuaUe article for a medical jonr- 
nal. Dr. Barclay died at his official resi- 
dence, on Sunday afternoon, 23 Feb. 1878, 
and was bnried at SighthiU Cemetery. The 
Bev. Dr. Caird, his successor, preached a 

S sermon, 'In Menioriam,' on S 
>rch, which wee afterwards pub- 
lisKed, witlt a dedication ' to Mrs. Barclay 
and her family.' 

Barolay married in 1620 the daughter of 
Captain Adamson, of Kirkhill ; bis wife, two 
msrried daughters and a son, who was settled 
as a medicM man in Ohina, survived him. 
Dr. Barclay was not eminent at a pulpit 
orator, but he waa a sound and varied 
scholar, deeplj) read, not only in biblical 
learning, but in various branches of philo- 
logy, and more particularly in the langoagea 
ol northern Europe. As Dr. Caird said/ne 
■wrote no books.' He contributed, however, 
a sermon on ' Charity the Oharaoteristio of 
Christianity' to the first volume of the 
'Church of Scotland Pulpit,' Edinbn^, 
1646, and also published in 1867 his ' Spewk 



Barclay 173 

■gaUwttheTmUBiiaeioiiof an Overture oon- 
itminitug the System at GovenuneDt Educa- 
tion in India.' 

[9oatt'i Fhsti Ecdnia ScoUeanB, pt. t. pp. 43S, 
436 ; SUiry'i Life and Benuina of Bobsrt Lm, 
D.D., 1870; Sir Hear; HoUaad's BdeoUsctioD* 
of Put Lifs, 1S72 ; Edinburgh Coumnt, 34 F«b. 
tST3; Scotsman, 2e Fsb. 1873; QlugovHemld, 
S* Fsb. &Dd 1 March 1873; Curd's Sermon 
preached before the Uoirenitj of OUaK^iT, Ik., 
on SnedaT, 9 Huch 1878, Olauow, 1873.] 


BABCLAT, WILLIAM (1646 or 1547- 
IflOS), a ScottiBh vritAr on junsprudence and 

Evemmant, is gtat«d by ffir Robert Sibbald 
ppendix to the Btatory ofFift) to bare been 
Bcended from the Bardaye of ColUimie in 
Fife; but according to a note attached to 
James Gordon's ' History of Scots Afiairs,' i. 
xvii, published by the SpoldinffClob in 1841, 
be was a grandson of Patrick Barclay, barau 
of Oartly, Aberdeenshire. As tlie inscription 
on the portrait prefixed to bis ' De Regno,' 
but now wanting in most copie^ states that 
in 1690 he was in his fifty-third year, he 
must have been bom about 1646 or 1647, 
not 1541, the date sometimes given. He 
was educated at Aberdeen University. In 
early life he frequented the court of Queen 
Hary, where he is said to hsTe dissipated 
his fortune. About 1671 he emitted to 
France, where he devoted bimself to the 
study of law, first at Paris and then at Boui>- 
ges, under Cujacius, DonsUus, and Contius. 
So(m after taking the degree of LL.D. he be- 
gan to teach law in the university. His 
uncle, Edmund Hay the Jesuit, rector of 
the recently founded university of Pont-A- 
Houason, recommended biin to the Duke of 


him also councillor of state and 
requests. In 1681 Barclay married Anne de 
Malleviller— not De Halleville, as M. Dubois 
shows — a lady of Lorraine, by whom he had 
one son, John [q. v.], the anthor of 'Af- 
genia.' The son the Jesuits endeavoured 
to attract to their order, and the father's 
reaistanee to their efforts having, it is said, 
provoked their enmity, he lost the favon^ 
of the Duke of Lorraine, and deemed it 
advieable In 1603 to resign his chair. In 
1600 he had published at Paris his moat im- 
portant work, ' De Regno et Regali Poteetate, 
adversus Bnchanaoum, BnitnmjBoueherium, 
etreliquoa Monarchomachoa.' The work waa 
dedicated to Henry IV of Franoe, and 
nsted of six books, the first two beinc devoted 
to a refutation <^ the arguments Of Oeorge 
Buchanan in his dialogue, 'De Jore Regni 
^ud Scotos ; ' the third and fourth being 

directed against the ' Vindicite oontra l^ran- 
nos' ofHubertLanguet, who wrote under the 
name of Stephanus Junius Brutus ; and the 
last two to an examination of the treatise, 
' De JuBta Henrici lU Abdications e Fran- 
conun Regno,' written bv Jean Boucber, the 
seditious doctor of the sorbonne. The Aoo- 
trine of Buchanan that all power is derived 
&om the people he endeavours to refute by 
a reference to the patriarchal system, and th« 
appointment of a king over the Jewish people 
byOod. He, however, admits the possibility 
in certain cases of the king so acting as to un< 
king himself, and therefore to render it law- 
ftil to resist his will. The views of Barclay 
are discussed at some length in the ' Civil 
Government ' of Locke, who names him ' the 
great aesertor of the power and sacrednesa of 
kings.' A year before thepublicationof the 
woni of Barclay Jamee Vlof Scotluid had 

Eiblished his 'Basilicon Doron,' and possibly 
arclay was led to resign his chur and re- 
move to England by the hope that James, 
who had jnst succeeded to the English crown, 
might be inclined to manifest special favour 
to such a distinguished champion of his own 
views regarding the divine right of kings- 
James, it is said, offered him high preferment, 
but only on condition that he should renounce 
the catholic faith, whereupon Barclay de- 
cided in the banning of 1604 to return to 
Paris. The chaur of ctvil law at Ang^ had 
been vacant since 169S, and such was the 
&me of Barclay in France that as soon as his 
return to Paris was known a deputation waa 
sent, requesting his acceptance of the chair. 
In addition to this, notwithstanding the 
Rtienuous opposition of two profesaors, he waa 
appointed dean of the faculty of law, the ap- 
pointment being confirmed by a special decree 
of the univeiBity 1 Feb. 1605. Possibly in 
order t« impress his opponents with the dig- 
nity of his position he was accustomed, when 
he went to lecture, to be habited in a superb 
robe lined with ermine, with a massy cnain 
of gold abont his neck, and to be attended by 
his son and two valets. Shortly after his ap- 

Siintment he published at Pans ' In Tttuloa 
andectarum de Rebus Creditis et de Jure- 
iorando.' In the dedication of the woik to 
King James he mentioned his intention of 
writing a book to record his majesty's cha- 
racter and actions. This purpose he never 
carried out. He died at Angers S July 1606 
('Actes de I'^tat Civil d' Angers, paroisse 
Saint-Hanville,' quoted by M. Dubois in his 
' Discours ' on Barclay), and was interred at 
the Cordeliers. A treatise which he had 
written, ' De Potestate Fapte; an, et qn»- 
tenns, in Reges et Principes seculsres jus "t 
I imperinm habeat,' waa published in 1609, 




probablj at London, without an indication 
of the place of publication, and the urns 
jearatHuwiponti (Pont-i-HooBMiii), mth a 

fre&ce b; his boq ^aee Babclai, Jokh, 1583- 
S21]. It was directed against the daima 
of the pope h) exercise Butborit; in temporal 
matters over aovereigna, and prodncea aa 

E«t an impression in Europe that Cardinal 
llarmine deemed it neceeaary to _publisb 
an elaborate treatise f^ainst it, assertmg that 
the pope, bj virtue of nis spiritual supremacj, 
poasesMS a power in regard to temporal 
matters which all are bound to acknowledKO 
as supreme. An English translation of the 
work of Barclay appeared in 1611. It is 
also included in the ' Monarcbia ' of Ooldast, 
published in 1621. The treatise on the Pan- 
dects was inserted b; the inrist Otto in hii 
■ Theeaunis Juris Romanil* 1725-29. The 
■De R^o' and the 'De Fotestate Fapn' 
have both been frequently reprinted. 

Ajranlt (167fi), 228-30. There bm len correct 
poticca in Ohilini's Teatro d'Huomini Lett«ntti 
(1647), ii. 162; and Cnuuo't ELmi degli Huo- 
mini Lettsrati (1SS6), ii. ISS, The later au- 
thorities are Haclunsie, Writers of the Scots 
Nation (1722J.iii. +6B-78; Biogra|)hia Britan- 
nim, ed. Kippis, i. £87-8 ; Irring, Ltth of Scot- 
tish Writers (183S}. i. 211-30; and Mpecislly 
M. Dubois, in Mimoiras da I'AceiiAiiiie de Sta- 
nislas, atria i*. tam. 1 (Kanej, 1872), pp. Iriii- 
«taTi.] T.F.H. 

1630 P), miacetlaneouB writ«r, was a brother 
of Sir Patriclt Barclay, of Towie, and was bom 
about 1670 in Scotland. He waa educated 
for the pursuit of medicine, but is beet known 
by a pamphlet, printed in Edinbursh in 1614, 
and entitled ' Nepenthes, or the Vertuee of 
Tobacco.' Barclay studied at LouTain under 
the learned Justus Lipeiua, to whom he after- 
wards addressed several letters which hnfe 
been printed, and who is recorded to have 
said of his pupil ' that if be were dying he 
hnew no person on earth he would leave 
his pen to but the doctor.' To Justus Lip- 
bIus'b edition of ' Tacitus ' (Paris, 1699), Bar- 
clay contributed an appendix. At Louvain 
be appears to have taken the dwreea of 
M.A. and M.D. He became proKssor of 
humanity in Pp.ris Univeniity, and after a 
short interval, during which he practised 
medicine in Scotland, returned to France 
to pursue his former occupation at Nantes. 
The tract ' Nepenthes, or the Vertuee of To- 
bacco,' which is dedicated to the author's 
nephew Patrick, son and heir of Sir Patrick 
Bfunlay, of Towie, contains a worm panegyric 
on the herb, which, the author says, is adapted 

to cure all diseases when uied with discretion, 
and 'not, as the English abnaerB do, to make a 
amoke-boi of their ^ull, more fit to be carried 
under his arm that aelleth at Fans da noir i 
nmrrir to blacke men's shoes than to carry the 
braine of him that cannot walk, cannot ryde, 
except the tobacco pype be in hia mouth.' 
As in prose, so also in veree, Barclay sinn 
the praiaee of bis favourite weed, in six little 
poems attached to the treatise, and addressed 
to friends and kinsmen, all in prsise of to- 
bacco, to which he alludes as a ' heavenlie 
plant,' ' the hope of hesltbe,' ' the fewell of 
onr ItliB,' &c. Two years after the appear- 
ance of Barclay's work, King James pub- 
lished his fkmouB ' Counterblaste to Tobs£CO,' 
in which his muesty denounces smoking as 
a ' custome loathsome to the eye, batefoll to 
the nose, harmefull to the brun, dan^rous 
to the lungs, and in the blacke stinking 
fume thereof neareat resembling the horrible 
stigian smoke of the pit that is bottomlesse.' 
Barclay's tract is very rare, but has been 
reprinted by the Spaldmg Society. He was 
also author of ' Oratio pro Eloquentia. Ad 
T. cL Ludovicum Servinum, Sa^ri Conaiatorii 
Begii CoDsiliarium, et in amplissimo Senatu 
Farisiensi Regis Advocatum,' Paria, 1598; 
' Callirhoe, cominonly called the well of Spa, 
or the Nymphe of Aberdene resuscitat,' 
1616 and 1670; 'Apobaterium, or Last Fare- 
well to Aberdeen ' (of which no copy is now 
known to exist): ' Judii^um de Certamine . 
Q, Egliaemmii [BgUsham] cum O. Buchs- 
nanoproDignitateParaphraaeOB Paalmiciiii. 

uardi Aldni, an. Dom. 1619, et in gratiam 
studioste juventutis ejusdem Fsslmi elevens 
Faraphrssis Thorns Rhsdi, Lond. 1630,' 
8vo, Lond. 1628 ; and some Latin poems in 
the ' Delitin Poetorum Scotorum, i, 187, 
Barclay died about 1630. 

[Spalding Society UiscelUay, L ; Weeks of 
King Jamea I, folio; Anderson'a Scottish Narion ; 
IrviDgla Live* of Scottish Poets; DempstM's 
Hist. Ecelesiaat.] R. H. 

BABCLAT, WILLIAM (1797-1S69), 
miniature painter, waa bom in London in 
1797. HepractisedhisartbothinLondonand 
in Paris, and whilst in the latter city he was 
much occupied in making copies from the 
works of the great Italian masters in the 
Louvre. He exhibited portraits and some 
cojnee in water-colours at the Salon between 
the yean 1S31 and 1859, as well as at the 
Boyal Academy between 1832 and 1856. Ue 
died in 1869. 

[RedgraTa'sDietioniuy of Artists. 1878:Rotii1 
Acadamj EihibitioD Cntaloguea, ]S32-Ji«; Li- 
TratsdD Salon, 1881-fi9.] R. E.U. 


Barcroft i 

BABCBOFT, QEORQE (d. 1610}, miui- 
ciftn, matriculated u a ainr of TrimtT OoU 
Uge, Otunlirictge, on 12 Deo. 1674, uid took 
the deeree of B.A. in 1677-8. He yna ap- 
pMnted e minor canon of Ely and orguust 
of that cathedral in 1579, and it u auppoead 
that he died about 1610. Two antbenu com- 
poeed bj him are extant, and to him has 
Men ueribed a eerriiM in Q. It appears, 
howerer, that (^ aerrice naa composed in 
1632, probablj' by Thomas Barcroft, who ia 
said tonaTe been organist of Ely about 1636. 

[DiekKin'a Cat. of Ely Moiie US3. H ; Wil- 
lat'iEpirt.Dad.toHarmonieoDSSam.i Cooper'i 
Athmut Cantab. iiL 14.] T. a 

BASD, HENRY, Vraoouxr Bblusobt 
(1604 P-1660), soldier «nd dipbmatiBt, was 
descended from an old Norfolk family, and was 
the Tounger of two sons of the Rev. Qeot^ 
Bard, vicar of Staines, Middlesex. The exact 
date of his birth is not reoordod, but it was 
probably 1604. From Eton College, he, in 
less, entered King's UoUege, Cambridge, 
where ha took his master's degree and a mL- 
lowahip. pTBvioua to this be had, without 
the leave of his guardians, visitod Paris, and 
afterwards he made an excursion on foot 
into France, Italy, Turkey, Palestine, and 
Egrpt. Wbile in Egypt he obtained, or 
rather stole, from a mosque an Alcoran, which 
he some yesw afterwuds presented to bis 
ooUege. Wood, who styles him ' a compaot 
hodv of vanity and ambition, yet proper, 
moaest, comely,' st&tee that on his return 
home he lived 'high,' his expenses being 
met by his brother Hazimiliau, a wealthy 
girdler, according to Wood, ' a great ad- 
mirer of his sooom^ishmenta and as much 
despised by him.' Bard's mastery of several 
' languages, and his experience as a traveller, 
commended him to the attention of Charles I, 
■nd while at Oxford, in 1643, he was nomi- 
natedfbr the degree of D.CX. Atthe battle 
of Cheritou Down, between Lord Hopton and 
Sir William Waller, he greatly distinguished 
himself, but was so severely wounded as to 
lose his arm, and was also taken prisoner. 
Receiving his discharge, he, in Uay 1644, 
obtained the reversioikary grant of the offices 
of governor of the isle of Ouernser and 
captain of Comet Castle. After joinmgthe 
king at Oxford, he was appointed to the 
oommand of a brigade, and suMeouenUy wsa 
made governor of Camden House, Obucester- 
■hire, which, when he found it necessary to 
vacate it, he, by the orders, it is supposed, 
of Prince Riqiert. burned tothe ground. On 
8 Oct. (bllowmg ne was createaa baronet. 

5 Bardelby 

Surrey. In Hay 1646, he was present with the 
king at the taking of Leicester, and, acomd- 
ing to Ruahworth, was the flist along with 
Sir Bernard Astlev to scale the walls. At 
the battle of Naeeoy, in June following, h^ 
according to Lloyd (Manoin, B68), led, on 
the left hand, Tertia, with Sir G. Lisle. On 
8 July 1646 he was created Baron Bard 
and Viscount BeUamont in the kingdom of 
Ireland. While on the passa^ from Eng- 
land to Ireland in December following he 
ner, but in 1647 pi " 
Hr. Bard, long sii 
bedischargedof his i 
ment, provided he give secnritv to t£e p 
liament that ho go beyond the seas, s 

ras taken prisoner, but in 1647 parliament 
ecreed 'that Hr. Bard, long smee com- 
iitt«d, should bedischargedof his imprison- 
'' r to the par- 

never return again witnont the license of 
both houses of parliament.' Acoordingly he 
proceeded to the Hague, to the court of CHiarlea 
II. At the Hague he was arrested 13 May 
1649, charged with the murder of Dr. Doris- 
laus (WanBLOOXB, Memoriaia, p. 402), but 
the charge turned out to be unfounded. 
Having been sent, in 1666, from Bruges, l^ 
Charles II, as ambassador to the emperor of 
Persia, he was overtaken, in 1660, by a whirl- 
wind in the desert of Arabia, and choked in 
the sand. He left his widow in great poverty, 
as is testified by her petition in the stata 
papers for a pension. Oneofhistwodaogbten 
became mistress to Prince Rupert. 

[Wood's Fasti, i. 400, ii. Se ; Visitetkin of 
London; Oollaetaiiea Topographica et Gentftlo- 
gica, iii. 18, iv. 69; Banrood's Alumni Eto- 
ndiisas, 233.4; Wbitslocke'i Memorials ; Lloyd's 
Uamoirs; Ruhworth's ffistorieal CollectJonB; 
Add. M33. SfiSS and S816, £ 137-9 ; Omt Hag. 
3nd wiiss. *ii. 62-6.] T. F. H. 

BABDELBT, ROBERT Db (if. 1823), 
judge, acted in a subordinate o^iacily as one 
of the keepers <tf the great seal between 1303 
and ISai. In 1315 he was appointed keeper 
of the hospital of St. Thomas Martyr <tf Aeon 
in London, dnrinf the temporair absence of 
Richard of Southampton. In 1316 he was 
assigned as one of the oommisaioners to heat 
petitions to parliament (then sitting at Lin- 
coln)', and was entrusted with the bunness 
of answering petitions in the parliament of 
1320 at Westminster. In 1828 we find him 
described as canon of Chichester in a writ 
appointing him oneofaconunission of Justices 
directed to try certain oommisuonen of array 
accused of acts of malversation and oppres- 
sion, and in ISSSas'dericus cancellanus ' in 
a memorandum of the appointment of Searr 
de Qyf as keeper of the rolls. 

[Hai^a Catalogoe of Loids Ohancellars. gay, 
1S-a7 ; Rot. PsrL i. 287 ; Art. Writs, ii. div. iL 
pLi. BM,pt.ii.Sra.l J.M.B. 



BABDNET, RICHARD or (Jt. 1608), a 
Benedictine of Baxdaoj, LiDcoltuhire, wm 
«dncated at Oxford, where he took the de- 
gree of bachelor of dirini^. In 1608 he 
wrote in verso ' Vit» Roberti Qrosthed 

Juondun Epitcopi Lincolnienais,' ■ Work of 
Ictle or no value, which he dedicated to Wil- 
liam Smith, tliea bishop of Lincoln. He 
ftlBO wrote ' Higtoria 8. Hugonia Hart^ris.' 
'The life of Robert Oroast^te' is printed 
with tome oouHions in Wharton's ' An^^a 
Sacra,' toI. iL 

rWood'a AlheDB Oxon. (BUm), toL L ooL B ; 
Whaitan'i Angli* Sacra, li. pref. aod p, 32S ; 
HafdVi QeMnptiT* Catatognaof M8S. lii. 130, 
Bolli 8ari«a.] W. E. 

BAKDOLF, HUGH (d. 1308), justiciar 
of the Curia Regia, i* presumed to have been 
■on of WilLam Bardolf (sherifi of Norfolk 
16-21 Hen. II), and first appears in attend- 
ance on the court at Chinon, 6 April 1181, 
where he t««ts & charter as ' Dapi&r ' {Mon. 
Ang. Tii, 1097), a port which he retained 
till the end of the reign (1189). He held 
pleas in Worcestershire (1187), and acted as 
an itinerant juBlJce(lI84-9). He also sat in 
the Onria R««is, and acted as sheriff of Corn- 
wall (1185-7), and Wilt* (1188), and was 
associated in the charm °^ t^c kinjtdom on 
Henry's departure for France in 1188 (Matt. 
PiKis). At the accession of Richard I be was 
sheriff of Somerset and Dorset, and a justice 
itinerant, and was associated in the justiciar- 
•Ikip with the bishops of Durham (Puiset) 
and ^tj (Iiona^champ), when the king went 
on the enuade (December 1189), but was 
cme of Richard's sureties at Messina in No- 
vember 1190 (Roe. Hov. iii. 38, OS), having 
probably qnamlled with Loorchamp. In 
the possiblj spniioos letter of February 1 191 
he was associated with Walter of Coutancee 
in the oommisnon that was to supplant 
Longdiamp {St. p. 96). Returning accord- 
ingly, he was among those excommunicated 
taj Longchamp, but was speciaUj offered 
pardon if he would surrender Scarborough 
and his counties of Yorkshire and West- 
moreland (A. p. 154). In 1193. as 'Justi- 
tiarios regis ' and sheriff of Yorkshire, he as- 
sisted the archbishop of YoA to forti^r 
Don caster for Richard, bat reding, as John s 
vassal, to besiege Tickhill, was denounced as 
a traitor (ib. 206), and on Richard's return 
(March 1194) was dismissed from his post 
{,ib. p. 241) ; but was at once transferred to 
Northumberland, and ordered to take it over 
from the Inshop of Durham (Puiset), and, 
on his reaiatanca, to seise it (July 1194). 
At Poiset'a death (March 1196) the castles 
(^Norfaam and Durham were surrendered to 

6 Bardsley 

him (iA. pp;^ 249, SOI, 286)^ and, remuning 
jkithml to Richard, he letiuned his oounties 

S Northumberland and Cumberland) till 
ohn's accession (1199). From John he 

receivad the counties of Nottingham and 
Derby and the custody of Tickhill Castle. 
He continued to act as an itinerant justice 
and to sit in the Curia Regis till his death ii 

exchequer in all three reigna. 

[ErtOD's Ooort and Itinsrar; of Henir II 
(1878); Bogm of HoTeden (BiJU sanes); 
I>ii8dala'a Buonage, i. S83 ; Foss's JudsM of 
Kigland (1M8), ii. S3S.1 J. KB. 

baronial leader, was lord of Wirmmy, Nor- 
folk, in light of his mother, daugnter and 
heiress of William de Warrenne. In 1343 
be had livery of his lands, and in 1256, in 
the parliament of Oxford, was elected one of 
the twelve baronial members of the conn(»l 
of twenty-four appointed to reform the 
realm (Aim. SvrtS. By the Provisions of 
Oxford he was made constable at Notting- 
ham (td.), and was among those oSbred par- 
don by the king, 7 Dec. 1261 (Ftedera). 
Adhering to the barons, he became one of 
theirsureties for observing the Mise of Amiens 
(IS Dec. 1S63), and was again entrusted bv 
them with Nottingham (Wtxbs; Fat. ii 
ff. Ill, m. 6), but surrendered it to the king 
on his victory at Northampton (6 April 1264), 
and, joining him, was taken prisoner by the 
barons at Lewes (14 May 1264). He died 
about 1376, his son having livOT of his lands 
in the fourth year of Ed^rd I^ reign (FSn, 
i Ed. 1, m. 4). 

[I>i)gdals's Baronage, i. SSI.] 3^. H. R. 

M.D, (1801-1876), physician, was bom at 
Nottio^hamon7July,1801. His professional 
education was gained first under the direc- 
tion of bis uncle, !>. Samuel Ai^^t Bardaley, 
and subsequently at the Glasgow and Edin- 
burgh universities. From the latter univei^ 
sity he received the diploma of M.D.inl823. 
While a rtudent at Edinburrii he was elected 

{resident of the Boyti Medical Society. In 
823 he settled in Manchester, and was ap- 
pointed one of the physicians of the Man^ 
Chester Infirmary, an office which he held 
until 1843. He was associated with Mr. 
Thomas Turner in the management of the 
Manchester Royal School of Medicine and 
Surgery, and took an active part in the etrty 
proceedings of the British Medical Associa- 
tion. In 1834 he became president of the 
Manchester Medical Society, and in 1850 a 

3y Google 

Bardsley i 

■imilar poaition in the Huichestor Uedieo' 
Ethical AMOCution wm given to him. The 
hoDOUT of knighthood ma bestowed on him 
u a diatinguiahed proviuciEil phjucian in 
Angart 1863. Di. BudslaT nublished » 
Tolnme of ' Hoa^tal Facts and OMerrationi' 
in 1890, wrote the artielee on diabetea and 
hrdiophoUa in du ' Cyclomedift of Fnctical 
Medicine' (18S3), and made other contrihu- 
tiona to meidical Muence. including the tetro- 
■pectiTe addnu in medicine at the annual 
meeting of the British Medical AsBOciation 
b 1887. He died at Hanohertei 10 July 

diao, 13 Jolj 187S ; Uncat, tS76, ii. 1ST.] 


HJ). (1764-1601), phmcian, wee bom at 
KetredoDiEeaeZjOD 27 April 1764. Hii medi- 
cal atudiee ireie begun at Nottingham, where 
hepaaeedan afprentieeehip to esiiigeon,and 
foUnwed up at London, Emnbuisfa, and Ley- 
den. He wu entered ot the Leyden UniTer- 
aityin Angtut 1786, and graduated there in 
I7S0. AfterpassingadwrttimeBtDoncaster 
be ramored b> Hancheat«r in 1790, and was 
elected pl^cian to Uie Manchester Infir- 
■uuY, a poMtitm he retuned until August 
1823, gmining during the thirtv-three yean 


pital physician.* He relinquished his pn>> 
feeeionai 'practioe' many yean before his 
death, which occuned on 39 Ma^, 18G1 , while 
on a yisit to a friend near Haatrngs. Hewas 
buried at St. Sariour'B Church, Manchester. 
Dr. Bardsley published in 1800 'Critical 
Kemnrks on the Tragedy of Piiano, with 
Obserrationi tat the sulgect of the Drama;' 
and in 1607 a volume ot ' Medical Beporta 
of Caaee and Experiments, with Obaetratiinis 
ehiefly derived from Hoapital practice ; also 
an Emjuiry into the Origin of Canine Mad- 
aesa.' To the 'Memoirs' of the Literary and 
Fhiloaopbical Society of HancheeteTjOf which 
be was a vice-president, he contributed in 
1796 a paper on 'Party Prejudice,' and in 
1808 one on 'IlieUse and Abuse of Popular 
Bports and Exercises.' 

[Kog. Diet. living Authoi^ ISIS. p. 13; Lob> 
ion MHiical Ouette, 1860, ix. 41; Index ot 
Laydan Stndeata, pnbliahad by the Indax So- 
•iatj.] C. W. a 

BABDWELI^ THOMAS (d. 1780 F), 
Mtrait paint«r^ is known chiefly as a copyist. 
He pointed a nioture of ' Dr. Ward relieving 
hia rick and lame patients,' which is libef 

7 Baret 

aa a punting of a * quack doctor.' Thii 
same Dr. Wud is caricatured by Hogarth. 
Thia picture was engraved (1748-9) probably 
bv Baron, There is also a meuotint by 
Faber after a portrait by Bardwell of Admiral 
Vernon. At Oxford, m the uuivenity gal- 
leries, there are Mrtraita by him of the Earl 
and Countess of Fomfret. In 1766 he pub- 
lisbed the ' Practice of Fainting and Perspec- 
tive made Elasy.' This work was well thoi^t 
of initsday. Hr. Ed waida thinks, liawever, 
that in ao ur as it treats of perspective^ it is 
a snare and delusion. A pirated edition, 
omitting the perspective, appeared in 1796. 
Bardwell died about 1780. 

[Edwards's Anecdotes of Pamters, ISnS; 
Hobbes'i Pietom Coll«!tor's Mannal, 1849; 
Fusali's All^smeiniia Ktiaatler-Lexikon, 1808; 
BedKiava'sSict.] E. R. 

1679), anabaptist, leather-aelter, and poli- 
tician. [SeeBASBOH.] 

BABENOEB, JAMES (1780-1881), 
animal painter, was bom 26 Dee. 1780. He 
waa the son of J. Barenger, a chaser, who ex- 
hibited water-colour drawings of insects at 
the Royal Academy between the yeara 1793 
and 1799, and died in 1813, and he was on his 
mother's side a nephew of William Woollett, 
the eminent engraver. He obtained some 
celebrity aa a painter of racehorses, doss, deer, 
and other animals, which he exhibited at the 
Royal Academy from 1807 to 1831, in which 
year he died. 

[Sedgrave'a Dietioaaiy of Artista. 18TS ; Bml 
Aeademj Exhibition Catalogna, 17S3'I831.] 

BABET orBARRm, JOHN {d. 1680P), 
lexiooffrapher, was a fellow of Trinity Col- 
lege, OunWdge, and took the degT^e of B.A. 
inl664-6.andthatof M.A.inl$68. About 
1666 he deaeribee himself aa < having pupils 
at Cambridge, studious of the Latin tongue.' 
In later yeav he is said to have travelled 
abroad, and to have taught in London. Ho 
received the d^pree of M.D. at Cambridge 
in 1677, but tlure is no evidence that he 
ever practised medidne. Boret died before 
the eloae of 1680, but the exact date ia un- 

Baiet published, about 1S74, a dictionary 
of the Engliah, Latin, and French languagea, 
witbocoaaional illustrationa troni the Greek. 
It was ulled ' An Alvearie, or Triple Dio 
tionarie in EFig1i*h, T fating m*^ l^r^ich,' and 
was dedicated to Williajn Cecil, Lord Burgb- 
ley, the dmnoetlor of Camlwidge University. 
The datc^ S Feb. 157S-4,qp«»B UBcmg O* 


Baretti *: 

introduebny pages, but not on the title-paffe. 
The materialH for die volume were giadusUy 
collected during eighteen years by BoratE 
muiy pupile, and he entitled it, on that ao- 
eoimt, an ' AWearie,' or beehive. Every Eng- 
liah mrd is first explained, and its equivalent 
given in Latin and Preach. Two indexes at 
Uie end of the volume collect the Latin and 
lYenoh words occurring in the text. The ex* 
penaea of publication wece mainly borne by 
Sip Thomas Smith, ' principall eecretarie to 
the queene* majeatie, and ' Maister Nowell, 
deans of Fawles' (RiLPH Chubton, J*ft of 
AUxander Nowell, f. 220). Latin, Greek, and 
English verses in pnuse of the compiler and 
his work were preued to the book, among the 
writers being Richard Mulcaster and Arthur 
Gdding. A second edition of the dictionary, 
in whiuk Greek took almost as important a 
place as the other languagee, was published 
■hortly after Baret's death, and bore the date 
a Jan. 1680-1. A lengthy poem 'to the 
nader,' signed 'Tho. M., laments the recent 
death of Uie author, and new Latin elegiacs 
are added by Hulcaster. The title of the 
book in its final form runs : < An Alvearie, 
or qoadraple Dictionarie containing foure 
Bundrie tongues, namely, English, Latine, 
Oieeke, and Frenche, newlie enriched with 
varielie of wordes, phrases, proverbs, and 
divers lightsome observations of Grammar.' 
Baiet'e cuctionary is still of great service in 
enabling us to trace the meaning of Eliza- 
bethan words and phrases that are now ob- 

PrafacM of Baret's Alvsarie.] 

TONIO (1719-1789), miscellaneous writer, 
txaoed his descent from a &mily which for- 
merly flourished in the duohy of Honferrato 
in Italy. His grandfather. Hare' Antonio, a 
physiciao, settled at Mombertuj;, where he 
married a lady who belonged to the illuft- 
trions family of the Harquise* of Carretto, 
and who bore him two sons, Laca (bom in 
1688) and Giambattiata. Luca established 
himself at Turin, where he studied archi- 
tecture under the Abbi filippo Juvara. By 
his first wife, Ca(«rina, Luca had four eons, 
of wbom Giuseppe Marc' Antonio, We eldest, 
was bom at Turin on 35 April 1719. His 
education was much neglected by his father, 
who fostered the vanity of his children by 
reminding them of theii descent irom the 
Hajquises of Carretto. On two occasions, 
when secrecy seemed expedient, Giuseppe 
assumed the name of Giuseppe del Carretto. 
His faUier at flixt destined lum for the prieet- 

8 Baretti 

hood. Then it was thought be might become 
an architect, but the plan was abandoned on 
account of his habitual short-sif^tedness. 
He read much Italian ; but a pedantic master 
disgusted him with Latin, and his father 
would not let him learn Greek. Hia father's 

rrisge with a young opera-dancer 
his position so intolerable that he left Turin 
for Guaatalla (June 1735), where his uncle 
Giambattista procured for him employment 
as a merchant s clerk. There he became ac- 
quainted with two men of letters, Carlo Can- 
ton! and Dr. Vittore Vettori. After staying 
more than two years at Guastalla, Baretti 
removed to Venice, where he contracted a 
friendship with Count Gaspare Goxii, the 
'Venetian Addison.* Subsequently he a^tled ' 
at Milan, and obtained introductions to the 
men of letters of the Accademia de' Trae- 
formati. He sojourned at Milan nearly 
three years, studying hard and executing 
the metrical translation, published several 
years subsequently, of two of the works of 

His father having died, he returned to ' 
Piedmont, spent the autiimn of 1743 at 
Cunao, and &om 1743 till 1746 was keepes 
there of the stores of the new fortifications. 
HeretnmedtoTurin in 1747, where he lived 
with his brothers for three years. He con- 
tributed to poetical collections issued in 1741 
and the subsequent years. In 1744 he ad- 
dressed to Father Serafino Bianchi his forty- 
five ' Stanze,' in which h e interwove an account 
of his own career. Next he brought out an 
insipid translation in blank verse of the tra- 
gedies of Pierre Comeille, printod with the 
French original on the opposite pages. In 
1750 he printed a small volume of ' ^acevoli 
Poesie.' Literary academies were thebahitHi 
in Italy in that age, and Baretti became a 
member of the Trasformati of Milan and the 
Graneileschi of Venice. 

Baretti's frank and impetuotu dispoaitjon 
brought him into various controversiea. He 
bad a literary passage of arms with Dr. Biogio 
Schiavo, and ml750he, in a satirical piece 
entitled 'Prime Cicalamento,* ridiculed Dr. 

he had discovered the true meaning of an 
ancient ivory bas-relief. His hopes of public 
employment were deetroyed by this attack 
upon Bartoli, who appealed to the authori- 
ties. The matter was referred to the first 
president of the senal« and rector of the uni- 
versity. Baretti escaped with a severe re- 
proof and the forfeiture of the unsold copies 
of the obnoxious work ; but he found that all 
chance of employment in hia own country 
waa at an end, and he eeiiadthe opportunity 





vhich preaent«d itMlf ftt thli juueture of an 1 
•Dgaffement in the It&Uan Opera House at 
Londoa. He left for London towards the end | 
ot Jtaaisj 1761. On hLa Arrival ha opened '■ 
ft school for tMching Italian, utd was anmfed 
to tMch ItalLon to Mn. Lennox, the author of | 
' The Female Quixote.' After some time he : 
wuprraentedtoDr.Johnaon, who introduced | 
him to the family of Mr. Thrale, and ' 
of the digtinguisbed scholara ai '' 
tha day. Hia first literary perf< 
L(Hicbn were two facetious [Mmphleta, writ- 
ten in French and published in 1763, relating 
to the disputes between the actors and the 
lessee ot mo Italian Opera House. In the 
aame year be printed in English a 'Disser- 
tation on the Italian Foeta,' in which he cen- 
sured some snpeTflcial and inexact criticisms 
of Voltaire. Next he published in 1757 an 
' Introduction to the Italian language,' and 
' The Italian Library,' containing: an account 
of the liTea and works of tae principal 
writOTB of Italy. But his reputation as a 
scholar was made by his 'Italian and English 
Dictionary,' which first appeared in the be- 
ginning of the year 1760. This dictionary 
entirely ■uperaeded all previous works of the 
khid, and has been often reprinted. The 
author prefixed to his work a new grammar, 
and his friend Dr, Johnson wrote for him tha 

Determined to return to Italy, he left Lon- 
don on 14 Ao^. 1760, and, after viuting Por- 
tugal and Spam, reached Genoa on 18 Nov. 
Previoosly to his departure from England he 
had been recommended by Dr. Johnson to 
wrtt« ft journal of his travels, and to this 
■nggeatitmweowe the charming narrative of 

Baretti first visited his brothers at Turin 
Iia aftfirwaids stayed at Milan, where his 
fiicnds introduced him t« Count de Firmian, 
tha Austrian minister, who was T«garded aa 
ft Mttceoos. The account of his travels, in 
fbnr volumes, was licensed for the press in 
the banning of 1762. In the summer the 
first volume was published, but the com- 
plaints of the Portuguese minister in Italy, 
on acconnt of certain reflections upon Portu- 
gal, induced the Count de Firmian to give 

moch dejected, towards the close of the year 
1763. "rhere ha prepared fbr the press the 
thne unpublished volumes of his ' Travels,' 
ftom which he struck out all the passages 
relating to the government of Portugal. 
Baretti now undertook the publication of a 
pmodtcal sheet which he entitled ' La Frusta 
Letteraria' ('The Literary Scourge'), him- 
self taking the name of Aristarco Scannsbue. 

Hia object was to denounce the worthless 
books of aU kinds with which the press of 
Italy teemed. In the second number his 
sarcastic remarks on the work of contempo- 

rarv archnoloffists gave offence to tha Marquis 
of 'Tanucci, who waspreajdent of the academy 
for publishing the Herculanean monuments. 
Tanucci insisted that the ' Frusta ' should be 
suppressed and its author punished. Baretti 
respectfully appeased the marquis's wrath, 
but his merciless onslaught on bad writers 
raised up a host of other enemies, and the 
publication was suppressed in 1766 after the 
twenty-fifth number. 

The suppression of the ' Frusta ' gave Ba- 
retti such a shock that he was obliged to keep 
his bed for nearly two months after. He left 
Venice lata in 1765 for Ancona, where for 
about five months he led a most secluded life. 
There he printed his reply to on attack upon 
him by Father Buonafede, called the ' Bue 
Fedaa^go,' in the form of a continuation of 
the 'Frusta Letteraria.' In sending to his 
hated adversary a eopy of this intemperate 
reply, he accompsmed it with a letter or in- 
vective, which was printed in Iiondon in 
1786 with many variations. 

About the middle of February 1766 he 
proceeded to Leghorn, and after some delay, 
from illness and want of money, returned to 
London in the autumn. His old friends re- 

had kept up s confidential eorreaponden 
with him. He now published an 'Account 
of the Manners and Customs of Italy,' in an- 
swer to 'Letters from Italy' by Samuel 
Sharp. It passed through a second edition 
in X4)ndon, was reprinted in Dublin, and 
led to the suthor'a election as a fellow of 
the Society of Antiquaries, besides bringing 
him soot. It was with reference to this 
work that Johnson said : ' His account of 
Italy is a very enl«rtaining book ; and, sir, I 
know no man who carries his bead higher in 
conversation than Baretti. There are strong 
powers in his mind. He hss not, indeed, 
many hooks, but with what hooks he has he 
grapples very forcibly' (Bobwbli., Xift <ff 
Jolauon, ed. Croker, iiL 48). In 1768 he 

rt several months in France and Flan- 
in com^ny with Thrale, the wealthy 
brewer, and in November of that year he- 
visit«d Spain. An amplified account of his 
first ioumey to that country was published, 
in 1770, and was highly praised by Johnson 
(see Letter to Mrs. Thrale of 20 July 1771), 
and brought him SOOl. Johnson says that 
he was the first author who ever received 
money for oopyright in Italy. 
On eOcb I769Baretti wssuoostedintlM 


Baretti t 

Hafnurlcet by a woman of bad chonctsr, 
nve her ■ blow on tbe band, wu attacked 
hj thraa bulliea, and in Belf-defence inSicted 
nuHtal woiinda ujion one of them with a knifa. 
Attheneit eesaions Baretti was tried at the 
Old BuLey. JoluMon and Burke went to sett 
lum in ISewnte, and had small comfort t« 
mve him. 'Why, what can he fear,' said 
fiaretd, placing Mmself between them, 'that 
holds two such hands as I do P ' (Mat. 
PiOBi, Autobiofrap^, 2nd ed. L 97). He 
declined to claim the pivilege of being tried 
bf a jniT half compCMed of forai^ier*. Sir 
Joshoa ReTnolds, Dr. Johnson, Hr. Beau- 
clark, Fitiherbert, Burke, Oarrick, Gold- 
smith, and Dr. Salli&x bore teatimonj* to 
the quietness of hia general character. The 
JDty acquitted him. It haa been supposed 
that Baratti was assisted in drawing up his 
defence bj Dr. Johnson and Hr. Mnrphj, but 
on the otiierhand it is assert«d that he claimed 
it as his own at Hr, Thiale's table in the hear- 
ingof both those gentlemen. The street acuffle 
aiM the sabMqnent trial were nude the sub- 
ject of a poem in Italian ottava rima pnb- 
liabed at tnrin in 1867. 

In 1770 Baretti determined to rerisit 
Italy and repay his brothers a portion of the 
money adTsuced by them. At the end of 
April 1771 he returned to London aAer an 
ahMSoe of nine months. Among the works 
btt pahlished about this time wei« an im- 
proYod edidtm of his ItaUan-En^ish IK^ 
tiniMry ; {Hwfacea to the tnasniflcent Londcm 
reprints of the works of Maehiavelli and 
other standard anthon; and a volume ol 
Italian-English dialnguss. He likewise bcomn 
an English translation of ' Don Quixote,' but 
abandoned it half finished in 1773. 

From October 177S to e July 1776 Baretti 
was dome«ticsted in the liunily of Mr. Thrale. 
He had, at Br. Johnson's request, undertakes 
to instruct his eldest daughter, Hester Thrale, 
afterwards Ladv EMth, in um Italian lan- 
guam. In 1774 he received an offer of the 
pronaaonhip of Italian in the nnivenity of 
Dublin, Imtdsdiued it ( Ooit. .Ar<V. li. lOflfl). 
In the aatmnn of 1776 Baretti accompanied 
Ute Thialee and Dr. Johnson on thwi well- 
known visit to France. They were about to 
s^n anothsr eontinental tour in 1776 under 
Bantti's guidance, but were prev«nt«d by 
the sudden death of "nmle's only son. The 
bitterest enini^ had by this time arisen 
between Mrs. Thrale andBaretti, who finally I 
left the house on 6 Jnly 1776. Baiottii 
•trictnrsa in the ' Earopean ICagacine ' for 
1788 on Iba. Thrale's marriage with Pioni 
ate so bruUl that evm her enemy Boswell 
coidd not wpiove them (Boewmj., L^ of 
JoAmon, ad. Ooker, vL in ■.). Baretti^s 

Jo Baretti 

manuscript notes on Mis. Fioui's ' Letters of 
Dr. Johnaon ' are still more insulting. In a 
private communication to a Mend he accused 
her of breaJdng a promise to pension him for 
teaching her daughter (Litter to Don JVon- 
eueo Gmxmo, 12 March 1786). Mrs. Piout 
says that Baretti's overbearing insolsncawaa 
intolerable (Mas. Fioezi, AiOMogntpkg, lOS 

Bwetti became embarrassed and agmin 
sought help from his brothers ; but he re- 
ceived no reply. In 1777 he published in 
F^vnch a ' Discourse on Shakespeare,' which 
increased his reputation. In 1778 he Drought 
out a Spanish and English dictionary, which 
has become a atanda^ work. In 1779 ha 
aided Philidor in prodndnfra musical aettinc 
of the 'Carmen Swulare' of Horaea. Banttt 
says this work ' brought me in 150^ in three 
nii[fats, and three times as much to PhiUdor, 
whom I got to set it to musick. It would 
have benefited ns both (if Philidor had not 
proved a scoundrel) greatly more than those 
sums ' (Mamuenpt Xote on JokntotCt Lett^*, 
ii. 41). He next published, in Italian, 'A 
Collection of Familiar Letters,* ascribed to 
various historical and literaiy personages, hut 
really composed by hinuelf'^; and in a wwk 
entitled ' Tolondron ' (1786) he violently at- 
tacked Bowie's edition of 'Don Quixote'[sae 
BowLiB, JoKirl. 

In 1763 he Dad received from the govern- 
ment an annual pension of 8(U. Not long 
afterwards he contracted a friend^p with 
lUchaid Barwetl [q. v.], whom he need to 
call his rich Nabob, and nsuallv spent several 
months of the year at Barwell's country seat 
at Stanstead in Sussex. 

He died on G Hay 1789, and was bniied 
at Marylebone. Immediately after his death 
his legal rqiresentatives burnt every htU/aC 
in hia pasBBision without inspection. 

His portrait, painted by cir Joshua Rey- 
nolds, has been engraved by Bromley. 

Baretti was tall in stature, and had a ro- 
bnst ccmstitntioo. He was excee^nglf tem- 
perate. He early abandoned the doctrines of 
the Roman catholic church, without adopt- 
ing thoee of any other; but his scniticism 
was never offensively displayed. In England 
he is chiefly remembered as the friend of 
Dr. Johnson, and as the compiler of the 
Italian and Spanish dictionaries, though the 
English account of his ' Travels ' is still some- 
times read, and always with pleasure. In 
Italy his fame has been kept alive by reprint* 
of his lively proee writings, and hia contmned 
popularity among his countrymen is proved 
Dythe faetthatin 1870 a philocritical sode^ 
called after him was foonded at Florence. 

Hi* wort* an ■* foUowa: I. 'Stuua al 



Fidn Senflnofiiuiclu dlNoTin, M.O.R.che 
& il Quueumale di qnett' kudo in Cuneo,' 
Cuneo, 1744, 12mo. S. < Lattere ftd uu suo 
unko di Hilftno sopn unceito btto del 

Buetti per rarie occasioni ctol 1741 al 1747.' 
i. "rruedit di Pm Conslio tndotto in 
Tcmi italiuii, oon I'origiiiale » frtmte,* 4 vols. 
Vanice, 1747-8, 4to. 6. 'Priiuo Cicala- 
mento lom le cinque Lettete del ugaoi 
Giiueppe Baitoli intonio «1 Ubio che arri 
per titolo " L> vera apiwBzione del Dittioo 
QuiriniMo"' [LuMDo], 1768, 8to. 6. 'I« 
inecaToliFoetia di GiuaeppeBarettiTorineee,' 
Turin, 17G0, 1764, Sto. Minute biognphical 
detulj oonceming B«i«tti'a poems are given 
br the Baicn Ciutodi in the ■ Scritti ecelti 
di Bauratti.' 7. ' Fetonte sulle lire del Fo,' 
liirin, 1750, 4to, A dramatic compoution on 
the occasion of tlie marriue of Victor Ama- 
daoa, duke of Savoy, 6. ' Dei rimedi d' Amore 
d'OTidiorolguijuati,'Milan,1762,4to. O.'Li 
tre IJbri df^Ii Amori d'Ovidio volgarixEati.' 
These an nven in vdIh. xziz. and ixx. of the 
Uilan coUectioD of Latio poenu in tlie 
Italian Tenioni (17M). 10. 'Frojet pour 
avoir no Optra ItaJien it Londrei duu ua 
goftt tout nouveau,'Lond. 1768, 8vo. 11. 'La 
Toiz de la Diicorde, ou la fiataille dee Violona,' 
Ac. Lond. 1763, 8vo. Written in French and 
in Engliih. IS. 'A Dimertation upon the 
Italian Poetrj, in which are interspereed 
■oms Remarka cm Hr. Voltaire'a " Easaj on 
the Epc Pooie,"' Lond. 1763, 8to. 18. The 
Italian traualati<m which accompanied ' An 
Acoonnt of an Attempt to ascertain the Lon- 
ntttde at Sea ' puUisbed under th* name of 
Zadiariah WiUianu in 1766, but reatl; 
writtm by Dr, Johnson (BoawEix, Ztft ^ 
Jhkiuon, ed. Croker, ii 66). 14. ' The Italian 
libniT ; containing an Account of the Ltvea 
and Works of the most valuable Authors of 
ItaljTi 'with preface,'Lond. 1767, 8vo. 16.'A 
Dictiouaiy of the English and Italian Lan- 
gnam, augmented with above Utx thousand 
woraa omitted in the last editicoi of AltierL 
To which is added an Italian and English 
Orammar,' 3 vols. Load. 1760, 4to, and again 
1770 and 1778; corrected and improved bj 
P. Ricci Rota,3voU.Lond.l7Qa4to;2vols. 
Venice, 1795, 4to ; 2 vols. lend. 1807, 8vo 
(called the 4th ed.) ; revised and corrected 
by J. Roster, S vols. Roreoce, 1816, 4to ; 
7th ed. 3 vols. Lond. 1824, 8vo; S vols. Leg- 
hom, 1828, 4to ; 6th ed. corrected by C. Thorn- 
ton, S vola. Lond. 18S1,8to; 9tbed. also cor- 
rected bv Thomson, 2 vola. Land. 1839, 8vo ; 
and with large additions by John Davenport 
and Ouglielmo Comelati, 2 vols. Lond. 1864, 


IS. 'A 

Oranunar of the Italian Lon- 

ii Baretti 

guage, to which is added an fkiglish Orammar 
f or Um aae of the Italians,' Loud. 17^, 6vo. 
A raprin^ in a separate fbrm, of the gram- 
mais neuad to the ' Dictionary.' 17. ' Let- 
ters iuniliari a auoi tre fratelli Filipp^ 
Oiovanni e Amadeo,' voL i. Milan, 1762, 
vol. ii. Venice, 1768, 8voj 8rd ed. 8 vol* 
Fiacenaa, 1806, 8vo. 18. < La FrusU Lette- 
raria di Aristarco Sctumabue, 1763 al 1766,' 
3 vols. 4to [aee above] ; reprinted at Carpi in 
1790, and at Milan in 1804 19. > An Ao. 
count of the llannais and Customs of Italy, 
with observations on the mistakes of some 
travelleni with nvard to that country,' Lond. 
1788 and 1769, ito. Daretti added to the 
second edition of his ' Account ' * An Ajiptat- 
dixinanswertoMr.Sharp'aReply.' BoiMti's 
book was translated intoFrandi and Italian. 
20. 'A Journey from London to Qeno^ 
through England, Fortogal, Spain, ana 
France,'2vols.Lond.l770,4to. This work was 
translated into French and Italian. 31. 'Ko- 
posals for printing the Life of Friai Qenud,' 
1771, 4to. It was intended to print the ori- 
ginal Spanish. The scheme proved abOTtivb 
but a translation by Dr. Warner was printed 
in 2 vols. 8vo. 22. ' An Introduction to the 
most useful European Languages, oonsisting 
of select paassgBB from the most oelebrUed 
English, french, Italian, and Spanish authors ; 
with translations,' I«ud. 1772, 8vo. 23. Pre* 
face to the new edition of • Tutte le Opere di 
Niooold Machiavelli,' 3 vols. Land. 177S, 4to. 
Baretti also wrote the prefaces to the reprinta 
of other clasaical authors published in Lon- 
don. 24. 'Easy Phrtseol- -'- - 

young 11 

eologT for the use of 
id to learn the ooUo- 

languag^' ] 

by Dr. Job 

?uial part of the Italian 
776, 8vo, with pre&ce 
26. 'Discours sur Shakespeare et but tieai- 
sieur de Voltaire,' Lond. 1777, 8vo. Luigi 
Marandi published at Rome in 1883, 'Vol- 
taire eontro Shakespeare, Baretti contro Vol- 
taire. Oon otto lettere del Baretti, non mai 
pubblicate in Italia.' These ^^t letters ap- 
peared in the ' Scelta di LettereFainiliari,'biit 
were omitted from the reprint of that work 
in the 'Classici Italiani.' 26. 'ADicticmaiy, 
Spanish and English, and English ^^i 
Spanish,' 2nd ed. 2 vols. Lond. 1778, foL ; 
reprinted in 1786, 1794, and 1800. Other 
editions corrected and amplified hy Henry 
^euman appeared in 1827 [1831 P], 186^ 
1864, and T867. 27. 'Delle Arti del Di- 
•^no, Discom del Cav. Oiosuft Reynolds, 
Praaidente della R. Accademia di Londra ec., 
trasportatl dall' Inglese in Italiano,' Leg- 
horn, with the imprint of Florence, 1776, 8vo, 
2B. The Introduction to the 'Cannen Secu- 
lare ' of Horace, as set to munc by Baretti, in 
conjunction with Philidw, Lond. 1779, 9n, 


Baretti ii 

29. 'SoeltadiLettenFamiluri&ttApertuo 
degli studiosi di longua luliaiu,' 3 vdIa. 
Loud. 1779, Sto. AU the letten exMpt the 
firat iFere reallT compoMd bv Bantti him- 
Mlf, although tnev are Mcribed to Tuioua 
eminent men. 90. 'A Quids through the 
RoyftlAcade!nj,'Lond.l781, 4to. 31. 'Dis- 
certsdon Eputolar acoics unu Obns de la 
Heal Academic EspanoU, an anctor Joseph 
Baretii, secretario por la oorrespondencia 
eetiaugera de la Beal Acadenua Brit&nica 
dipmtura,eecultuTa}>aTquitectun. Alee&or 

donJuanC ,' Lend. 1784, foL 82.'To- 

loudron. Speecbee to John Bowie about hie 
editionof'Don Quixote," together with some 
aoootmt of Spanish Literature,' Lond. 1786, 
8vo, 88, ' Quattro Epistole,' Lond. 1787, 8vo. 
V/iitten m vtrii martellumi. S4. 'Stricturee 
ou Biffnora Piocii's Publication of Dr. John- 
■on'a Letters.' In 'European Magazine,' 1788, 
xiii313,398,iiT.89. 86. Numerous manu- 
Mxipt notes in English written in the margin 
of 'Letten to and from the late Samuel 
Johnson, T.T.Tt, published from the origi' 
nal HSS. in her poeseesion hj Hester Ljucb 
Pioxd,' 2 vola. Loud. 1788. The annotated 
c(H)y, now in the British Museum, formerly 
belonged to George BanieL 86. Letters in 
Italian addressed to Ma friends. One hnn- 
dred and fortj-eight of these, all — except 
four — pTOriously unpublished, are printed in 
Baron Custodi's edition of the ' Scntti Scelti,* 
iL 7-580. 

An edition of Baretti'e ' Opere seritte in 
Lingua Italians,' in 6 Tols.,appeared at Milan, 
181S-18,8to. His Italian wntinga are also 
included in the 'Golleiione de^ Clasaici 
Italian!,' 4 vols. Milan, 18S8-9, 6to. Aa ad- 
mirable edition of his ' Scritti soelti, inediti 
o raii 'was brought out by Baron FietriCus- 
todi, 3 Tob. Milan, 1823. 

^aron Fietoo Custodi's Usmorie dellaTita di 
O. Baietti, Milan, 1SS3 ; Tita di O. Baretti per 
QioTanni-Battifita Barrtti, ooll' agginata del 
proeaaso ed aatoIiuionB dell' omieidio da Ini com- 
taesso in difrsa di se medesimo in Loadra, 17^9, 
ridotMia ottafarima.TnriD, 1867; AnecdotMol 
BaietU by Isaac Reed in Eaiop.M(ig;.(178e). xt. 
849*, 440, zri 81. 94, 340 ; Campbell'* Diary 
of a Tisit to Bagiand in 17Td (STdDsy, 1864), 82, 
Zt. 138, 1S4; OenL Mag. liz. (].], 469. 609. li. 
(ii.), tO«S,ll2T,ll94; MaaoehftlU. Gli Scrittori 
dltalia, iL put i. 845-9 j Mm. Fiosd's Ante- 
biogmpjiy (Haywanl). laded, i. S6, 90-103, 24S, 
801, aii, 317, iL 177 1 Notes and Queriea, 1st 
■er. niL411, 477, 1ST: Evans's Cat. 
of EnRBrad PortAita, i. IT ; D Tsro carattars 
di O. Baretti pobblicate per amor della Tinft 

difesa d^r Italiani (by C. F. Badim), Vsnena 
(1770r); AtheiHNUD, 30 Jnlj I87S.] 


ra Barford 

BAKFT, SAMUEL (1793 P-1880), pro- 
meter of Greek independence, was bom about 
1793, presumablr m England (Trikoupes' 
'la-Topia, iii. 131). In 1816 he eeUblished 
himself at Zante, became an eminent mer- 
chant and banker, and terminated a long 
career in that island, 1 Sept. 1880, 'at 
the advanced age of eighty-eeven ' (Timtt, 
23 Sept. 1880). 

Bam took an actire part in the struggle 
for independence carried on by ihe Greek 
nation at the time of Lord Bjron'e missioii, 
and he was one of the last survivors of the 
Englishmen connected with that movement. 
His r^utation for honour, kindlineoe, and 

from Missolonghi by Lord Byron early in 
1824, which are preserved in Moore's 'Lift 
of Lord Byron.' It there appears that the 
negotiation of loans and the distribution <^ 
funds were confidently committed to Barff ; 
whilst with patriotic benevolence he pro- 
tected the persons and inteieets of stray 
Englishmen who bad mistaken their way into 
Greece at that disturbed time. In theee 
letters Barff is also recognised as the mediator 
through whom Oeorgio Sisseni, the Capitano 
of the rich district about Gastruni, made 
overturee of adhesion after having for a cos- 
■iderable period held out agunst the general 
government. Barff offeredhis country house 
to Lord Byron in the event of the health of 
the latter requiring his removal frvm Misso- 

[AnnnalBi^ieter, 1824; UooM'aLifaof Lord 
Byron wiUi his Lattera and Jonraals, Svo, Lon- 
don, 1S47; Trikoi^**' 'tffTapIa rfit 'EAAvwfl* 
'Ennvrinm, 4 Vola. Svo, London, ISAS-T; 
Times, S3 Sept. 1880.] A. H. O. 

scholar and divine, was educated at Eton, 
and elected thence to King's College, Cam- 
bridge, in 1737. He proceeded B. A. in 1743, 
M.A. m 1746, and D.D. in 1771. He be- 
came tutor of his college, was thrice mode- 
rator in the Sophs' school, and from 1761 to 
1768 public orator to the universi^, only r6- 
rigning the post to stand for the Greek pio 
fessor&p, which he &iled to obtain. In 
1768 his colle^ prMented him with the living 
of Fordingbndge, in Hampshire, and in the 
year followinv he was appointed chaplain to 
the Bouse of Commons by Sir John Gust, 
the speaker, but held the office for only one 
session. The next speaker appointed another 
chaplun, and Dr. Barford's mends feared he 
would be deprived of the usual preferment 
conferred on holders of the office ; but on the 
plea that he was to be conudered chaplain. 

I, Google 




•«pp(»nted not bj the apeaker but bj the 
hoiue, it wu rawlved, 9 May 1770, thftt the 
king be uldresMd to confer some dignity 
upon him. He vu cansequeutly instBlled a 
prebenduT of Ouiterbniy in June of the 
nme year. In 1778 he levgned Fording* 
bridge fiir iia leetan of Eimpton, Hertfoid- 
•hiie, which he hela along with the living 
of Allhallawi, Lombard Street, till his death 
inNoTenibeTl792. He married in 1764. A 
Latin diBBertation of Barfoid'e on the 'firat 
l^rthian ' ie published in Dr. Huutinf^ord'i 
edition of Pindar'a works, to which is ap- 
pended a short life of the author, a list of hu 
woAi,aitd a eulogiom of his learning. The 
list conai«ta of poenu on Tuiom political 
«Tente in Latin and Greek, written in iai 
capacity of public orator, a Latin oration al 
the fbnei&l of Dr. George, proToet of King*! 
College, 1766, and a ' Concio ad Clerum, 
1784, written after his installation as canon 
td Gantabu^. Dr. Jacob Bryant, in the pre- 
&c« to the tlujd Toluine of hia ' New System 
of Uytliology,' pays a high tribute to Bai^ 
Jbrd'a talenti and emditiou, t.ti.niHng him (or 
Ua 'aeaL' hia ' aatistance,' and hia 'jndidoiu 
ninarka.* bi the life of Bryant, prefixed to 
die nz-ToIume edition of the 'New Systam,' 
Sarfoid ia put flnt in the list of his mends. 

[Qnt.Hag, 1xii.,bJii.(lnii. 418 bran seconBt 
of the pncmdiDgi in the Hcnus of Commoiia, tiid 
OommoDB Journal, zuti.); Harwood'i 
EtonsDM*; CoDcio ad Clernm, Cunb. 
BriL Has.] 

BAIUIENT, second Buov. [SeeHAMii^ 
mir, JoHir, d. 169».] 


of Canterbury, was the sixth bod of Robert 
BareraTs, of Bridge, Kent, and was bom in 
1566. Ha was educated at Clare Hall, 
Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. and 
H.A. On 9 July 1611 he was incorporated 
MA. of Oxford, and in the October follow- 
ma became rector of Eythome. In 1612 he 
hud the office of ' taxor ' at Cambridge, 

(WoTTOir'B LetUrt (Roxburgh aub), p. 26). 
In 1622 he received the degree of D.D. at 
Cambridge, and was appointed a prebendary 
of Canterbu^ Cathedral. It was about the 
aame time that he was (panted the living 
of St. Harriet's, Westnunster, and became 
chaplain to Prince Charlea, an office which ha 
retamed after the prince ascended the throne 
in 1626. On the death of John Boys, dean 
6f Canterbury, who had married Bugrave'a 
sister, Bargrave succeeded to the deanery, to 
which he was formally admitted on 16 Oct. 
1626. Be obtained the vicarage of Tenter- 
den in 1620, and was presented to the benefice 
of Lydd by the king m Heptembei 1627, but 
only held it for a few weeks. On C June 
16^ he received the vicarage of Ohartham, 
which he continued to hold till his death. 

In the last yean of James I'a reign Ba^ 
grave had shown mnoh sympathy with the 
popular party in parliamflnt,and had tireached 
a sermon which threw him into £afhvonr 
with the court ; but as dean of Canterbury 
he supported the policy of Charles L A an- 
mon preached by him before Charlos I on 
27 March 1627 i» stated to have neatly 
aided the collection of that year's arbitrsrj 
loan (Biboh'b Court ijf CkarUi I, i. 21 
In later years Barnave did not liv 


terms with nis diocesan, Archbishop 
, or with thei cathedral clergy. The 
latter were constantly complaining of their 
dean's partiality in the distribution of pa- 
tronage, and Laud constantly rebuked turn 
for his ' peevish differencec,' his' petty qnaiy 
rels,' and the 'revilinra m chapter.* In 
1634-6 he insisted on the Walloon congre- 
gation at Canterbury and tbe Bel^^ian chnrdi 
of Sandwich conforming to the ntual of the 
church of England ; but the archbishop did* 
not approve of these high-banded orders. 
BanTave daimedpreeedeuce over the deans 
of London and Westminster, and was long 
mgsged in a dispute with William Somner, 
the regiBtrai of the diocese of Canterbury. 
800Q after the opening of the Long parlia- 

held the ottice of taxor at Cambridge, and ment Bargrave became a special obiect of 
he played the part of "Torcoi, portugaUus, attack with the popular leaders. When the 
leno u the Laim comedy of ' Ignoramus,' bai for the abolition of deans and chapters 
perfcrmed at the univewity before James 1 was introduced by Sir Edward Bering, the 
^ L. "^ 1614-16 {^ICB0LS 9 ProgretK,, firgt cousin of his vrife, he waa fined l.OOOt 
111. 62). The author of the comudy, Oeoi 
Bnggle, was Bargrave's ' fellow-coJlwial 

.6 (Ni , 

iii. 62> The author of the comudy, tleoige a, a prominent member of convocation.' 
ou— ,- * ;■ ''■ 'f'*"'"'-«''l^'*^'l ISMay 1641hewenttotheHou8eofCon^- 

alortly after^rds Bargrave proceed^ to mons to present petitions ftom the univei^ 
Venice as ohaplam to Sir HenrvWotton, the gity of Cambridge and foim the officers of 
Engluih ambaasador there and became inti-l Canterbury Cathedral against the bill. Al- 
inatewithPaoloSarpi,suthorofthe'HiBtory though the hill was ultimately dropped. 
Of rte Council of Trent.' In 1618heretumed Bargrave's tmpopuhmty increaswl. At the 
to E^ and with a letter of introduction beginning of tlia civil war, in August 1642, 
from WotWn to the king, m which bis- dis- Sandys, a parliamentary colonsL to whtmi 
cretion and seals were highly commended the desn is said to have shown special kind- 



nau in uriin life, Tiiited OuiterbiuT and 
ftttaekedthedeuien. BargnTevu^eeitt, 
but Ilia wiff and cnildnn wen cmelly oat' 
taged. On hearing that the dean waa at 
OraTeaend, SmdTa piooaeded thither, arreeted 
him, and sent him to the Fleet. After three 
weeks' imprisonment Bargrave waa released 
without having been brought to trial. He 
rBturned to Gantarbiu^broKen in health, and 
died thereearlv in January 1642-3. He was 
buried in the dean's chapel of the eathedrtiL 
In 1679 a memorial was erected above the 
graTe by the dean's nephew, John Bargrave, 
D.D, [q. v.1. The memorial mainlj consisted 
of a portrait of the dean, attributed to Cor- 
nelius Janaen, painted on copper, with an 
inaeriptioD commemorating hia virtues, hie 
laanung, and his intimacv with fbreignen 
and with the Englidi nobilitv. An engrav- 
ing of the portrait appears in Dart's 'Antiqui- 
ties of OanterhaiT ' (U88)t P- 68. Wotton, 
in hia will dat«d 1 Oct. 1637, left to the dean 
all hia Italian books not otherwise bequeathed 
and his viol de gamba, ' -nfiich hath been,' 
aays Wotton, ' twice with me in Italy, in 
which connt^ I first contracted with bim 
an unremoTsUe affection.' Ixaak Walton 
deacribes Baq^rave in his ' Life of Wotton ' 
M • learned ai^ hoepitable.' 

Bargrave puUished three aermona— one 
preacbed frmn Psalms xxvi. 6 before the 
Hoiiae of Commons 88 Feb. 1633 -4 ; another 
preached from Hoaea x. 1 at Whitehall in 
1634, and a third peached from 1 Sam. iv. 33 
bdbre Eii^ Ohariee 39 March 1627. He 
married Eliiabeth, the daughter of Sir John 
Dering, of Buckley, and first cousin of die 
eccentric Sir Bdwara Dering. Bargrave en- 
couraged Sir Edward in the wooing of a rich 
widow in 1638-9, hut the relatives afterwards 
•erionslj diwreed on political enliijects (Pro- 
esttiiM* m -S^t, 1640, (torn the Dering U SS. 
(CaindenSoc.),zxx.,xlix.7). OfBamrave's 
ohildren one son, Thomas, was the subject of 
a petition addraated by the dean to Secretary 
windebanh ia 1639, asking permission for 
the youth to study at Amsterdam. Thomas 
married a niece of Sir Henry Wotton, and 
waa an executor of Sir Hen^s will. An- 
other son, Robert, waa the &ther of JrAai, 
Isaac, Henry, Joan, and Robert Bargrave, 
who, with their father, lie buried m the 
north aisle of Canterbury CathedraL 

[Wiakar'i 9alIeTii]K> of tha Clergy, pL ii. p. 6 ; 
Wood's Fasti Ozod. (ad. Bli«), i. 34fi ; La Nbtb's 
Taatl (Hardy), i. 38, JS2, iii. 63S ; Hastsd's KenU 
lii. 1D2, ISS. iv. fi9S-4; Dart's Antiquities of 
CnDterbnry (172S), pp. fifl, 189 ; Tsmey'i Notes 
OD tha Long Parliament (Camden Soc}, 78; GaL 
Dom, State Papers, \B2B-43; land's CorTwpon- 
ilenue in vol, vii. (k his worki.J S, L. L. 

U Barham 

BAAOBAVE, JOHN (1610-1680 ),oanaJ 
of CuitacbuiT Catbadial, was a nephew of 
laaae BarRBve [a, v.], and was bom in Kent 
about 1610. HebecamaafeUowofSLFMer's 
Colleg«, Cambridge, from which hs waa 
e|ect^ in 1643, and for many yean devoted 
bis time chiefly to trarelUng on the continent. 
In 1616 and 1647 he waa ut Italy with hia 
nephew, John Raymond, author of an iti- 
nerary in which Bargrave is supposed to have 
had a considerable hand. He waa again at 
Rome in 1660, 1656, and 1669-60. After th« 
Restoration he obtained several prefennanta 
in Kent, and in 1663 waa made a canon t4 
Canterbury. Immediatelv after this pronw* 
tion he departed with ArtJidaaooa Salteck on 
the dangerous errand of ransoming English 
captives at Algiers, for whose redemption ten 
thousand pounds had been aubacribeil by tJis 
bishops and clergy. He acquitted himself 
BUiccMafiilly of his mission, and spent tha nat 
of his life at home, dying at Cantertnuy on 
11 Hay 1680. His sole contribution to lit«n- 
ture ia a curious account of < Pope Alexander 
the Seventh and the College of Cardinals,' not 
originally intended fbr publication, oonsiat- 
ing of serapa selected from three anonyrooaa 
oontemparaiv ItaUan pnblicatioaa (' lAQiuata 
Statnra de' Forporati, ' IlNipotismodiRoma,' 
and ' n Cardinalismo di Santa Chiesa,' the 
last two by Qregorio Leti), with considerable 
additions of his own, and originally deaigned 
to illustrate the portraits m the pope and 
cardinals published by De Rossi m 1667. 
Though ahounding in errors uising tmn a 
defbctire knowle^^ of ItaUan^ the book ia 
am using and curious. It waa edited byOanon 
BobertMn for the Camden Sooietv in 1S67, 
with a memoir of Bar^ve. and a aasoriptiv* 
catalogue of the curiositiaa ha had acquii«d in 
his travels which presents many pointa of 

[Walkar's Soflhings, pt, ii. p. tS3 ; Wood'a 
Fasti {Bliss), ii. 347 ; Canon Rabntsoa's Msmoir 
of Bai^giave, praflzad to Fop* Alexander VH.] 


(1804-1884), phyaidan— the second tJiriatian 
name was rarely used — was the fourth aon of 
Thomaa Foster Barham [q. v.] (1766-184^. 
andwasbomat Truro on 9 March 18Q4. He 
waa educated privately at aeveral plaoea in 
Cornwall and at SaffinMiWalden, proceeding 
^m the latter town to Downing College 
Cambridge, where he matriculated in October 

scholaria Hay 1623. The bent of his family 
was for medicine, and after studjringatEdin- 
burgb, as well as at Paris and in Italy, Bus 



Itttt took tks denee of ILB. kt Cambridge in 
—■^' -Jxhighffldr '^^ 

S27,qiulifrmg for tha higher degree of SJ>. 
1 I860; For a few Teara he prwtiiad at 
Tavbtockj but in Augiiat 1S37 he settled at 

Truro, and remained there until hie deatL 
In tlM following year he wM appointed 
•enior phjrioian to the Bojnl Cornwall la- 
flrmaiT, and when he reeigned that poet in 
1S73 wu elected cooaulting phyaiciui. On 
hie eettlenient at Truro Dr. Buhem threw 
himself with enetvj into its political and 
ciTic life, and on 28 Sept. 1839 became more 
eloaelf identified with the town hj his mar- 
riage to Caroline, the second daughter of 
Clonent Carlyon, MJ>., who belaiig«d to an 
old Truro family. In all the proceedings of 
the Rojal Institution of Cornwall Dr. Barham 
took an active part, and to its ' Reprarts ' and 
* Journal ' be contributed man; articles. Ha 
died at Tmio on SO Oct. ISU, leaving a 
lanre bmilv behind him. 

Thon^ Dr. Barham was interested in an- 
tiquarian and geological pnrsuita f^erally, 
the two subjects which had emecul charm 
for him ware the climate of Oomwall and 
the diseases of the miners who contributed 
to its wealth. The names of manj papers 
written by him on theee topics are enume- 
rated in the ' Bibliotheca ComubiensiB,' toIb. 
L and iii. Hit services were engaged in 
1843 bv a coaunission on the emplc^ment 
of chiliben, and his report, with the evidence 
which he collected, was printed in the first 
and second leports of the commission. 

[BibL Comnbiennsi Western Uominr News, 
MOet.l8S4.] W.P. C. 

first B&iox (1726-1813). [See MinnLnoK, 

Barham (1766-1844) [q. r\ bj his wife Mary 
Anne, daughter of the lUr. Hr. Uorton, 
was bom 31 Uaj 1808 at Leskinnick, Pen- 
cance, Cornwall. After a preliminary train- 
ing in the gnunmar school of Peniance, he 
■tudied under one of his brothers neaiEpping 
Porest, and was then articled for five years 
(1826-31) to a solicitor at Davenport. In 
his twenty-third year he was enrolled ta 
an attorney, and iettled in London, but ill- 
hralth prevented him fmm'puiBuing the 
practice of ihe law, and he tooK to writing 
for literary periodicals. Together with Mr. 
John Abnham Heraud he wae joint editor 
and proprietor of the ' New Monthly Maga- 
Eine' from 1 Julv 1889 to 26 May 1840, 
when he retired from the editorship, with 
permiseion ' to contribute t wo sbtwts of matter 

15 Barham 

to each number of the msgamn^ retainii^ 
exclusive property inhieownartidee.' Dur- 
ing the fourteen jean of his residence in 
London, Barham's most exteuuve literarjr 
undertaking was the preparation of a new 
edition of Jeremy Collier's ' Eccleuaaticai 
HistoiT of Qreat Britain.' The study of 
orient^ languages kindled in him a ^reat 
love for philolcOT, and his intenw spiritual 
aspirations led hun to attempt to found a new 
form of religion, which he called ' Aliam.' 
He describee it as ' the supreme central doo* 
trine which combines and hannoniies ell 
partial sections of truth in one divine uni- 
versal system. After very prolonged and 
arduons reeearches I at last tuseovered this 
Bupreme central doctrine, and gave it the 
name of Alism, a name derived from A, Al, 
or Alah, the most ancient and universal titls 
of Deity in the Hebrew scripture. By Alism 
I therefore mean that eternal divinity, pure 
and universal, which inclodea and recondlaa 
all divine truths whatsoever to be found in 
scripture or nature, in theol<^, theoeophj, 
philosophy, sdence, or art.' 

Barham founded a society of Alitts and 
also a S^cretic Society. He likewise at- 
tached himself to an leathetic society which 
metat the house of the eminent myatic,Jaawi 

Inl844he married Gertrude Fatter, dan{^ 
ter of the Rev. Thomas Qrin&eld, of ClifboBf 
rector of Shirland, Derbyshire, and vrent to 
live at Clifton. During his ten yearn' resi- 
dence there, his time was principally ocen- 
pied in preparing a revised version of the OH 
and New Teetameats. He resided at Bath 
&om 1854 until his death, which occnirad in 
that city 9 Feb. 1871. 

His numerous printed worke include: 
1. 'The Adamus Exul ofGrotius, orthe Pro- 
totype of Paradise Lost. Now first trans- 
lated from theLatin,' Lond. 18S9,8vo. Thi« 
poem is said to be the ivototype of Milton's 
'Paradise Lost.' 2.' The Ecclesiastical History 
of Great Britain. Bv Jeremy Collier, New 
edition, with a life ot the auuior, the contro- 
versial tracts connected with the history, 
notee, and an enlarged index,' 9 vols., Lond. 
1640, 8yo. 3. ' The Alist or Divine, a mee- 
sage to our times,' Lond. (1840) Svo; three 
parts published at 6d. each. 4. ' The Politi- 
cal Works of Ciceio. Translated from the 
original with dissertations and notes,' 2 vols., 
Lond. 1841-42, Svo, 6. ' Socrates. A Tra- 
gedy in five acts (and in verae), Lond. 184^ 
8vo. 6. ' The Life and Times of John Reuch- 
lin or Capnion, the fother of the Oerman 
Reformation, Lond. 184S, ISmo. 7. 'The 
Foster Barham Genealogy,' Lond. 1844, 8vo, 
privately printed. 8. ' Prospectus. IlkeAlist, 

I, Google 

Barham i 

« monthljinliguiiie of divinity and uniTeiwl 
literatnrB/Lond.(1846>,8m Noportionof 
the pKijected nuwuins wu ever published. 
9. 'An Odd HeiUej of Literuy CfuriositicH, 
original and (elected/ Loud. (]1846) 8to. 
This volume conUins & memoir of Jamee 
Pierrepont QresTes. 10. 'A Key to ^l'**" 
uid the highest initiktionB, Sacred and Secu- 
lar. With Miscellaiieout Pieces, onginal and 
«elect,' Land. 1847, 8vo. 11. <l%e Bible 
Terised. A carefully eonected tranilation 
of theOldandNewTeetamentt'Loud. 1848, 
8to. Id three parts, containing the Boole of 
Ecclesiastes, the Soog of Solomon, and the 
BookofHicah.' IS. "The New Bristol Guide, 
apoem,'Bmtol,1860,6TO. IS.'ThePleaaures 
ofFie^,apoem,'London, 1860, I61110. 14. 'A 
LifitofEdwardCoUtonofBristol.' 16. 'Im- 
iRVTed Monotessaron, a complete authentic 
Gomel Life of Christ, combining the words of 
thesraiOospela in a revised version and an 
'OrderlT chronological arrangemeat,' Lond. 
1863, l2mo. 16. < Lokman a Arabic Fables, 
literally translated into "^i^"g^■''^' (word ibr 
word),' Bath, 1869, 12mo. 17. 'A Rhymed 
Harmony of the Gospels. By F. Barham 
and Isaac Pitman. Printed both in the 
phonetic and the customarv spellinf ,' Lond. 
1870, 8vo. 18. 'The Writings of Solomon, 
Song of Solomon, and Psalms Izxii. czzviL 
Translated. Printed both in phonetic and in 
the customary spelling,' Lond. 1870, 16mo. 
19. ' A Revised Version of the Prophecies of 
Howa and Hicah,' Lond. 1870, 8vo. SO. ' The 
Book ^ Job, newly translated from the ori- 
. ^naL Printed both in the phonetic and 
tiie customary spelling,' Lond. 1671, 8to. 

uie ciu^uioary apeiiiug, Jjuuu. icri, ovu. 
SI. 'An Elucidated Translation of St. John's 
Epistles, from the Greek and Svriac, with a 
devotional commentary,' Louo, 1871, 8to. 
S3. 'The Book of E^lma, translated from 
the Hebrew and the Syriac. By F. Barham 
and Edward Hare,' Lond. 1871, 8vo. 

Barham left behind him 116 lb. weight of 
nanuacript, much of it in a small handwriting. 
It consists of treatises on Christianity, mis- 
lions, church government, temperance, poems 
in blank veree, rhymed poetry, and a few 
dramas. From this mass of papers Mr. Isaac 
Pitman selected about seven pounds, and 
niuted them in his ' Memorial of Francis 

Ba^am^' Lond. 1873, 8vo. This volume, . ... _._ 

which IB mostly in the phonetic character, .complete failure, and though a yeari 
eontains reprints of the * Memoir of James i was due to him it was never paid. &e cod- 
Greavea,' 'Lokman's Fables/ the 'Life of tinued,howeTer,to reside in Jamaica till his 
Renchlin,' and the 'RhymedHarmonjofthe death at Spanish Town in May 171J6 {Sloane 
Gospels.' -MS. 4036, p. 877). A memorial tablet is 

[Pitman'sHsmorialofFmneisBaThamiBosM in the cathedral at Spanish Town (Bobt'b 
and CotutnBT'BBibl.Coraabienni.i.lI.iii. 1048; MontanenU <(f Spanuh Tbtm, p. 38). 
Mot«e and Queries, Srd sar. v. 39, liO, £th ser. 1 Bariiamttates that aAerlie came to Jamuea 


BARHAM, HEtTRY, F.R.a (1670 P^ 
1728), a writer on natural hitto^, waa bom 
about 1670, and was descended from the 
Barhams of Barham Court in Kent. In 
books of reference he has hitherto been 
confounded with his son, Henry Barham, 
U.D. Hie main events of his lifB are i«- 
corded by himself in one of his letters to 
Sir Hans Sloane (Sloatu MS. 4(»6, pp. SQ7~ 
S58). His father, a physician^ intended to 
give him a university education, but died 
before he could carry out his wishes. As the 
mother married soon afterwards, the boy, 
then about fourteen years of sge, was left to 
his own resources, and became apprentice to 
a surgeon. This situation he left to become 
Burgeon's mate in the Vanguard, from which 
he was promoted to be master surgeon in 
another man-of-war. Tiringof the monotony 
ofhis life he went to Spain, thence to Madras, 
and thence to Jamaica. As in 1730 (Add. 
Jlf&2S639, f. 19) he refers to his son as having 
practised physic and sui^ry in Jamaica G^ 
the last twenty years, be himself had probably 
settled in the island twenty years before the 
end of the century. According to his own 
he obtained a lucrative practice, and 

England and settled at Chelsea, devoting his 
chief attention to the rearing of the silkworm 
and the manufacture of silk, on which Bulject 
he published a treatise in 1719. His nauM 
ap}wars in 1717 on the list of members of the 
Royal Society, and he states also that shortly 
after he came to England he was made free 
of the Company of Surgeons, but his hope* 
of obtaining the diploma of M.D. do not ap- 
pear to have been fulfilled, for the only change 
that occurs in his designation on the roll of 
the Royal Society is from ' Mr.' to ' Esquire.' 
In his application,in 1720, for the situation of 
mineral superintendent to a company formed 
to prosecute silver mining in Jamaica (Add, 
MS. 22639, ff. 18-20), be stated that his buei- 
prospects were so good that he could not 
iSce them for less than 500f. a year. He 
received the situation on his own terms ; but 
the enterprise, which hod been undertaken 
chieflv through bis representations, proved a 

I, Google 




'mdmuijbookijMpeciallj'pltnictil.' His 
:teT8 and muHucrivU indicate uiat in early 
e Ua educatKni had been mncli ne^ectad ; 

but althoagh apt alao to be led aat»T bj 
lantastic and Utopian ideaa, he poMeuea vm~ 
donbtedlj great ingenuity and a yerj minute 
knowledge of the fauna and flora of Jamuca. 
Ixigwood, now so common there, was intro- 
duced by him in 171G. Sir Hans Bloane, 
who lefers to him in terms of high conunen- 
dation, rBceived &om him many Talnable 
GOnunnnications, of which he made large nse 
in his ' Natural History of Jamaica.' Amonc 
these was a treatise, ' Hortua Amaricanus/ 
■ent in 1711. This treatise was published 
in 1794 with a m«face in which it is stated 
to be the work oi Henry Baibom, M.D., who, 
it is added, practised as a physician in Jamaica 
from the beginning of the century, and after 
aoqniring laim Woperty by marriage returned 
to England in 1740 and settled at Staines 
near fgham. The Henry Barham thus re- 
ferred to waa the sou of Henry Barham, 
F.R.B., but that the father was the author of 
the book is proved beyond all doubt by letters 
in tbeSIoaneHS8.(4036>. Henry Barham, 
FJt.a, wrote alao a 'History of Jamaica,^ 
which his son, after his death, sent to Bur 
Hans Sloane, 'to see the best method of 
printing it,' but it was uerer published. Ilie 
and inscariMd ' wrote by Heniy Barham, senr. 
F.It.S.,'is in theBritish Museum (^Joane MA 
8916). In another copy, in a different hand 
(Add. MS. 124SS), there u a note by E. Long 
erroueonely attributing the work to Henry 
Bart)am,MJ). Barham also wrote two papers 
ibt the Boyal Society ; ' An Account of a 
Kerr Meteor seen in Jamaica to strike the 
Earth,' PhiL Tnms. 1718, Abrer. ti. p. 868; 
and ' Ohaerratious on the Produce of the Bilk- 
woim and of Silk in England,' 1719, Abrer. 
lip. ^6. 

[Sloans HSa. 40SS, f. 84, IBIS ; Add. USS. 
22ase, ff. IB-JtO, 1 2422 ; Sloaoe's Natural Hist«iy 
of Jamaica, Introdnetioo ii. vii-x.] T. F. H. 

BABHAM, NICHOLAS (d. 1677), 
lawyer, was a native of Wsdhurst, Sussex. 
His &mily had been settled there for some 
generations, beii^ a branch of the Barhams 
of Teston House, Teston,Eent, descended Irom 
Bobert da Berham, upon whom the eetatee 
of his kinsman, B^inald Fitsurse, notorious 
■s one of the ronrderers of lliomaa Becket, 
derolved upon his flirht into Ireland after the 
mnrder. Nicholas Barham was called to the 
bar at Givy'e Inn in 1 542, became on ' ancient ' 
of that society 24 May 1562, Lent reader in 
1558, and was made seHeant-at-law in 1667, 
haying previously (156^) been letumed to 

parliament as member for Maidstone, of whicb 
town he also appears to have been recorder. 
Dngdale does not place him in the list of 
queen's se^euita until 157S. He is, how* 
ever, so deetgnat«d in certain papers relating 
to the trial of the Dnke of Norfolk for high 
treason in conspiring with the Queen of Scots 
to depose Elizabeth, under date 1671-3. He 
was entrusted with the conduct of that 
famous prosecution, and seems to have dis- 
played thsrein considerable abilityandeneigy 
and some imscrupulouaness. Thus it is per- 
fectly clear, from a letter from Sir Thomas 
Smith to Lord Burghley, that the rack was 
employed in eliciting evidence from a witness. 
Banister by name, one of the duke's agents. 
Yet, on the duke, aft«r the confesuon of the 
witness had been re«d, remarking ' Banister 
was shrewdly cramped when he told that 
tale,' Barham, who had been present at the 
examination, replied without hesitation, 'No 
more than you were.' The trial of the duka 
took place in Westminster Hall 16 Jan. 
1671-3. in the foUowing February Barham 
was engaged in proeecuting a lees illus- 
trious (lender, the duke's secretary, Bobert 
Higford, at the Queen's Bench, on the 
chuge of adhering to and comforting the 
queen's anemies. Higford was found guilty 
and, like his master, condemned to death. 
After this we see no more of Barham until 
1677, when wa find him present at the Ox- 
ford BSsLcee during the prosecution of a mal- 
content bookbinder, Rowland Jencks by 
name, a Roman catholic, and yehemeutly 
opposed to the existing order of things. Ap- 
parently ha had been guilty of little mora 
than speaking evil of diTnities and keeping 
away from church ; but the university autho- 
ritiee, judging it neceswry to make an ex- 
ample, haa hun anested and sent to London 
to nndergo examination, whence he was re- 
turned to Oxford to stand his trial. This 
took ^lace 4 July, when he was sentenced to 
lose his ears, as in due course he did. Jencks, 
however, was amply avenged. 'Judgment 
being passed,' says Wood, ' and the pnsoner 
taken away, there rose such an infectious 
damp or breath among the people that many 
there present were then smothered, and 
others so deeply infected that they lived not 
many days after.' There was a sudden out- 
break of gaol-fever of a more than nsually 
virulent kind, which destroyed within a few 
hours, if Wood is to be credited, besides 
Barham and Sir Robert Bell, baron of the 
exchequer, the high sheriff and his deputy. 
Sir Williun Babington, four justices <a the 
peace, three gentlemen, and most of the jury, 
and in the course of the next five weeks more 
than five hundred other persons. AVood 

I, Google 

Barham ii 

gtTM a minute accounC of the a^ptoms, the 
chief of which yiere violent pain iu the 
head and stomach, treaty, hnmorrhafe, and 
total inability to eat or aleep. Barham 
was surriTed by his wife, Hary, daughter 
of John Ho!t, of Cheehire, and one aon, 
Arthur. He was the owner of two estates, 
one of which, known as Bigoni orDigons, he 
had acquired by grant from the crown in 
1664, the former proprietor haTing been im- 
plicated in the insurrection of Sir Thomas 
Wjatt i the other, the manor of ChiJlington, 
be purchased about the same time. Both 
astatea were sold by his son Arthur. In the 
tecords of the corporation of Hastings is 
lireserred a letUr from one Nicholas Barham 
to the Right Hon. Lord Cobham, lord warden 
of the cinque ports. relatiTC to a dispute be- 
tween Hastings and Perensey as to the title 
to some wreckage cast upon the shore in the 
neighbourhood at the latter town, as to which 
the opinion of the writer had been taken by 
the lord warden. The letter was read to die 
corporation of Hastings 29 April 1599, and, 
though undated, must hsTe been written 
about that time. The author of » paper in 
the ' Sussex Arclueoloncal Collections 'iden- 
tiflea this Nicholas Barham with the se^eant ; 
but the contemporaiy eridenoe of Camden-— 
who notes the epidemic at Oxford in 1677, 
and placee Barbain amongst the Tictima, and 
whose account Wood, while adding iieeh 
details, follows in aU essential particulars, 
together with the absence of any mention of 
Buham by Dugdale after 1673, though had 
he lived he would in all likelihood have been 
rused to the bench — appears to be conclusive 
u»inst the identification, while there is no- 
tiling surprising in tbe coinoidenoe of name, 
the Barhams being a numerous clan in Kent 
and Sussex, and Nicholas a name much 
affected by them. The Sussex branch of the 
family was largely concerned in the business 
of iionfbuudir^, of which the county was, 
during the sixteenth and seventeenth centu- 
ries, the seat. Wadhurst Church contains 
many muiKl tablets of iron inscribed with 
the names and arms of the gentry who were 
engaged in the manufacture, to some of 
whom the decay of the industry was veiy 
disastrous. The Barhams in particular snf- 
ftiied sererely, sinking gradually into the 
position of handicrstumen. An engraving 
of one of these iron mural tablets, dedicated 
to one John Badbam, Esq., of Great Butts, 
whodied in 1&18, may be seen in the'Bussex 
ArehKological Collections,' ii. 200. 

[Froods's Hist iz. (SS, i. 290-8 ; Huted's 
KoDt, ii. Ill, SSI); Honflald's Snnra. i. 114; 
Rmte Trials, i. 958-1042; Philipot's Till. Cant. 
829 i Borghlsy Slate Papers iMurdin), 86, 100, 


lOe, 113; Lower's Smssz, ii. 2 
Miscellany, vi. 416 ; Dngdale's Chnm. Sar. 9), 
96 ; Foatsr's Collect. Gan. Beg. Gray's Inn. 10 ; 
WiUis's NoL Pari. iii. (2), TS ; Wood's Annals of 
Oxford, ii. 188-93 ; Camden's Annals for 1S7S 
and 1S7T ; Sussex Arch. CoU. ii. 200, xix. ii ; 
CaL StaU Fapen, Dom. (ie47-ie80), SgS, tS»; 
Woolrych's Lives of Emioent Ss^aaots-at-lAW, 
i. 170 j Ckt. flaiL MSa. ill 884, c 8184, a. 1,1 
J. M. B. 
i84G1, author of the ' Ingoldsby LMends,' 
was Dom at Cant«rbury on 6 Dec. 1788, and 
was the son of Richard Harris Barham of 
TappLngton Everard in the county of Kent, 
He was educated at St. Paul's School and at 
Brasenose College, and, though originaUy in- 
tended for the bar, took order* in 1818, and 
1817 was presented by the Archbishop of 

him to the house directed his active mind to 
literuy composition as a resource against 
cnnui', and in 1 8 1 9 he produced h is first wort 
a novel entitled ' Baldwin,' which fell dead 
faim the press. Nothing daunted, he bwan 
to write ' M^ Cousin Nicholas,' and iu 1821 
was placed in a more favourable position &>t 
literary effort 'by obtaining a minor canonry 
iu St. Paul's Cathedral His enersy. good 
sense, and oood humour soon gainecThun ths 
esteem and confidence of the chanter, and 
more especially the friendship or Bishop 
Copleeton, dean of St. Paul's from 1637 to 
1849. In 1824 he was presented to the living 
of St. Mary Magdalene and SL Cregoiv, and 
was made priest in ordinary of the chspela 
royal The latter appointment brou^t aim 
into closer intimacy with tbe e - - -" ' 

society fostered the talent for humorous com- 
position in verse of which hehadalreadygiven 
proof. His acquaintance with Theodore 
Hook dated fnun their college days. He con- 
tributed to ' Blackwood ' and the 'John BulL' 
and in 1834 ' My Cousin Nichohis,' which 
had long lain in his desk, was completed and 
published in the former periodicaL Thonsh 
endowed with iude&tigable powers of woric, 
Baiham seems to have always required some 
strong external prompting to composition of 
any extent. His first novel was the resnlt 
of an accident ; hia second was forced into 
completion by a friend who printed the 
first chspt«rs without his knowledge ; and, 
although he was continually throwing off 
humorous verse with great freedom and 
spirit, the ' Ingoldsby Lands' would pro- 


Barham ii 

pnbliaher Beiil)ej,in 'Beatlej's HiacelUar/ 
commauMd nnder tlie editorthip of Chulea 
Dieknwin Jumary 1837. Tbemtguioewu 
originmllj iutMidM to haTe been cftlled * The 
Wits' WMellMij.' 'Wh7,'uised Buhun, 
when tlie change of title waa Eugge«ted to 
him, ' whj go to the other extreme P * Thie 
excellent mot has been eironeoualv attributed 
to Jenold. 'The Spectre of Tappington ^ 


In « munber of othna, _ 

the lagsnd^ lore ot the aDthor'a aucectral 
lootli^ in £«it, but eoon enriched bj astirea 
<a the topica of tlie dav and sabjecta of pure 
invention, or borrowed from hittorj or the 
'Acta Sanctorum.' The later memben of 
the aeiiea appeared in the ' New Monthly 
Uagaaioe.' The aucceaa of the 'L^^ends' 
waa ^pronounced from the flrat, and when 
pabliahed eoUectiTel^ in 1810 ther at ouca 
took the high place in humorous literature 
which they have erer aince retained. A 
Moond terieawB* added in 1847, and a tlurd 
waa edited by hia ton in the same year. la 
1842 Bartuun was appointed divini^ lecturer 
at St. Paul's, and ezctianged his livmgforSt. 
Fahh'a, alao in the city. In 1840 the death 
of hiajnonngeat ton had inflicted a blow upon 
him from which he never recovered, and in 
1644 a cold caiigbt at the opening of the 
Itoyal Exchange, and a^rrsTated bv hia 
nenact c^ precaution*, laid the fbunoation 
ofaRiUlilliieu. He died on 17 June 1845, 
having written hia pathetic linea, ' Aa I la^ 
a-Thynhynge,* a fbw daya previoualy, 

Bu4iam owe* hia honourable rank among 
Engliah humourlita to his baring done one 
thing aupremely well. He haa thoroughlv 
natnraliaed the French metrical amie with 
the adaptationa neceeaai; to accommodate 
It to our national ^eniua. French humour is 
tather flnelj* malicioua than genial : Barham 
earriea geniality to the verge of the exuberant. 
He riots in (uicy and frolic, and hia tnex- 
haoetible benlty of grotesque rhyming ig but 
Ae counterpart of hta intellectual fertility in 
the domain of hrcical humour. There is, 
indeed, an element of farce in bis fiin, an 
axoeaeiTe reliance on forced contrasts between 
the ghastlj and the ludicrous, and a not un> 
frequent straining after cheap effects ; nor 
can the moat successful work of the profee- 
nonal jester be compared to the recreation 
t)t 4 great poelj euch as Browning's ' Pied 
I^per of Hamelin.' It is neverthelasa true 
that DO En^^iah author, with the exception 
of Hood, has produced such a body of ezcel- 

hi* ffaie^ not equally purified and ennobled 
hy being dashed with tean, he excels his 

9 Barham 

rival aa a narrative poet. He may, indeed, 
be said to have prescribed the norm in our 
language for humoroua narrative in iiT^ 
gular verse, which can now hardly be com- 
posed without seeming to imitate him. 

Aa a man Barham was exemplary, a patt«m 
Englishman of the most distinctivelynational 
type. The associate of men of wit and gaiety, 
making himself no pretension to any extra- 
ordinary strictness of conduct, he passed 
through life with perfect credit as a deigy- 
man and universal respect as a member of 
society. He mitigated the prejudices of hia 
education bv the innate candour of hia disposi- 
tion, and added to other endowments sound* 
nees of judgment and solidity of good sense. 

[The priecipal authority for Barhsm's bio- 
grafdiy is bis lifs by his sod (3rd fdition, 1B80), 
a book sboimdiDg in excellent stories, ranUanUv 
told. V«w sditiODS of the logoldsby Lsggn^ 
oontinne to be called for, and his lyrics wci* 
published sepanlely ia IS81.] B. a. 

1844), musician and miscellaneous writw, 
the third son of Joseph Foeter, who took tbe 
name of Barham by authority of a private 
act of parliament, and In accordance with 
the will of Henry Barham, was bom at Bed- 
ford, 8 Oct. 1766, and educated at St. John's 
Collie, Cambridge, where he graduated B. A. 
as Thomas Foster in 1 792. After his univeiw 
sity course he travelled on the Continent. 
On his return he became connected with 
the mercantile house of Plummer k Co., 
but ill-health obliged him to leave London, 
and to retire into the west of England, where 
he flnatly settled at Leskiunick, near Pen- 
lance, domwall. He died there 36 Feb. 
1844. He married in 1790 Mary Ann, eldest 
daughter of theB«v, Joshna Morton, of Black- 
heath, and by this lady had six children, 
of whom Cliarlea, PYancis, Thomas, and 
Willisnt are mentioned in separate articles 
in this work. 

His principal publications are : I, 'I,ettar 
from a Trinitarian to a Unitarian,' Feuianve, 
1811. 3. 'Husieal Meditations, consisting 
of original compositions, vocal and instrn- 
mentaI,'Lond.l8]l,Sndiwtl816. 8. 'Ab- 
dsllah or the Arabian Martyr, a Christian 
drama in three acts ' [and in verse], Lond. 
1820,2ndedit., Penxance, 1821. 4. ^Elijah, 
a sacred poem in four cantos, Lond. 1823. 
6. 'Colonel Gardiner, a Christian drama in 
three parts, Lond. 1823. 6. 'Fergolesi's 
celebrated Stabat Hater or Oalvary ; with 
English words written for the purpose, sub- 
stituted in the place of the ancient Latin 
verses, and the instrumental parts arranged 
for the organ or pianoforte,' tM, 183B. 


Barham v 

7. ' Lejider AfiicuiUH. A muBical drama, 
Feniaiice, 1834. 8.'ReIiquueSerUB,orChris- 
tiaa Husbgs. B7 'EXdxi'rTot,' Lond. 1886. 
[Boue and Conrtney'i Bibl. Conmbisnus, i. 
13,iu. I049iPitiiiaD'BlIamorialof FracdBBar- 
bam, 20, 121-3.] T. C. 

(1794-1868), pnysician and clasBicaLBchoUr, 
was the eldast son of Thomas Foster Barham 
[q. T.J. The younger Barham was bom at 
Hendon, in MiddlMex, 10 Se^t. 1794, and 
saut to Quells' Oollege, Cambndge, qualify- 
ing M M.B. in 1S30. After taking this de- 
gree he returned to Feniance, where he was 
phjaician to the diapenaarj, and in nneral 
pracliee for Hvaral years. About 1830 he 
lemoTad to Exeter snd became physician b) 
the Exeter dispensaiy uid institution for the 
blind. From early life he had been attached 
to the doctrines of unltarianism, and dorinr 
the first part of his reaidence at Exeter 
aetjvelv supported the unitarian congrega- 
tion which met at George's Chapel, Exeter. 
After a time he expresBed an aversion to aU 
dogmatic theology, as well as to the adop- 
tion of any sectaiian name, and embodied 
his viewi on these points in a pamphlet en- 
titled 'Christian Union in Churchea with- 
out Dogmatiam.' He moved to Newton 
Abbot, where he conducted religious service 
for himself adhering in the main to the 
leligioui tenets of his old sect. Beinff poe- 
seased of considerable means, he abandoned 
the practice of medicine on his remoTal 
from Exet«T, and gave himself np to good 
woiln and the pleunns of literature. He 
died at Highweek, near Newton Abbot, 
S March 18W, and was buried in Highweek 
cbnrchyard 8 March. Dr. Barham pnlilished 
naiiy theological works, including ■ A 
MontUy Gonrse of Forms of Pia;^ for 
Domeetic Worship ' and (tn union with the 
Bar. Henry Acton) a Tolnme of ' Forms of 
Fraver for Public Wonhip.' Hii chief 
worK, which dealt with many social ques- 
tions — such as temperance, cultivation of 
waste lands and small farms— was entitled 
'Philadelphia, or the Claims of Humanity' 
(1866). The fame of his knowledge of the 
Greek language was not confined to bis own 
country i his mastery of Greek was shown 
in hifl 'Introduction to Qreek Grammar, on 
a new plan,' 1829 ; ' Glreek Roots in English 
BhTmea,' 1637 ; and ' The Enkheiridion of 
Hehfaistiown, with Prolegomena ' (highly 
commended in Grote's 'Greece,' iv. 107) 'on 
Rhythm and Accent.' A translation, in 
Ei^li^ hexameters, of the first book of the 
'Ibad'waa published after his death. He 
was ft CMitriDntor to the 'Monthly Repoai- 


tory ' from 1818, to the Transactions of the 
Comisfa scientific societies, and to the Devon- 
shire Association. The full titles o( his 
books and his papers may be read in the 
' Bibliotheca Oomub.' L J3-14, iiL 1060. 

[ThsInquirM'.e, lS,10Harehl809; Westers ' 
Morning Nvwb, 16 March I8SB; Registar and 
Mag. of Biog. 1869, i. 308; Monk's Riysicians, 
1878, iii. 2*3.] W. P. a 

1847 F), poet, third son of Thomas Foster 
Barham (1766-1844) [q. v.l, was bom at 
Maruion, Cornwall, 33 Oct. 1802. He was 
educated in the grammar schools of Bodmin 
and Leeds, and then proceeded to Trinity- 
College, Cambridge. He won the Porson 
prize in 1821 and 1822, and graduated BA. 
m 1@S4 as twenty-second senior optime, 
second in the first eUsa of the classical tripos, 
and second chancellor's medallist. He went 
out M.A. in 1827. His death occurred in 
Kent about 1647. He was the author of an 
unpublished poem on 'Moskow.' HisOreek 
versions of portions of ' Othello ' and ' Julius 
Cnaar' are printed in a volume of ' Transla- 
tions which have obtained the Foreon Frixe 
from 1817 to 1866,' 3nd edit., Camb. 1867, 
pp. 16-28. 

[Notes and Qnenn, 3rd series, iii. 2S8, 399, 
4M : Pitman's Memorial of Francis Barham, 20, 
21, 23, 24, 28 ; Boose and Courtney's Bibl. Comn- 
hiensis. iii. IDSO; Eomilly'i Qnduati Cantab, 
(18J6)18.] T. a 

AsHBDsioR (1774-1 S48) , financier and states- 
man, the second son of 9ir Francis Baring 
[a. v.], who died in 1810, was bom on 27 Oct. 
1774. As his elder brother received an ap- 
pointment in the service of the East India 
Company, Alexander was trained tram early 
life in his father's financial house. He firm 
had numerous connections with the United 
Stat«8, and he was sent thither to strengthen 
and extend its business operations, While ' 
resident in America he married (33 Aug; 
1798) Anne Louisa, eldest daughter of WS- 
liam Bingham, of Philadelphia, a member of 
the Senate of the United States. To this 
alliance, and to his acquaintance with the 
chief mercantile firms of America, he was 
much indebted in later life. Although ha 
continued to assist in the management of 
the house, and became the head 01 the firm 
on the death of his fiither in 1810, he took 
an active part in the debates in the Housa 
of Commons on commercial aSaiis. He 
represented in turn Taunton (1806-26), 
Cftllington (1826-31), Thetford (1881-82^ 
and North Essex (163a-36); of twc^of thesa 




CoiutitueiiciflB, Callington and Thetford, lie 
lud kcqoired full poawsgiDO. Firmly opposed 
to the eiUtence of aaj iMtrictione oo com- 
merce between nations, he wu eapecullj an- 
tBgoniHtic to the ' Hystem of hostuity recom- 
mended and practiaed towards the conuDerce 
of America ' by the English ofdera in coimdl, 
■nd warmly HUpported Bniagham in his 
■tru^lea for their repeaL Hia ' Inqaiiy into 
the Catuei and Oonseq uencee of the Oidere in 
Oouncil.' went thnRwn two editions. With 
the nation's desire mr parliamentary reform 
the owner of two borougha could have little 
y ; he opposed the refbrm hill of 

a Grey's ministiy in bU its stams ; and 

when the ministry was defeated in the 
House of Lords on an adverse proposal from 
Lord Lyndhurst, Mr. Baring consented, after 
much hesitation, to take the ofGce of chan- 
cellor of the exchequer in the cabinet which 
the Doka of Welhngton was attempting to 
ttanu An angry scene in the Commons and 
the indignation of the people conTiaced him 
of the hopeleemeoa of the enterprise, and it 
-ma his piopowtion that the ex-ministers 
ibonld lesitme thur seats and he allowed to 
_ carry th^ bill. In Sir Bobert Peel's first 
admimatration (1834) he wss president of 
the board of trade, as well as master of the 
mint, and on the dissolution of the ministry 
he wu raised to the peerage (10 April 1SS5) 
•a Baron Ashburton, a title which he se- 
lected because Donning, the celebrated law- 
yer, who had married his aunt, had previoosly 
assumed it. When differences arose as to 
the boundary between the United States 
and the territories of Great Britain, Lord 
AahbnTton was sent to America as the 
English commissioner, and a treaty, known 
as the Ashburton treaty, was concluded at 
Washington in 1842. Darnel Webster 
praised him highly as ' a good man to deal 
with, who eoiud see that there were two 
■idea to a question ; ' and Lord Ashburton 
and his snite are aud to hare ' spread a 
aooal charm orer Washington, and filled 
OTe^bodr with fiiendlj feelings towards 
England.' The free-trade poUcy of Peel he 
regarded with alarm — a circumstance which 
his detractors contrasted with his opinions 
in early life, and attributed to his laige land 
purchaaea — and he related the Bank Charter 
Act of 1844, discussing the question in bis 
pamphlet, < Financial and Commercial Crisis 
eonsidered.' Like aereral other Toembers of 
bis bmily, he patroniaed art, and formed a 
£ne odlection of {ueturea. He was one of 
tlio tmateea of iiaa British Museum and of 
the National Oallery. He died at Loneleat, 
the seat of hii Kianoaon the Marquia of Bath, 
13 Uty 1848,UTi]ig bad issue five sons and 

four daughters. On his death a warm tribute 
to hia memoir was paid in the House of 
Lords by Lords Lansdowne, Brou^iam, and 
Derby. Lord Houghton, in his 'Monographs' 
(ISra, pp. 227-8), praises Lord Ashbivton'a 
extensive knowledge and business experience. 

[Burke's Peerags ; Gant. Mag. 1848, xnt. 8S ; 
C, Qraville's JonrDsla, ii. 2SS, SOD ; Croker ^> 
pers, ed. Jsnaisga. ii. Sg7-401, iii. 17. 26, 40-8, 
69, 73. TS, 105 ; Webater'a Works, to1». i. v. and 
TJ. ; FiercB'a Sumaor, ii. 8£, I9S~22fi; Hansard, 
1848. icviii. 970-81.] W. P. C. 

1879), bishop of Durham, was the fourth son 
of Sir Thomas Baring, second baronet, of the 
banking Arm of Baring Brothers. Hismother 
was Maiy Ursula, daughter of Charles SMly, 
barrister-at>-law, Calcutta. Charles Thomaa 
Baring was privately educated till he entered 
Christ Church, Oxford, in 1826. At Oxford 
he greatly diatin^ished himself, and took a 
double firstHslses m classics and mathematics 
in his final examination in 1839. In 1830 
he married his cousin Mtiy Ursula Sealy, 
and took holy orders. At first he devoted 
himself to clerical work in Oxford, and then 
took the littie living of Kingaworthy in Hamp. 
shire. In 1840 his wife died, and he married 
in 184S Caroline, daughter of Thomas Bead 
Kemp of Dale Park, Sussex. In 1S47 he 
was appointed to the important benefice of 
All Sainte, Maiyleboue, and became re- 
nowned as an earnest, simple preacher of 
the evangelical school. In 1850 he was 
made chaplain in ordinary to the queen, and 
was select preacher at Oxford. In 186fi he 
left London for the rectory of Limpsfield in 
Surrey, where, however, he did not long re- 
main. In 1666 he was chosen to succeed 
Dr. Monk as bishop of Qlouceeter and Bristol 
He entered with enenjy upon the dutiee of 
hia episcopal oBlce, but he was not allowed 
to atay at Qlouceater long enough to make a 
dedded mark on that diocese. In 1861 be 
was translated to the aee of Durham, in 8n»- 
ceesion to Dr. Villiers. 

The name of Bishop Baring is chiefiy ana« 
ciated with the work of church extension in 
the diocese of Durham. He found a district 
in which a manufacturing and mining popu- 
lation had increased with great rapidity, and 
had far outstripped the provision made for 
their spiritual welfare. A movement bad 
already been set on foot to supply the defi- 
ciency. Bishop Baring gave himself moat 
BssiduDualj to carry on the work. So suc- 
cessful was he during his episcopate of aeven- 
yeais that he saw the formation of 103 
parishea, the building of 119 churche^ 
and an increase of 186 in the numbw of 


Baring i- 

pnroehisl clersr. tn hia tut charge to hU 
dergy in 1878 De ezpreiMd his opinion that 
the Tunit of the fonnation of new districtt 
had been reached, and that ftitun progress 
should be made I^ erecting mission chapels. 

Bishop Baring devoted himself exclnsivelj 
to the work of his diocese. He rarely ap- 
peared in the House of Lords or spoke on 
an; Bubjocta which did not concern his im- 
mediate business. He was unsparinr of him- 
self in his efforts to dischaige his duties to 
the uttermost. Hevaa,howeTer,reluctantly 
driren to confeea that the work of the dio- 
cese was more than one nan could accom- 
S'isb. In 1876 he admitted the neccssitjr of 
viding the see of Durham, and at his re- 
quest prorision was msde in the act for the 
estmaion of the episcmwte (1878) for the 
formation of a diocese of Newcastle. 

Kshop Baring was a man of deep personal 
^etv and of great kindliness. Though a 
wealthy man, he lived with great simpUdt;, 
and gave back to the diocMe in donations 
for church purposes more than he reenved 
M the income of his see. His personal acts 
of charitf, though dona in secret, were ver^ 
■timerous. He was in theological opinions 
a Btnmg evangelical, and in his public utter- 
ances he did not disguise the tact. Those 
who did not agree with him complained 
that in Ae discharge of his official duties he 
followed too exclusively his own individual 
preferences. He took a more decided st«^ , 
than any other bishop by refusing to license ' 
curates tc claigymen whoae ritualhe thought 
to be contrary to his interpretation of the ' 
Trmjvr Book. This gave rise to much con- 
troversr, hut did not impair the respect in | 
which he was personaUj held. In 1677 the ' 
chief luty of the county asked him to sit 
for his portrvt, which the^ desired to present 
to Auckland Oastle. Bishop Baring, with 
a stem modesty which was cnaractenstic of 
Um, refosed, and no portrait of him remains. 

lit 1878 Bishop Baring felt his health 

S'ving wmj. He laboured under a painful 
sease which he knew to be incurable. At 
the and of the year he went through the 
fatigue of an episcopal visitation, and imme- 
diately afterwards announced his resigna- 
tion. Hedeclined the retiring pension which 
he might have claimed, and preferred to 
leaveue income unimpaired to his successor. 
He left his see in February 1870, and did 
not long survive his retirement. He diadat 
'Wimbledon in September following. 

[Obituary uoties in DDrham Diocoan Calan- 
darfcrlSBO; l^mai, IfiSspt 187S.] M. 0. 

BABINC^ Bib FRANCIS, (174O-1810), 
Lvtdim anebant, founded um eminent 


financial house of Baring Brothers ft Cq. 
His grandfather, Frsns Baring, was the 
pastor of the Lutheran church of Bremen t 
and his &ther, John Baring, settled at 
Larkhear, near Exeter, as a cloth manu&o* 
turer ; and it may be well to add that infor- 
mation about the history of the Buinff 
family, during its connection with Devon, la 
contained in R. Dymond's ' History of the 
parish of 6t. LeoDud, Exeter,' 1S78. fVan- 
cis Bariag was bom at Larkbear 18 April 
1740, and sent to London to study commerca 
in the firm of Boehm. Though deaf Aom 
his youth, his indomitable energy enabled 
him to overcome all obstacles, and to est** 
hlish his business on the firmest foundations. 
At the time of his death it was calculated 
that he had earned nearly seven millions 
of money; and Sir Francis Baring stood 
forth, in the words of Lord Erskine, as ' the 
first mercbsQt in Europe.' His advice waa 
of^n sought on Gnancial questions connected 
with the government of India. He became a 
director of the Eatt India Company in 1779, 
and acted as its chairman during 179:i-8^ 
services for which a baronetcy was conferred 

borough of Orampound from 1 

> 1790, 
.„ ..J .7a4-(l and I""" " 

Ine 1796-1802. 
Sir Francis Baring's literary works were : 
1. ' The Principle of the Commutation 
Act eaUblished by Facts,' 1786; an argu- 
ment mainly in support of the reduction of 
duties on tea and other commodities. 2. '01^ 
servations on the Establishment of the Bank 
of England,' 1797 ; with ' Further Observa- 
tions ' m the same year, in which he justified 
the issue of Bank of Eof^land notes, with a 
limit as to the amount in circulation, and 
suggested that country banks should be 
prevented from issuing notes payable at de- 
mand. 3. 'Observations on the Publications 
of Walter Boyd, H.F.,' 1801. Sir Fimncis 
died at Lee, Kent, 11 Sept. 1810, and waa 
buried in the family vault at Michelderer, 
Hants, 20 Sept His wife Harriet, dauight«r 
of William Herring, of Croydon, died at 
Bath 4 Dec 1804. Five sons and five 
daughters survived him. His eldest son, 
Thomas (1773-184B), second baronet, waa 
father of Francis Thomhill; first Lord North- 
brook [q. v.], Thomas [q. v.}, and Charles 
Thomas, bishop of Durhsm [q. v.]. His 

[Qant. Hag. 1810, i. 6)0. H. 391 ; H.Ots> 
villa's Jon^llll^ ii. iS; Snih'i Rieidenee at 
London, 184S, i. IBOj Didot, Konvelle Biog. 
Univ. ; H. R. FTm] Brosmsl's LoDdon Soeistj, 
ix. 887-73.] W. P, a 




Tm.l., LOBD NOBTHBBOOK (1796-1868), 

•ttteasaa, ma tha eldeat Bon of Sir Thomas 
Suing, dw woond baronet, uid wu bom at 
CatcntU SO April 1796. He wu educated 
■t WiuohMtec Sdiool uid Christ Church, 
Oxfbid, guninc the distinction of a double 
flnt CUM in 1817. In the parliamont of 
ISSS tlM oonaUtuency of Portsmouth choee 
him u ita membar, and he repreeented it 
vithout an interruption ontil 1866. He 
limbed from atep to atm of the official 
bddei, and was a lord of the treaanry Nov. 
1830 to June 1884, its joint aecretary June 
to Nov. 1834 and April 1835 to Sept. 1839, 
•nd chancellor of the azchequer Aug. 1839 
to Sept 1841. From 1849 to 1862 he im 
the firit lord of the admiralty. He waa 
amatad Baron Northbrook 4 Jan. 1866, and 
died at Strstton Park 6 Sept. 1666. Lord 
Northbrook waa twic« married : flrat, 7 April 
1626, at FoTtamouth, to Jane, youngest 
dsnghter of Hit Hon. Sir Qeorae Qrey, 
E.C.B., by whom he was father of Thomaa 
Oeo^e, craated Earl Northbrook in 1876 ^ 
and aecondlr, 31 March 1841, at St. Qaor^'s, 
nanorer Square, to Lady Arabella Georgiana 
Howard, second daughter of the firat Earl of 
Effingham. Hi« first wifb died at Belgtave 
Souare, Pimlico, S3 April 1836; his aecond 
infeiaetillliTing. Theapeechwhiohhamade, 
yt Hay 1841, on the budget re«dutiona fbr 
Ae year,wu printedaaapam^et; hiepro- 
iKiaua wera Iraenly criticised by Sir Robert 
PeeL SeTeial improrements were eSected 
at the admiralty during hia ptendency of 
the board. 

[Brnka's pMrage ; Ha of tha 'Kma ; Time*. 
MSeft. 18M.J W. F. 0. 

»w id. 1867). [See vndar BASUra, Wu^ 
uui Buesui.] 

BABINO, THOMAS (1799-1878), 
faanciar, aon of Sir Tkomaa Baring and 
ferotber of Sir Fnmcia Thomhill Baring, the 
drat Lord Northbrook [q. v.], waa bora 
7 Sepk 1799, and educated at Wincheatar 
SehooL From early age ha waa trained in 
tin bauly buaineia, and he bore the biudan 
«f ita flniineial operations for many yeara. 
He aat in pariiament aa member for Oreat 
Yarmouth &om 1836 to 1837, but waa de- 
ftatad on two aubeequent occasions, 1838 
and 1841. On a chance racancy in the 
mMMntati<ai of the dtj of London, Oct. 
IMS, ha omtaatad the aeat, but waa tinsuo- 
a w i M by 166 votes in a poll of nearly 
SVXML The borou(^ of Huntingdon, 
Aawnar, elected him aa one o£ ita nen^ 

VOL. ni. 

bera April 1844, and he continued to repra> 
sent it nntil faia death. Unlike moat of 
the membere of bis family, Thomas Baring 
was a conaervatiTe in politics ; and on tiia 
formation of two of Lord Derby's adminis- 
tFation^ in 1862 and 1668, ha was offered 
the poet of chancellor of the exchequer, 
which his elder brother had filled in the 
whig ministry of Lord Melbourne. The 
taste for pictoree which was possessed by 
the first Lord Ashhorton also ehaiaeteriaed 

have played a more important part in ms- 
rUaDofthalimsiminaa, 30 Nor. 1B7S.] 

w. P. a 

cond Baboit AaHBiTBTOil (1799-1864), states- 
man, the eldest aon of Alexander, firat Lo^ 

a second class in classics in 1821. Through 
the influence of his family he waa elected 
for the borough of Tbetford in 1826, and for 
Galliugton inl830. Afterthe Reform Bill ha 
represented the laiger constituency of North 
Staffordshire 1837-41, and then returned to 
Tbetford, for which be sat from 1841 to 1848, 
when lie succeeded to tha peerage. In Sir 
Robert Peal's administration of 1841 be waa 
secietaiy to the board of ccntrol until February 
1846, and paymaater-general from that date 
until July 1846. Lord Ashburton lacked 
boldneaa, and his manners failed t« impresa 
the world with the respect which his abilities 
deserved ; bnt he poaaeaaed a great thint for 
inibnnation, and in later life he distinguished 
himself by his strenuous advocacy of the 
teaching of 'common thinga' in national 
achools. His shyneas was more than com- 

Eted for in Uie person of his first wi^ 
ied 12 April 1^), Lady Harriet Maiy 
tra, eldest daughter of the sixth Earl 

mdwieh. Under her auspi< 
House, Picca^y, became centres of life for 

of the Orange 

<sford, and Bath 

ilitics and literature, 
and specially for Charles Buller, Thackeray, 
andCarlyle. Mrs. Oarlyle, indeed — asreaden 
of her Letters and her huaband's Reminia- 
eencas will remember — resented his attach- 
ment to Lady Ashhnrton, Ladv Ashburton 
had Long been in delicate health, but waa 
seised with her f^al illnesa at Nice in 1857, 
and died at Faria 4 May 1867. Many of her 
ai^ngs are recorded, and her character ia 
analysed in a chapter in Lord Houghton'a 
'MDnogr^hs,'1873,ps. S3S-W. LordAsh- 


Barker i 

. burton married for the second time, 17 Not, 
185B, at Bath House, Piccadilly, l^uiu 
Caroline, third daughter of thi Right Hon. 
James Alexander St«irart Hackenite. Ha 
died at the Qrange 28 March 13S4, 
one daughter, Uarv Florence, who mamm 

'SOApril 1684 Lord William Comi>tan,iecoad 
•on of the fourth Harquis of Northampton, 
From 1S60 to 1864 he held the office ofprs- 
aident of the QeogTsphical Society, ana in 
185G he vaa created a knight of the L^on 
of Honour. ' 


;, ANDREW (-f. 1677}, _.. 
ehant of Bristol, in partnerahip with his 
brother John, was for some jears engaged in 
the adTsnturous and often diBputed trade 
with the Spanish settlements. In 1570 one 
' of their ships, named the Falcon, was seized 
at Teroeira, the ca^o cnnQBcated, and the 
gnater part of her crew sent to the gatlejs 
{State Papeni Slixa/KtA, Domestic, Ad^ 
ienda, zix. 13). In 1675 at Teneriffe the 
Inquisition laid hands on the captain and 
Grew of their ship, the Christopher, and ro- 
leased them onl j on payment of fines which 
■mounted to the value of the whole cargo. 
Andrew Barker thereupon fitted out two 
ships for a vojage of reprisals — the Ragged 
Staff, of which ue himiwlf took command, 
with one Philip Roche as master, and the 
Bttar, commanded by Captain William Cox. 
They sailed from Plymouth on Whilsunday, 
1676. At the Cape Verde Islands, at Trim- 
dad, at Cursfao, and on the Spanish Miiii, 
they took aeveni prises, and collected a fair 
amount of boatj>. Afterwards, howeTsr, the 
orews became stcldr and sevenl of the men 
died. Then the omoaia qaanelled amongat 
thmnselTeSi Barker and Hocbs fought, and 
Cox, headinga mutiny, turned Bs^er and his 
•dbennts on shore in the Gulf of Honduras, 
■whxn th^ were ^eieBtly ent^iaed by the 
Spaniards. Barker and some right or nine 
W1& him wero killed, oth«rs were wounded, 
the rest msde good thur esca|te and wen 
admitted oa boud tlw Bear, which was still 
in Uie ueighbonrhood. Diaasternow pursued 
the adventurers. Party after party was ent 
oS. The Bamed Staff had early in the 
voyage prorea to be unseaworthy, and had 
been sunk. All the accumnlsted treasun 
was in the Baar, and she was now overset in 
a tqualL Only nine men escaped with tliar 
Iives,aiid these, having made ahift to builda 
small vessel and to return to England, were 
arrested at the suit of Andrew Barker's 
brother, John, and Hk chief of them sen- 
tenced to a loAg term of imprisonment. 

landscape painter, Son of Benjamin and bro* 
ther of Thomas Barker [q. v. I called ■ Barkeif 
of Bath,' resided at Bath^ and bntween 1800 
and 18S1 exhibited occasionally at the Royal 
Academy. During the years 1813'20 he waa 
a large exhibitor of views and landmapo 
compositions at the Watercolour Society, at 
was also an exhibitor at the British Iiutitu- 
tion. There are three of his watercolou/ 
drawings in the South Kenrisgton Huseuml 
He was an artist of some skill and taste, bnt 
little power or originality. HediedatTotnes 
after a lingming Ulness, S Haroh 1838, aged 
62. Thalea Fidding engraved fi>rty«ii|^t of 
bis landscapes in aquatint. 

[Redarava's Dictionary j CkL et Nat OalL at 
South KBoniigtoD.] 0. H. 

1549), Garter Idng of aima, wsa the MB of 
William Barifer of Stokesley, Yorkshire, I7 
Joan, daugjiter of William Oariille or Oai<- 
lisk, and a relative of William or Christopher 
Carlisle, Norn^ king of arms, iffao died in 
1611. Barker was originally in the tervioe 
of Sir Charles Brandmi. On his creation n 
Yiseoont Liale, Brandon attached Bajfter to 
his household as Lysley pursuivant (16 Hay 
1613), and on the viscount's elevation to thn 
rank of Duke of Suffolk, Barker was ai^ 
mitted by Henry VHI at Eltham into the 
office of Suffolk herald (1 Feb. 1616-171 
Shortly afterwards he abandoned the dnkf f 
service for the College of Arms, and filled ■» 
succession the chief |ioets there. Ha was Kb 
first Calais pursuivant extraordinaiy, aiui 
af^rwardsRougedragonparsaivant InApnl 
1622 be becamb Btclunond herald at twsnty 
_. !_.._..-> i_ iicni L. ....»». '...Ji af^ 

maifa A'JMr. In 1634 he aocompanied Syr 

. Winyfleld and others on an embimy 

Spain. Sir Richard died while abcoa^ 


and Barker solemnised the tiin«rtiL Cs I6W 
he attended Tunstall, tushap of London, anS 
Sir Thomas More on an embassy to Oambr^ 
in Flanders, and in 1630 accompanied tho 
EarlofWiltshiretoGermsiiy. InttaeoMiwitT 
of Richmond herald be assist«d atthelormH 
creation of Anne Bolevn as MarDhionssa tff 
Pembroke (1 Sept 16S2) and at ho eoto- 
nation on 29 Hay 1538. On 38 Nov. 1691 
he promised a pension of lOi. to Thomia 
Tong,Clareneieuz king of arms, if hesbonlB 
be promoted Garter king ot anna, on the n^ 
deistandiu? that Tong shonld not himsdf 
apply for the poet, hi June 16S6 Barker 
became Nraroy King of anna, and on 9 SaHj 
followinr was orwted Oaiter kinr. In 
ISM be attondad tlw Dak* of S^Uk-fa 



d of tha expedition to Trmeo (Bi- 
tm'a FMkm,xw. 52-S), uid wis mibae- 
oiwnar-witbHflnirVIUfttCelais. InlfiiS 
£■ iru piweat U tha fecial of the Earl <a 
Smny, and in Febroarr 1647-8 aansted at 
the conmatioiictf Edward VI. Shortly aftei^ 
mrda Barker ma made aknightof the Bath ; 
ft (fteeial exemption bad to m procared to 
enable bim to accept tbe honour, aa the 
offioals of the Collem of Amu were le^atlj 
ineligible for aaeb dittinetiona, and on no 
other nmnber of the coUeae befino or since 
haa a lilce dignity been comened. 
' ^ Christopher died at the cloee of 1549 
or earlv in Jannaiy 1649-CO. Hie will bears 
date S Dec 1648,and waa proved on 6 April 
fellowing. Be was buried 'in the Long 
Chappie next S. Faith'e C3iurch in 8. Faul'i? 
Sr Chiiatopber poeaeesed laise houae pro- 
pertj in lime Su«et, St. Niohcdaa and Try 
L«DeB,Lfnid(m, andlandat Wanetead. He 
otnwd a boitaa in Pateraoater Row. Hia 
■wpw ty in lime Street was left on the 
death of hia wiA to the Companj of Vint- 
MiaaMlth^BiieeeeaoTtYOTeTei. SirChria- 
tophar waa thrice mairied: Sret, to Hay, 
^nffitbn and cohMr erf Robert Spaeelbr of 
Woteeataiahii^ who died in 1630; aecoiuUy, 
to Alice or Eleenn, daiwhtar of Biehaid 
Salton, l^ whom be had two tone; and, 
thirdly, to Edith, daughter at John Boya of 
Godnecton, near Kttingbovme, Kent, who 
" - - ~ ' 166a Sir Chrirtopher'a 

died in September II 

flnly diilAen, hia fr . . _ 

Obriato^ier, tj hia aecond wife, both died 
b^ire him. Jn ' ' 

heeaim Rongecioiz poranivanC and Biaabane 
wranirant ezttaMdmary late in the rugn of 
Henry VIU, and died while in Spain faefim 
1640. Edward Bariter, a nephew, nltjmalely 
■ncoeeded to Sir Chrietopher'a jiroperty. 

A portrait of Barker ia nven in the 
vietnre of the praeeuion of Edward VI 
from tliB Tower of London to 'Westminster 
bttfore hia coronation. He ie Uiere ridinff 
with the lotd mavor between tha emperor^ 
unbaaaaidoT and the Doke of Somerset. The 
fietnn, fbnneriy at Cowdiay Houae, Susaex, 
-waa hunt in 1798, bnt an tofrtja^ waa 
praViDnaly ptepared b^ the Soae^ ofAnti- 
aoariea taa waa pnblished in 17w. A r^ 
anced oopy of the engraviaff appears in tbe 
New Shakspere Society's edition of Harri- 
aon^ ' England.' Another portrait of Baiw 
kar is giTen in Sallaway'a 'Inquiiies into 

nteble's HistoiT of the College of Anna ; 
XWisle*! Tnail; of Ceriide, 1633. pp. 371-2 ; 
lAnstit^ B«gi«ar ef the Oaitar, i. 37A-B ; Latten 
and ApMs of the Beign of Hanry Till for the 
9wn 1619, liSB, lUO, 1133.S.] 8. L. L. 

)5 Barker 

PHER (1639 P-1699), queen's prmter, waa 
bom about tha year 1629, and ie aaid to hat* 
been the grand nephew nt Sir CShiiatopher 
Barker, Garter king of arms, whoee heii-at* 
law was Edward Barker, eon of hia brother 
John, and believed to have been tha EtUur 
of the printer. He appears to have had some 
fortone, and wat orinnally a member cf the 
Drapers' Company. Barker began to pnbliah 
books in 16^, when the first entry in tha 
'R^^ters of the Company of Stationera' 
(AsBBB, I 896) under his name ia a liomaa 
for ' Morning and Bvaning Prayer . . . made 
by tbe Lady Elisabeth Tirtntt,' printed by 
H. Hiddleton in 1674. In 1669 he waa not 
a number of the company, and did not own 
a prese. ' Certen lonyen i^ master Bullion ' 
waa licensed for him at the same time. In 
1676 the Genevan UUe was firat printed in 
England, both in quarto and octavo form, aa 
well aa two editiona of Whittingfaam's New 
Testament, all by T. VautroUior for Ba^er, 
In the same yaai Hiddleton printed for lum, 
for sale ' at the eigne of the Grassehopper,' two 
editiona of Qaeooigne's 'OlaoN m Govern- 
ment,' with a preface stating that ' thia work 
ia compiled upon these sent«neea following 
•et down by mee, C. B.,' which indicatee that 
the pnbliahn had given some editorial super- 
viaion to the book. It contains the punning 
devioe of a man barking a tree, with tneUnea, 
A Barker if ;e will 
In aame, bat not in skill. 

Hia first appearance as an ac